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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
March-1904 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. 1491 March 5, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. LORENZO ARCEO, ET AL.

    003 Phil 381

  • G.R. No. 1388 March 5, 1904 - SILVERIO PAGUIA FERNANDO v. PACIFICO SANTOS VILLALON, ET AL.

    003 Phil 386

  • G.R. No. 972 March 14, 1904 - JOSE V. L. GONZAGA v. CARMEN F. DE CAÑETE

    003 Phil 394

  • G.R. No. 1468 March 14, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. ALONSO P. GARDNER

    003 Phil 398

  • G.R. No. 1057 March 15, 1904 - ANTONIO DOMENECH v. ANASTASIO MONTES

    003 Phil 412

  • G.R. No. 1581 March 15, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. PEDRO GIT

    003 Phil 414

  • G.R. No. 1445 March 17, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. MARIANO FELICIANO, ET AL.

    003 Phil 422

  • G.R. No. 1403 March 19, 1904 - JOSE E. ALEMANY ET AL. v. JOHN C. SWEENEY

    003 Phil 424

  • G.R. No. 1439 March 19, 1904 - ANTONIO CASTANEDA v. JOSE E. ALEMANY

    003 Phil 426

  • G.R. No. 1476 March 19, 1904 - MAGDALENA CANCINO, ET AL. v. GERVASIO VALDEZ, ET AL.

    003 Phil 429

  • G.R. No. 1543 March 19, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. BENITO VEGARA, ET AL.

    003 Phil 432

  • G.R. No. 1176 March 21, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. PLACIDO ESPIRIDION, ET AL.

    003 Phil 435

  • G.R. No. 1560 March 21, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. BERNABE GOMEZ

    003 Phil 436

  • G.R. No. 1245 March 21, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. CASIANO SAADLUCAP

    003 Phil 437

  • G.R. No. 1353 March 22, 1904 - ANA MARIA ALCANTARA v. MIGUEL MONTENEGRO

    003 Phil 440

  • G.R. No. 1550 March 24, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. JULIO POLOSAN

    003 Phil 443

  • G.R. No. 1315 March 24, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. EUSEBIO VERSOSA

    003 Phil 444

  • G.R. No. 1575 March 24, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. LAUREANO MIJARES, ET AL.

    003 Phil 447

  • G.R. No. 1395 March 28, 1904 - JUANA BRAGA v. JOSE MILLORA

    003 Phil 458

  • G.R. No. 1297 March 28, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. JULIO MENDOZA, ET AL.

    003 Phil 468

  • G.R. No. 1582 March 28, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. DALMACIO LAGNASON

    003 Phil 472

  • G.R. No. 1330 March 28, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. ARTURO BALDELLO, ET AL.

    003 Phil 508

  • G.R. No. 1601 March 28, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. NICOLAS MACLEOD

    003 Phil 510

  • G.R. No. 1660 March 28, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. GREGORIA HERRERA, ET AL.

    003 Phil 515

  • G.R. No. 1655 March 29, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. LEON DE LA TORRE

    003 Phil 516

  • G.R. No. 1670 March 29, 1904 - RAMONA TRINIDAD v. EDUARDO JARABE

    003 Phil 518

  • G.R. No. 1133 March 29, 1904 - RAFAEL REYES, ET AL. v. COMPAÑIA MARITIMA

    003 Phil 519

  • G.R. No. 1413 March 30, 1904 - ANDRES VALENTON ET AL. v. MANUEL MURCIANO

    003 Phil 537

  • G.R. No. 1072 March 30, 1904 - MANUEL ABELLO v. PAZ KOCK DE MONASTERIO

    003 Phil 558

  • G.R. No. 1438 March 30, 1904 - PETRONILA SALONGA v. MANUEL CONCEPCION

    003 Phil 563

  • G.R. No. 1432 March 30, 1904 - MANUEL ARAULLO, ET AL. v. SALUSTIANO ARAULLO, ET AL.

    003 Phil 567

  •  




     
     

    G.R. No. 1543   March 19, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. BENITO VEGARA, ET AL. <br /><br />003 Phil 432

     
    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    EN BANC

    [G.R. No. 1543. March 19, 1904. ]

    THE UNITED STATES, Complainant-Appellee, v. BENITO VEGARA ET AL., Defendants-Appellants.

    Thos. L. Hartigan and Maximino Mina, for Appellants.

    Solicitor-General Araneta, for Appellee.

    SYLLABUS


    1. CRIMINAL LAW; INSURRECTION; CONSPIRACY AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT. — The defendants were tried and convicted upon an information charging them with the crime of insurrection. The evidence showed that they had organized and were members of a society whose purpose was to overthrow the Government by force, but failed to disclose any overt acts of insurrection. Held, That the conviction for insurrection can not be sustained, but that on the same information the defendants may be convicted of the lesser offense of conspiracy to overthrow the Government.


    D E C I S I O N


    JOHNSON, J. :


    The defendants here were charged with the crime of insurrection. It is charged that the defendants, together with others, between the months of May, 1902, and June, 1903, had been inciting, setting on foot, and engaging in an insurrection against the authority of the United States in the Philippine Islands.

    The evidence of various witnesses was taken in the trial of the said cause. Several of these witnesses testified that the defendants, and each of them, in the months of February and March, 1903, were organizing and did organize a society commonly known as the "Katipunan Society." Several witnesses also testified that the object of the Katipunan Society was to organize Filipino soldiers, and that the end and purpose of the said organization was against the United States Government in the Philippine Islands.

    The evidence further shows that the defendants, and each of them solicited various persons to become members of the said organization. The evidence further shows that the said Katipunan Society held various meetings in the house of one Manuel Ruiz, and in the house of Manuel Sandico.

    It was shown also during the trial on the court below that these defendants were officers in the said society. The evidence further shows that the defendants, as chief officers of the said Katipunan Society, appointed various persons to the positions of captains and captains of cavalry, and majors; that these captains and majors were given charge of sections or districts of country over which they were to exercise jurisdiction; that the said society possessed a seal with the inscription "Republica Universal Democrata Filipina, Union, Patria, Fuerza." The evidence further shows that the said defendants, and each of them, at various times in the months of February and March, 1903, solicited funds from the people of the pueblo of Mexico, in the Province of Pampanga, P. I.

    The defendants attempted to prove that they were organizing a new, independent Filipino church, known s the Aglipayan Church, and that the money which they were collecting was to the purpose of furthering the interests of this new, independent church. This latter fact, in the judgment of the court, was not established.

    The fact that the defendants were not attempting to organize a religious society, and that the money which they were collecting was to be used for that purpose is disproved by their own acts and conduct. The defendants admitted that when they received word that the public authorities were investigating their conduct with reference to the society which they had organized and the purposes for which they were collecting the money, they immediately left their homes and went into the mountains and remained in hiding from about the 31st day of March, 1902, until the 24th day of May of the same year. There certainly could be no object in the defendants leaving their homes, going into the mountains, and remaining in hiding for the larger portion of two months to avoid the public authorities if their purposes in organizing the said society and the collection of the said money had been legitimate.

    The defendants were charged as having violated section 3 of Act No. 292 of the United States Philippine Commission. This section provides:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "Every person who incites, sets on foot, assists, or engages in a rebellion or insurrection against the authority of the United States . . . shall, upon conviction, be imprisoned for not more than ten years and be fined not more than $10,000."cralaw virtua1aw library

    From the evidence adduced in this case we are of the opinion that the said defendants are guilty, not of inciting, setting on foot, or assisting or engaging in rebellion, but rather of the crime of conspiring to overthrow, put down, and destroy by force the Government of the United States in the Philippine Islands, and therefore we find that the said defendants, and each of them, did, together with others, in the months of February and March, 1903, in the Province of Pampanga, Philippine Islands, conspire to overthrow, put down, and to destroy by force the Government of the United States in the Philippine Islands.

    The court of First Instance, which tried the said defendants, imposed upon Benito Vegara the penalty of six years of imprisonment and $5,000 fine, and upon Cristino Ongton the penalty of four years’ imprisonment and $2,000 fine, and that each should pay one-half the costs. Inasmuch as those who are guilty of conspiracy to put down or destroy by force the Government of the United States in the Philippine Islands may be punished in accordance with the penalty imposed in this case by the court below, it is the judgment of this court that the judgment of the court below be affirmed as to the penalty imposed, and that Benito Vegara be imprisoned for the period of six years and to pay a fine of $5,000, and that Cristino Ongton be imprisoned for the period of four years and to pay a fine of $2,000, and that each shall be adjudged to pay one-half the costs of both instances.

    Arellano, C.J., Torres, Cooper, Willard, Mapa and McDonough, JJ., concur.

    G.R. No. 1543   March 19, 1904 - UNITED STATES v. BENITO VEGARA, ET AL. <br /><br />003 Phil 432




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