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This web page contains the full text of the
1997 Rules of Civil Procedure
 

THE 1997 RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE

Rules 1 to 71
[Took effect on July 1, 1997, in accordance with the resolution in Bar Matter No. 803 adopted by the Supreme Court in Baguio City on April 8, 1997]
     
PROCEDURE IN THE COURT OF APPEALS
[Rules 44 to 55]
RULE 44
ORDINARY APPEALED CASES
Section 1. Title of cases.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    In all cases appealed to the Court of Appeals under Rule 41, the title of the case shall remain as it was in the court of origin, but the party appealing the case shall be further referred to as the appellant and the adverse party as the appellee. chan robles virtual law library
Sec. 2. Counsel and guardians.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The counsel and guardians ad litem of the parties in the court of origin shall be respectively considered as their counsel and guardians ad litem in the Court of Appeals. When others appear or are appointed, notice thereof shall be served immediately on the adverse party and filed with the court. (2a, R46)
Sec. 3. Order of transmittal of record.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    If the original record or the record on appeal is not transmitted to the Court of Appeals within thirty (30) days after the perfection of the appeal, either party may file a motion with the trial court, with notice to the other, for the transmittal of such record or record on appeal.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 4. Docketing of case.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Upon receiving the original record or the record on appeal and the accompanying documents and exhibits transmitted by the lower court, as well as the proof of payment of the docket and other lawful fees, the clerk of court of the Court of Appeals shall docket the case and notify the parties thereof.chanrobles virtual law library

    Within ten (10) days from receipt of said notice, the appellant, in appeals by record on appeal, shall file with the clerk of court seven (7) clearly legible copies of the approved record on appeal, together with the proof of service of two (2) copies thereof upon the appellee.chanrobles virtual law library

    Any unauthorized alteration, omission or addition in the approved record on appeal shall be a ground for dismissal of the appeal.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 5. Completion of record.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Where the record of the docketed case is incomplete, the clerk of court of the Court of Appeals shall so inform said court and recommend to it measures necessary to complete the record. It shall be the duty of said court to take appropriate action towards the completion of the record within the shortest possible time.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 6. Dispensing with complete record.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Where the completion of the record could not be accomplished within a sufficient period allotted for said purpose due to insuperable or extremely difficult causes, the court, on its own motion or on motion of any of the parties, may declare that the record and its accompanying transcripts and exhibits so far available are sufficient to decide the issues raised in the appeal, and shall issue an order explaining the reasons for such declaration.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 7. Appellant’s brief.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    It shall be the duty of the appellant to file with the court, within forty-five (45) days from receipt of the notice of the clerk that all the evidence, oral and documentary, are attached to the record, seven (7) copies of his legibly typewritten, mimeographed or printed brief, with proof of service of two (2) copies thereof upon the appellee.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 8. Appellee’s brief.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Within forty-five (45) days from receipt of the appellant’s brief, the appellee shall file with the court seven (7) copies of his legibly typewritten, mimeographed or printed brief, with proof of service of two (2) copies thereof upon the appellant.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 9. Appellant’s reply brief.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Within twenty (20) days from receipt of the appellee’s brief, the appellant may file a reply brief answering points in the appellee’s brief not covered in his main brief.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 10. Time for filing memoranda in special cases.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    In certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto and habeas corpus cases, the parties shall file, in lieu of briefs, their respective memoranda within a non-extendible period of thirty (30) days from receipt of the notice issued by the clerk that all the evidence, oral and documentary, is already attached to the record.chanrobles virtual law library

    The failure of the appellant to file his memorandum within the period therefor may be a ground for dismissal of the appeal.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 11. Several appellants or appellees or several counsel for each party.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Where there are several appellants or appellees, each counsel representing one or more but not all of them shall be served with only one copy of the briefs. When several counsel represent one appellant or appellee, copies of the brief may be served upon any of them.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 12. Extension of time for filing briefs.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Extension of time for the filing of briefs will not be allowed, except for good and sufficient cause, and only if the motion for extension is filed before the expiration of the time sought to be extended.chanrobles virtual law library
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Sec. 13. Contents of appellant’s brief.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The appellant’s brief shall contain, in the order herein indicated, the following:
      (a) A subject index of the matter in the brief with a digest of the arguments and page references, and a table of cases alphabetically arranged, textbooks and statutes cited with references to the pages where they are cited;

      (b) An assignment of errors intended to be urged, which errors shall be separately, distinctly and concisely stated without repetition and numbered consecutively;

      (c) Under the heading "Statement of the Case," a clear and concise statement of the nature of the action, a summary of the proceedings, the appealed rulings and orders of the court, the nature of the judgment and any other matters necessary to an understanding of the nature of the controversy, with page references to the record;

      (d) Under the heading "Statement of Facts," a clear and concise statement in a narrative form of the facts admitted by both parties and of those in controversy, together with the substance of the proof relating thereto in sufficient detail to make it clearly intelligible, with page references to the record;

      (e) A clear and concise statement of the issues of fact or law to be submitted to the court for its judgment;

      (f) Under the heading "Argument," the appellant’s arguments on each assignment of error with page references to the record. The authorities relied upon shall be cited by the page of the report at which the case begins and the page of the report on which the citation is found;

      (g) Under the heading "Relief," a specification of the order or judgment which the appellant seeks; and

      (h) In cases not brought up by record on appeal, the appellant’s brief shall contain, as an appendix, a copy of the judgment or final order appealed from.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 14. Contents of appellee’s brief.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The appellee’s brief shall contain, in the order herein indicated, the following:
      (a) A subject index of the matter in the brief with a digest of the arguments and page references, and a table of cases alphabetically arranged, textbooks and statutes cited with references to the pages where they are cited;

      (b) Under the heading "Statement of Facts," the appellee shall state that he accepts the statement of facts in the appellant’s brief, or under the heading "Counter-Statement of Facts," he shall point out such insufficiencies or inaccuracies as he believes exist in the appellant’s statement of facts with references to the pages of the record in support thereof, but without repetition of matters in the appellant’s statement of facts; and

      (c) Under the heading "Argument," the appellee shall set forth his arguments in the case on each assignment of error with page references to the record. The authorities relied on shall be cited by the page of the report at which the case begins and the page of the report on which the citation is found.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 15. Questions that may be raised on appeal.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Whether or not the appellant has filed a motion for new trial in the court below, he may include in his assignment of errors any question of law or fact that has been raised in the court below and which is within the issues framed by the parties.chanrobles virtual law library
RULE 45
APPEAL BY CERTIORARI TO THE SUPREME COURT

Section 1. Filing of petition with Supreme Court.chanrobles virtual law library
 

    A party desiring to appeal by certiorari from a judgment or final order or resolution of the Court of Appeals, the Sandiganbayan, the Regional Trial Court or other courts whenever authorized by law, may file with the Supreme Court a verified petition for review on certiorari. The petition shall raise only questions of law which must be distinctly set forth.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 2. Time for filing; extension.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The petition shall be filed within fifteen (15) days from notice of the judgment or final order or resolution appealed from, or of the denial of the petitioner’s motion for new trial or reconsideration filed in due time after notice of the judgment. On motion duly filed and served, with full payment of the docket and other lawful fees and the deposit for costs before the expiration of the reglementary period, the Supreme Court may for justifiable reasons grant an extension of thirty (30) days only within which to file the petition.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 3. Docket and other lawful fees; proof of service of petition.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Unless he has theretofore done so, the petitioner shall pay the corresponding docket and other lawful fees to the clerk of court of the Supreme Court and deposit the amount of P500.00 for costs at the time of the filing of the petition. Proof of service of a copy thereof on the lower court concerned and on the adverse party shall be submitted together with the petition.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 4. Contents of petition.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The petition shall be filed in eighteen (18) copies, with the original copy intended for the court being indicated as such by the petitioner, and shall (a) state the full name of the appealing party as the petitioner and the adverse party as respondent, without impleading the lower courts or judges thereof either as petitioners or respondents; (b) indicate the material dates showing when notice of the judgment or final order or resolution subject thereof was received, when a motion for new trial or reconsideration, if any, was filed and when notice of the denial thereof was received; (c) set forth concisely a statement of the matters involved, and the reasons or arguments relied on for the allowance of the petition; (d) be accompanied by a clearly legible duplicate original, or a certified true copy of the judgment or final order or resolution certified by the clerk of court of the court a quo and the requisite number of plain copies thereof, and such material portions of the record as would support the petition; and (e) contain a sworn certification against forum shopping as provided in the last paragraph of section 2, Rule 42.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 5. Dismissal or denial of petition.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The failure of the petitioner to comply with any of the foregoing requirements regarding the payment of the docket and other lawful fees, deposit for costs, proof of service of the petition, and the contents of and the documents which should accompany the petition shall be sufficient ground for the dismissal thereof.chanrobles virtual law library

    The Supreme Court may on its own initiative deny the petition on the ground that the appeal is without merit, or is prosecuted manifestly for delay, or that the questions raised therein are too unsubstantial to require consideration.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 6. Review discretionary.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    A review is not a matter of right, but of sound judicial discretion, and will be granted only when there are special and important reasons therefor. The following, while neither controlling nor fully measuring the court’s discretion, indicate the character of the reasons which will be considered:
     
      (a) When the court a quo has decided a question of substance, not theretofore determined by the Supreme Court, or has decided it in a way probably not in accord with law or with the applicable decisions of the Supreme Court; or

      (b) When the court a quo has so far departed from the accepted and usual course of judicial proceedings, or so far sanctioned such departure by a lower court, as to call for an exercise of the power of supervision.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 7. Pleadings and documents that may be required; sanctions.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    For purposes of determining whether the petition should be dismissed or denied pursuant to section 5 of this Rule, or where the petition is given due course under section 8 hereof, the Supreme Court may require or allow the filing of such pleadings, briefs, memoranda or documents as it may deem necessary within such periods and under such conditions as it may consider appropriate, and impose the corresponding sanctions in case of non-filing or unauthorized filing of such pleadings and documents or non-compliance with the conditions therefor.chanrobles virtual law library
chan robles virtual law library
Sec. 8. Due course; elevation of records.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    If the petition is given due course, the Supreme Court may require the elevation of the complete record of the case or specified parts thereof within fifteen (15) days from notice.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 9. Rule applicable to both civil and criminal cases.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The mode of appeal prescribed in this Rule shall be applicable to both civil and criminal cases, except in criminal cases where the penalty imposed is death, reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment.chanrobles virtual law library
RULE 46
ORIGINAL CASES

Section 1. Title of cases.chanrobles virtual law library
 

    In all cases originally filed in the Court of Appeals, the party instituting the action shall be called the petitioner and the opposing party the respondent.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 2. To what actions applicable.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    This Rule shall apply to original actions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus and quo warranto.chanrobles virtual law library

    Except as otherwise provided, the actions for annulment of judgment shall be governed by Rule 47, for certiorari, prohibition and mandamus by Rule 65, and for quo warranto by Rule 66.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 3. Contents and filing of petition; effect of non-compliance with requirements.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The petition shall contain the full names and actual addresses of all the petitioners and respondents, a concise statement of the matters involved, the factual background of the case, and the grounds relied upon for the relief prayed for.chanrobles virtual law library

    It shall be filed in seven (7) clearly legible copies together with proof of service thereof on the respondent with the original copy intended for the court indicated as such by the petitioner, and shall be accompanied by a clearly legible duplicate original or certified true copy of the judgment, order, resolution, or ruling subject thereof, such material portions of the record as are referred to therein, and other documents relevant or pertinent thereto. The certification shall be accomplished by the proper clerk of court or by his duly authorized representative, or by the proper officer of the court, tribunal, agency or office involved or by his duly authorized representative. The other requisite number of copies of the petition shall be accompanied by clearly legible plain copies of all documents attached to the original.chanrobles virtual law library

    The petitioner shall also submit together with the petition a sworn certification that he has not theretofore commenced any other action involving the same issues in the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals or different divisions thereof, or any other tribunal or agency; if there is such other action or proceeding, he must state the status of the same; and if he should thereafter learn that a similar action or proceeding has been filed or is pending before the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, or different divisions thereof, or any other tribunal or agency, he undertakes to promptly inform the aforesaid courts and other tribunal or agency thereof within five (5) days therefrom.chanrobles virtual law library

    The petitioner shall pay the corresponding docket and other lawful fees to the clerk of court and deposit the amount of P500.00 for costs at the time of the filing of the petition.chanrobles virtual law library

    The failure of the petitioner to comply with any of the foregoing requirements shall be sufficient ground for the dismissal of the petition.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 4. Jurisdiction over person of respondent, how acquired.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The court shall acquire jurisdiction over the person of the respondent by the service on him of its order or resolution indicating its initial action on the petition or by his voluntary submission to such jurisdiction.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 5. Action by the court.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The court may dismiss the petition outright with specific reasons for such dismissal or require the respondent to file a comment on the same within ten (10) days from notice. Only pleadings required by the court shall be allowed. All other pleadings and papers may be filed only with leave of court.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 6. Determination of factual issues.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Whenever necessary to resolve factual issues, the court itself may conduct hearings thereon or delegate the reception of the evidence on such issues to any of its members or to an appropriate court, agency or office.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 7. Effect of failure to file comment.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    When no comment is filed by any of the respondents, the case may be decided on the basis of the record, without prejudice to any disciplinary action which the court may take against the disobedient party.chanrobles virtual law library
RULE 47
ANNULMENT OF JUDGMENTS
OR FINAL ORDERS AND RESOLUTIONS

Section 1. Coverage.chanrobles virtual law library
 

    This Rule shall govern the annulment by the Court of Appeals of judgments or final orders and resolutions in civil actions of Regional Trial Courts for which the ordinary remedies of new trial, appeal, petition for relief or other appropriate remedies are no longer available through no fault of the petitioner.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 2. Grounds for annulment.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The annulment may be based only on the grounds of extrinsic fraud and lack of jurisdiction.chanrobles virtual law library

    Extrinsic fraud shall not be a valid ground if it was availed of, or could have been availed of, in a motion for new trial or petition for relief.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 3. Period for filing action.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    If based on extrinsic fraud, the action must be filed within four (4) years from its discovery; and if based on lack of jurisdiction, before it is barred by laches or estoppel.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 4. Filing and contents of petition.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The action shall be commenced by filing a verified petition alleging therein with particularity the facts and the law relied upon for annulment, as well as those supporting the petitioner’s good and substantial cause of action or defense, as the case may be.chanrobles virtual law library

    The petition shall be filed in seven (7) clearly legible copies, together with sufficient copies corresponding to the number of respondents. A certified true copy of the judgment or final order or resolution shall be attached to the original copy of the petition intended for the court and indicated as such by the petitioner.chanrobles virtual law library

    The petitioner shall also submit together with the petition affidavits of witnesses or documents supporting the cause of action or defense and a sworn certification that he has not theretofore commenced any other action involving the same issues in the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals or different divisions thereof, or any other tribunal or agency; if there is such other action or proceeding, he must state the status of the same, and if he should thereafter learn that a similar action or proceeding has been filed or is pending before the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, or different divisions thereof, or any other tribunal or agency, he undertakes to promptly inform the aforesaid courts and other tribunal or agency thereof within five (5) days therefrom.chanrobles virtual law library chan robles virtual law library

Sec. 5. Action by the court.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Should the court find no substantial merit in the petition, the same may be dismissed outright with specific reasons for such dismissal.chanrobles virtual law library

    Should prima facie merit be found in the petition, the same shall be given due course and summons shall be served on the respondent.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 6. Procedure.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The procedure in ordinary civil cases shall be observed. Should a trial be necessary, the reception of the evidence may be referred to a member of the court or a judge of a Regional Trial Court.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 7. Effect of judgment.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    A judgment of annulment shall set aside the questioned judgment or final order or resolution and render the same null and void, without prejudice to the original action being refiled in the proper court. However, where the judgment or final order or resolution is set aside on the ground of extrinsic fraud, the court may on motion order the trial court to try the case as if a timely motion for new trial had been granted therein.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 8. Suspension of prescriptive period.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The prescriptive period for the refiling of the aforesaid original action shall be deemed suspended from the filing of such original action until the finality of the judgment of annulment. However, the prescriptive period shall not be suspended where the extrinsic fraud is attributable to the plaintiff in the original action.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 9. Relief available.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The judgment of annulment may include the award of damages, attorney’s fees and other relief.chanrobles virtual law library

    If the questioned judgment or final order or resolution had already been executed, the court may issue such orders of restitution or other relief as justice and equity may warrant under the circumstances.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 10. Annulment of judgments or final orders of Municipal Trial Courts.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    An action to annul a judgment or final order of a Municipal Trial Court shall be filed in the Regional Trial Court having jurisdiction over the former. It shall be treated as an ordinary civil action and sections 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 and 9 of this Rule shall be applicable thereto.chanrobles virtual law library
RULE 48
PRELIMINARY CONFERENCE

Section 1. Preliminary conference.chanrobles virtual law library
 

    At any time during the pendency of a case, the court may call the parties and their counsel to a preliminary conference:
     
      (a) To consider the possibility of an amicable settlement, except when the case is not allowed by law to be compromised;

      (b) To define, simplify and clarify the issues for determination;

      (c) To formulate stipulations of facts and admissions of documentary exhibits, limit the number of witnesses to be presented in cases falling within the original jurisdiction of the court, or those within its appellate jurisdiction where a motion for new trial is granted on the ground of newly discovered evidence; and

      (d) To take up such other latters which may aid the court in the prompt disposition of the case.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 2. Record of the conference.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The proceedings at such conference shall be recorded and, upon the conclusion thereof, a resolution shall be issued embodying all the actions taken therein, the stipulations and admissions made, and the issues defined.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 3. Binding effect of the results of the conference.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Subject to such modifications which may be made to prevent manifest injustice, the resolution in the preceding section shall control the subsequent proceedings in the case unless, within five (5) days from notice thereof, any party shall satisfactorily show valid cause why the same should not be followed.chanrobles virtual law library
RULE 49
ORAL ARGUMENT

Section 1. When allowed.chanrobles virtual law library
 

    At its own instance or upon motion of a party, the court may hear the parties in oral argument on the merits of a case, or on any material incident in connection therewith.chanrobles virtual law library

    The oral argument shall be limited to such matters as the court may specify in its order or resolution.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 2. Conduct of oral argument.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Unless authorized by the court, only one counsel may argue for a party. The duration allowed for each party, the sequence of the argumentation, and all other related matters shall be as directed by the court.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 3. No hearing or oral argument for motions.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Motions shall not be set for hearing and, unless the court otherwise directs, no hearing or oral argument shall be allowed in support thereof. The adverse party may file objections to the motion within five (5) days from service, upon the expiration of which such motion shall be deemed submitted for resolution.chanrobles virtual law library
RULE 50
DISMISSAL OF APPEAL

Section 1. Grounds for dismissal of appeal.chanrobles virtual law library
 

    An appeal may be dismissed by the Court of Appeals, on its own motion or on that of the appellee, on the following grounds:
     
      (a) Failure of the record on appeal to show on its face that the appeal was taken within the period fixed by these Rules;

      (b) Failure to file the notice of appeal or the record on appeal within the period prescribed by these Rules;

      (c) Failure of the appellant to pay the docket and other lawful fees as provided in section 4 of Rule 41;

      (d) Unauthorized alterations, omissions or additions in the approved record on appeal as provided in section 4 of Rule 44;

      (e) Failure of the appellant to serve and file the required number of copies of his brief or memorandum within the time provided by these Rules;

      (f) Absence of specific assignment of errors in the appellant’s brief, or of page references to the record as required in section 13, paragraphs (a), (c), (d) and (f) of Rule 44;

      (g) Failure of the appellant to take the necessary steps for the correction or completion of the record within the time limited by the court in its order;

      (h) Failure of the appellant to appear at the preliminary conference under Rule 48 or to comply with orders, circulars, or directives of the court without justifiable cause; and

      (i) The fact that the order or judgment appealed from is not appealable.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 2. Dismissal of improper appeal to the Court of Appeals.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    An appeal under Rule 41 taken from the Regional Trial Court to the Court of Appeals raising only questions of law shall be dismissed, issues purely of law not being reviewable by said court. Similarly, an appeal by notice of appeal instead of by petition for review from the appellate judgment of a Regional Trial Court shall be dismissed.chanrobles virtual law library

    An appeal erroneously taken to the Court of Appeals shall not be transferred to the appropriate court but shall be dismissed outright.chanrobles virtual law library

Sec. 3. Withdrawal of appeal.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    An appeal may be withdrawn as of right at any time before the filing of the appellee’s brief. Thereafter, the withdrawal may be allowed in the discretion of the court.chanrobles virtual law library
RULE 51
JUDGMENT

Section 1. When case deemed submitted for judgment.chanrobles virtual law library
 

    A case shall be deemed submitted for judgment:

    A. In ordinary appeals.-
     

      1) Where no hearing on the merits of the main case is held, upon the filing of the last pleading, brief, or memorandum required by the Rules or by the court itself, or the expiration of the period for its filing.chanrobles virtual law library

      2) Where such a hearing is held, upon its termination or upon the filing of the last pleading or memorandum as may be required or permitted to be filed by the court, or the expiration of the period for its filing.chanrobles virtual law library
       

    B. In original actions and petitions for review.-
       
      1) Where no comment is filed, upon the expiration of the period to comment.chanrobles virtual law library

      2) Where no hearing is held, upon the filing of the last pleading required or permitted to be filed by the court, or the expiration of the period for its filing.chanrobles virtual law library

      3) Where a hearing on the merits of the main case is held, upon its termination or upon the filing of the last pleading or memorandum as may be required or permitted to be filed by the court, or the expiration of the period for its filing.chanrobles virtual law library chan robles virtual law library

Sec. 2. By whom rendered.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The judgment shall be rendered by the members of the court who participated in the deliberation on the merits of the case before its assignment to a member for the writing of the decision.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 3. Quorum and voting in the court.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The participation of all three Justices of a division shall be necessary at the deliberation and the unanimous vote of the three Justices shall be required for the pronouncement of a judgment or final resolution. If the three Justices do not reach a unanimous vote, the clerk shall enter the votes of the dissenting Justices in the record. Thereafter, the Chairman of the division shall refer the case, together with the minutes of the deliberation, to the Presiding Justice who shall designate two Justices chosen by raffle from among all the other members of the court to sit temporarily with them, forming a special division of five Justices. The participation of all the five members of the special division shall be necessary for the deliberation required in section 2 of this Rule and the concurrence of a majority of such division shall be required for the pronouncement of a judgment or final resolution.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 4. Disposition of a case.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The Court of Appeals, in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction, may affirm, reverse, or modify the judgment or final order appealed from, and may direct a new trial or further proceedings to be had.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 5. Form of decision.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Every decision or final resolution of the court in appealed cases shall clearly and distinctly state the findings of fact and the conclusions of law on which it is based, which may be contained in the decision or final resolution itself, or adopted from those set forth in the decision, order, or resolution appealed from.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 6. Harmless error.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    No error in either the admission or the exclusion of evidence and no error or defect in any ruling or order or in anything done or omitted by the trial court or by any of the parties is ground for granting a new trial or for setting aside, modifying, or otherwise disturbing a judgment or order, unless refusal to take such action appears to the court inconsistent with substantial justice. The court at every stage of the proceeding must disregard any error or defect which does not affect the substantial rights of the parties.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 7. Judgment where there are several parties.chanrobles virtual law library
    In all actions or proceedings, an appealed judgment may be affirmed as to some of the appellants, and reversed as to others, and the case shall thereafter be proceeded with, so far as necessary, as if separate actions had been begun and prosecuted; and execution of the judgment of affirmance may be had accordingly, and costs may be adjudged in such cases, as the court shall deem proper.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 8. Questions that may be decided.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    No error which does not affect the jurisdiction over the subject matter or the validity of the judgment appealed from or the proceedings therein will be considered unless stated in the assignment of errors, or closely related to or dependent on an assigned error and properly argued in the brief, save as the court may pass upon plain errors and clerical errors.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 9. Promulgation and notice of judgment.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    After the judgment or final resolution and dissenting or separate opinions, if any, are signed by the Justices taking part, they shall be delivered for filing to the clerk who shall indicate thereon the date of promulgation and cause true copies thereof to be served upon the parties or their counsel
Sec. 10. Entry of judgments and final resolutions.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    If no appeal or motion for new trial or reconsideration is filed within the time provided in these Rules, the judgment or final resolution shall forthwith be entered by the clerk in the book of entries of judgments. The date when the judgment or final resolution becomes executory shall be deemed as the date of its entry. The record shall contain the dispositive part of the judgment or final resolution and shall be signed by the clerk, with a certificate that such judgment or final resolution has become final and executory.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 11. Execution of judgment.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Except where the judgment or final order or resolution, or a portion thereof, is ordered to be immediately executory, the motion for its execution may only be filed in the proper court after its entry.chanrobles virtual law library

    In original actions in the Court of Appeals, its writ of execution shall be accompanied by a certified true copy of the entry of judgment or final resolution and addressed to any appropriate officer for its enforcement.chanrobles virtual law library

    In appealed cases, where the motion for execution pending appeal is filed in the Court of Appeals at a time that it is in possession of the original record or the record on appeal, the resolution granting such motion shall be transmitted to the lower court from which the case originated, together with a certified true copy of the judgment or final order to be executed, with a directive for such court of origin to issue the proper writ for its enforcement.chanrobles virtual law library

RULE 52
MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION

Section 1. Period for filing.chanrobles virtual law library
 

    A party may file a motion for reconsideration of a judgment or final resolution within fifteen (15) days from notice thereof, with proof of service on the adverse party.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 2. Second motion for reconsideration.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    No second motion for reconsideration of a judgment or final resolution by the same party shall be entertained.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 3. Resolution of motion.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    In the Court of Appeals, a motion for reconsideration shall be resolved within ninety (90) days from the date when the court declares it submitted for resolution.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 4. Stay of execution.chanrobles virtual law library
    The pendency of a motion for reconsideration filed on time and by the proper party shall stay the execution of the judgment or final resolution sought to be reconsidered unless the court, for good reasons, shall otherwise direct.chanrobles virtual law library
RULE 53
NEW TRIAL

Section 1. Period for filing; ground.chanrobles virtual law library
 

    At any time after the appeal from the lower court has been perfected and before the Court of Appeals loses jurisdiction over the case, a party may file a motion for a new trial on the ground of newly discovered evidence which could not have been discovered prior to the trial in the court below by the exercise of due diligence and which is of such a character as would probably change the result. The motion shall be accompanied by affidavits showing the facts constituting the grounds therefor and the newly discovered evidence.chanrobles virtual law library
chan robles virtual law library
Sec. 2. Hearing and order.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The Court of Appeals shall consider the new evidence together with that adduced at the trial below, and may grant or refuse a new trial, or may make such order, with notice to both parties, as to the taking of further testimony, either orally in court, or by depositions, or render such other judgment as ought to be rendered upon such terms as it may deem just.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 3. Resolution of motion.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    In the Court of Appeals, a motion for new trial shall be resolved within ninety (90) days from the date when the court declares it submitted for resolution.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 4. Procedure in new trial.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    Unless the court otherwise directs, the procedure in the new trial shall be the same as that granted by a Regional Trial Court.chanrobles virtual law library
RULE 54
INTERNAL BUSINESS

Section 1. Distribution of cases among divisions.chanrobles virtual law library
 

    All the cases of the Court of Appeals shall be allotted among the different divisions thereof for hearing and decision. The Court of Appeals, sitting en banc, shall make proper orders or rules to govern the allotment of cases among the different divisions, the constitution of such divisions, the regular rotation of Justices among them, the filling of vacancies occurring therein, and other matters relating to the business of the court; and such rules shall continue in force until repealed or altered by it or by the Supeme Court.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 2. Quorum of the Court.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    A majority of the actual members of the court shall constitute a quorum for its session en banc. Three members shall constitute a quorum for its sessions of a division. The affirmative votes of the majority of the members present shall be necessary to pass a resolution of the court en banc. The affirmative votes of three members of a division shall be necessary for the pronouncement of a judgment or final resolution, which shall be reached in consultation before the writing of the opinion by any member of the division.chanrobles virtual law library
RULE 55
PUBLICATION OF JUDGMENTS AND FINAL RESOLUTION

Section 1. Publication.chanrobles virtual law library
 

    The judgments and final resolutions of the court shall be published in the Official Gazette and in the Reports officially authorized by the court in the language in which they have been originally written, together with the syllabi therefor prepared by the reporter in consultation with the writers thereof. Memoranda of all other judgments and final resolutions not so published shall be made by the reporter and published in the Official Gazette and the authorized reports.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 2. Preparation of opinions for publication.chanrobles virtual law library
 
    The reporter shall prepare and publish with each reported judgment and final resolution a concise synopsis of the facts necessary for a clear understanding of the case, the names of counsel, the material and controverted points involved, the authorities cited therein, an a syllabus which shall be confined to points of law.chanrobles virtual law library
Sec. 3. General make-up of volumes.chanrobles virtual law library
 

The published decisions and final resolutions of the Supreme Court shall be called "Philippine Reports," while those of the Court of Appeals shall be known as the "Court of Appeals Reports." Each volume thereof shall contain a table of the cases reported and the cases cited in the opinions, with a complete alphabetical index of the subject matters of the volume. It shall consist of not less than seven hundred pages printed upon good paper, well bound and numbered consecutively in the order of the volume published.chanrobles virtual law library

 


PHILIPPINE JUDICIAL SYSTEM 
Background on the Philippine Judicial System
Philippine Judicial Hierarchy
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Constitutional Provisions on the Judiciary
Rules of Court of the Philippines
Supreme Court Decisions
Supreme Court Circulars
Philippine Law Update:  The Supreme Court & the Judiciary

2006 DIRECTORY OF JUSTICES AND JUDGES 
of the following courts:

PHILIPPINE JUDICIAL SYSTEM
DIRECTORY OF JUSTICES AND JUDGES
 
Supreme Court
Court of Appeals
Sandiganbayan
Court of Tax Appeals
Regional Trial Courts
Metropolitan Trial Courts in Cities
Municipal Trial Courts/Municipal Circuit Courts
Shari'a District Courts
Shari'a Circuit Courts

 


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