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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
July-1996 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. 116600 July 3, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. REYNALDO LANDICHO

  • G.R. No. 119527 July 3, 1996 - EVELYN J. GARCIA v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121910 July 3, 1996 - NATIONAL WATERWORKS AND SEWERAGE AUTHORITY, ET AL. v. NLRC

  • G.R. Nos. 98121-22 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMEO R. SALAZAR

  • G.R. No. 100629 July 5, 1996 - ENELYN E. PEÑA, ET AL. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 100699 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EDGAR C. GUTIERREZ

  • G.R. No. 102377 July 5, 1996 - ALFREDO SAJONAS, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 102998 July 5, 1996 - BA FINANCE CORPORATION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 105583 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ELEUTERIO TAMPON

  • G.R. No. 106296 July 5, 1996 - ISABELO T. CRISOSTOMO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 106413 July 5, 1996 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. TACLOBAN CITY ICE PLANT, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 107698 July 5, 1996 - GLORIA Z. GARBO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 107824 July 5, 1996 - SUPERCLEAN SERVICES CORPORATION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 109173 July 5, 1996 - CITY OF CEBU v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111324 July 5, 1996 - ROMAN CATHOLIC ARCHBISHOP OF MANILA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111549 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ARTEMIO P. ORTALEZA

  • G.R. Nos. 113178 & 114777 July 5, 1996 - RADIO COMMUNICATIONS OF THE PHIL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113549 July 5, 1996 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113827 July 5, 1996 - PHILIPPINE AIRLINES INC. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113948 July 5, 1996 - ARMANDO NICOLAS v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 114002 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ELEUTERIO C. COMPENDIO, JR.

  • G.R. No. 115216 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DAVID CABILES

  • G.R. No. 115825 July 5, 1996 - FRANKLIN DRILON v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116208 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ESMAEL SALIDO

  • G.R. No. 116693 July 5, 1996 - PURITA DE LA PEÑA, ET AL. v. PEDRO R. DE LA PEÑA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118203 July 5, 1996 - EMILIO A. SALAZAR, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118231 July 5, 1996 - VICTORIA L. BATIQUIN, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS

  • G.R. No. 118284 July 5, 1996 - MAMERTO REFUGIA, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118562 July 5, 1996 - ANGLO-KMU v. SAMANA BAY, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118691 July 5, 1996 - ALEJANDRO BAYOG, ET AL. v. ANTONIO M. NATINO, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 118712 & 118745 July 5, 1996 - LAND BANK OF THE PHIL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118824 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMEO GARCIA

  • G.R. No. 119069 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DANILO EXCIJA

  • G.R. No. 119845 July 5, 1996 - ANTONIO M. GARCIA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120949 July 5, 1996 - ARACELI RAMOS FONTANILLA v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL.

  • G.R. No. 121180 July 5, 1996 - GERARD A. MOSQUERA v. DELIA H. PANGANIBAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121592 July 5, 1996 - ROLANDO P. DELA TORRE v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122807 July 5, 1996 - ROGELIO P. MENDIOLA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. RTJ-91-712 July 9, 1996 - BEN D. MARCES, SR. v. PAUL T. ARCANGEL

  • G.R. No. 88189 July 9, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. TIBURCIO ABALOS

  • G.R. No. 103922 July 9, 1996 - SANTIAGO LAND DEVELOPMENT COMPANY v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 104312 July 9, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MARIO CABALLERO

  • G.R. No. 109563 July 9, 1996 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 114058 July 10, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ZALDY B. FRANCISCO

  • G.R. No. 74495 July 11, 1996 - DUMEZ COMPANY, ET AL. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 80437-38 July 11, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROBERTO B. ABORDO

  • G.R. Nos. 94376-77 July 11, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ELMER O. BELGA

  • G.R. No. 103174 July 11, 1996 - AMADO B. TEODORO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 103968 July 11, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DIMSON M. GARDE

  • G.R. No. 104860 July 11, 1996 - CITYTRUST BANKING CORPORATION v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 106418 July 11, 1996 - DANIEL L. BORBON II, ET AL. v. SERVICEWIDE SPECIALISTS, INC., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 109156 July 11, 1996 - STOLT-NIELSEN MARINE SERVICES (PHILS.) INC. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 110207 July 11, 1996 - FLORENTINO REYES, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116221 July 11, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALEJANDRO G. GABRIS

  • Adm. Matter No. P-93-995 July 12, 1996 - ROBERTO JALBUENA v. EGARDO GELLADA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 88126 July 12, 1996 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 96795 July 12, 1996 - ANTONIO M. CORRAL v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 108926 July 12, 1996 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 116128 & 116461 July 12, 1996 - ALLIED BANKING CORP. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121139 July 12, 1996 - ISIDRO B. GARCIA v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 88822 July 15, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALEJANDRO M. TUVILLA

  • G.R. No. 117661 July 15, 1996 - DANIEL VILLANUEVA, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 83437-38 July 17, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. WILFREDO R. GUARIN

  • G.R. No. 98458 July 17, 1996 - COCOLAND DEV. CORP. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 102037 July 17, 1996 - MELANIO IMPERIAL v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 106977 July 17, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. AQUILIO ACABO

  • G.R. Nos. 109396-97 July 17, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMEO S. OARGA

  • G.R. No. 114795 July 17, 1996 - LUCITA Q. GARCES v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116728 July 17, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RODELIO S. CRUZ

  • G.R. No. 120496 July 17, 1996 - FIVE STAR BUS CO., INC., ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. MTJ-96-1088 July 19, 1996 - RODOLFO G. v. HERNANDO C. DOMAGTOY

  • G.R. Nos. 70168-69 July 24, 1996 - RAFAEL T. MOLINA, ET AL. v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 95940 July 24, 1996 - PANTRANCO NORTH EXPRESS, INC. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 108052 July 24, 1996 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 110241 July 24, 1996 - ASIA BREWERY, INC. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 115008-09 July 24, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DANIEL C. QUIJADA

  • G.R. No. 120043 July 24, 1996 - AMERICAN HOME ASSURANCE CO., ET AL v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120099 July 24, 1996 - EDUARDO T. RODRIGUEZ v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120303 July 24, 1996 - FEDERICO GEMINIANO, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET Al.

  • Adm. Matter No. RTJ-96-1336 July 25, 1996 - JOCELYN TALENS-DABON v. HERMIN E. ARCEO

  • G.R. No. 95223 July 26, 1996 - ALLIED BANKING CORPORATION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 105673 July 26, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ANTONIO MAGANA

  • G.R. Nos. 105690-91 July 26, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL v. RODOLFO CAGUIOA, SR.

  • G.R. No. 110731 July 26, 1996 - SHOPPERS GAIN SUPERMART, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111127 July 26, 1996 - ENGRACIO FABRE, JR., ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 112175 July 26, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RODOLFO DIAZ

  • G.R. Nos. 114280 & 115224 July 26, 1996 - PHILIPPINE AIRLINES, INC. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 115683 July 26, 1996 - DELIA MANUEL v. DAVID ALFECHE, JR., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118434 July 26, 1996 - SIXTA C. LIM v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119225 July 26, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RODRIGO G. ABUTIN

  • G.R. No. 119328 July 26, 1996 - PROVIDENT INT’L. RESOURCES INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119673 July 26, 1996 - IGLESIA NI CRISTO (INC.) v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. MTJ-93-783 July 29, 1996 - OFFICE OF THE COURT ADMINISTRATOR v. FILOMENO PASCUAL

  • G.R. Nos. 97556 & 101152 July 29, 1996 - DAMASO S. FLORES v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111639 July 29, 1996 - MIDAS TOUCH FOOD CORPORATION v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 114313 July 29, 1996 - MGG MARINE SERVICES, INC., ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. P-95-1148 July 30, 1996 - PEDRO ROQUE, ET AL. v. ZENAIDA GRIMALDO

  • G.R. No. 102557 July 30, 1996 - ALFONSO D. ZAMORA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 108028 July 30, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. CRISTINA M. HERNANDEZ

  • G.R. No. 116512 July 30, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LEOPOLDO BACANG, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116542 July 30, 1996 - HONGKONG AND SHANGHAI BANKING CORP. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118590 July 30, 1996 - D.M. CONSUNJI, INC. v. RAMON S. ESGUERRA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122241 July 30, 1996 - BOARD OF OPTOMETRY, ET AL. v. ANGEL B COLET, ET. AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 111517-19 July 31, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROGER N. AUSTRIA

  • G.R. No. 112233 July 31, 1996 - COKALIONG SHIPPING LINES v. OMAR U. AMIN

  • G.R. No. 112611 July 31, 1996 - CLARA ATONG VDA. DE PANALIGAN, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116015 July 31, 1996 - GOVERNMENT SERVICE INSURANCE SYSTEM v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119306 July 31, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DANTE BELTRAN

  • G.R. No. 121917 July 31, 1996 - ROBIN CARIÑO PADILLA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122274 July 31, 1996 - SUSAN V. LLENES v. ISAIAS P. DICDICAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122749 July 31, 1996 - ANTONIO A. S. VALDES v. RTC, BRANCH 102, QUEZON CITY, ET AL.

  •  





     
     

    G.R. No. 106418   July 11, 1996 - DANIEL L. BORBON II, ET AL. v. SERVICEWIDE SPECIALISTS, INC., ET AL.

     
    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    FIRST DIVISION

    [G.R. No. 106418. July 11, 1996.]

    DANIEL L. BORBON II AND FRANCISCO L. BORBON, Petitioner, v. SERVICEWIDE SPECIALISTS, INC. & HON. COURT OF APPEALS, Respondents.


    D E C I S I O N


    VITUG, J.:


    From the decision of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. CV No. 30693 which affirmed that of the Regional Trial Court, NCJR, Branch 39, Manila, in Civil Case No. 85-29954, confirming the disputed possession of a motor vehicle in favor of private respondent and ordering the payment to it by petitioners of liquidated damages and attorney’s fees, the instant appeal was interposed.

    The appellate court adopted the factual findings of the court a quo, to wit:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "The plaintiff’s evidence shows among others that on December 7, 1984, defendants Daniel L. Borbon and Francisco Borbon signed a promissory note (Exh. A) which states among others as follows:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "‘ PROMISSORY NOTE

    Acct. No. 115008276

    Makati, Metro Manila,

    Philippines

    December 7, 1984

    ‘P122,856.00

    ‘For value received (installment price of the chattel/s purchased), I/We jointly and severally promised to pay Pangasinan Auto Mart, Inc. or order, at its office at NMI Bldg. Buendia Avenue, Makati, MM the sum of One Hundred Twenty Two Thousand Eight Hundred Fifty Six only (P122,856.00), Philippine Currency, to be payable without need of notice or demand, in installments of the amounts following and at the dates hereinafter set forth, to wit: P10,238.00 monthly for Twelve (12) months due and payable on the 7 day of each month starting January, 1985, provided that a late payment charge of 3% per month shall be added on each unpaid installment from due date thereof until fully paid.

    x       x       x


    ‘It is further agreed that if upon such default, attorney’s services are availed of, an additional sum equal to twenty five percent (25%) of the total sum due thereon , which shall not be less than five hundred pesos, shall be paid to the holder hereof for attorney’s fees plus an additional sum equivalent to twenty five percent (25%) of the total sum due which likewise shall not be less than five hundred pesos for liquidated damages, aside from expenses of collection and the legal costs provided for in the Rules of Court.

    ‘It is expressly agreed that all legal actions arising out of this note or in connection with the chattel(s) subject hereof shall only be brought in or submitted to the jurisdiction of the proper court either in the City of Manila or in the province, municipality or city where the branch of the holder hereof is located.

    ‘Acceptance by the holder hereof of payment of any installment or any part thereof after due dated (sic) shall not be considered as extending the time for the payment or any of the installments aforesaid or as a modification of any of the conditions hereof. Nor shall the failure of the holder hereof to exercise any of its right under this note constitute or be deemed as a waiver of such rights.

    ‘Maker:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    (S/t) DANIEL L. BORBON, II

    Address: 14 Colt St., Rancho Estate I,

    Concepcion Dos, Marikina, MM

    (S/t) FRANCISCO BORBON

    Address: 73 Sterling Life Home

    Pamplona, Las Piñas, MM

    "WITNESSES

    (illegible) (illegible)

    __________ _________

    ‘PAY TO THE ORDER OF

    FILINVEST CREDIT CORPORATION

    without recourse, notice, presentment and demand waived

    PANGASINAN AUTO MART, INC.

    BY

    (S/T) K.N. DULCE

    Dealer’

    "To secure the Promissory Note, the defendants executed a Chattel Mortgage (Exh. B) on

    ‘One (1) Brand new 1984 Isuzu

    KCD 20 Crew Cab (Conv.)

    Serial No. KC20D0F 207685

    Key No. 5509

    (Exhs. A and B, p. 2 tsn, September 10, 1985)

    "The rights of Pangasinan Auto Mart, Inc. was later assigned to Filinvest Credit Corporation on December 10, 1984, with notice to the defendants (Exh. C, p. 10, Record).

    "On March 21, 1985, Filinvest Credit Corporation assigned all its rights, interest and title over the Promissory Note and the chattel mortgage to the plaintiff (Exh. D; p. 3, tsn, Sept. 30, 1985).

    "The promissory note stipulates that the installment of P10,238.00 monthly should be paid on the 7th day of each month starting January 1985, but the defendants failed to comply with their obligation (p. 3, tsn, Sept. 30, 1985).

    "Because the defendants did not pay their monthly installments, Filinvest demanded from the defendants the payment of their installments due on January 29, 1985 by telegram (Exh. E; pp. 3-4, tsn, Sept. 30, 1985).

    "After the accounts were assigned to the plaintiff, the plaintiff attempted to collect by sending a demand letter to the defendants for them to pay their entire obligation which, as of March 12, 1985, totaled P185,257.80 (Exh. H; pp. 3-4, tsn, Sept. 30, 1985).

    "For their defense, the defendants claim that what they intended to buy from Pangasinan Auto Mart was a jeepney type Isuzu K. C. Cab. The vehicle that they bought was not delivered (pp. 11-12, tsn, Oct. 17, 1985). Instead, through misrepresentation and machination, the Pangasinan Motor, Inc. delivered an Isuzu crew cab, as this is the unit available at their warehouse. Later the representative of Pangasinan Auto Mart, Inc. (assignor) told the defendants that their available stock is an Isuzu Cab but minus the rear body, which the defendants agreed to deliver with the understanding that the Pangasinan Auto Mart, Inc. will refund the defendants the amount of P10,000.00 to have the rear body completed (pp. 12-34, Exhs. 2 to 3-3A).

    "Despite Communications with the Pangasinan Auto Mart, Inc., the latter was not able to replace the vehicle until the vehicle delivered was seized by order of this court. The defendants argue that an assignee stands in the place of an assignor which, to the mind of the court, is correct. The assignee exercise all the rights of the assignor (Gonzales v. Rama Plantation Co., C.V. 08630, Dec. 2, 1986).

    "The defendants further claim that they are not in default of their obligation because the Pangasinan Auto Mart was first guilty of not fulfilling its obligation in the contract. The defendants claim that neither party incurs delay if the other does not comply with his obligation. (citing Art. 1169, N.C.C.)" 1

    In sustaining the decision of the court a quo, the appellate court ruled that petitioners could not avoid liability under the promissory note and the chattel mortgage that secured it since private respondent took the note for value and in good faith.

    In their appeal to this Court, petitioners merely seek a modification of the decision of the appellate court insofar as it has upheld the court a quo in the award of liquidated damages and attorney’s fees in favor of private Respondent. Petitioners invoke the provisions of Article 1484 of the Civil Code which reads:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    ART. 1484. In a contract of sale of personal property the price of which is payable in installments, the vendor may exercise any of the following remedies:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "(1) Exact fulfillment of the obligation, should the vendee fail to pay;

    "(2) Cancel the sale, should the vendee’s failure to pay cover two or more installments;

    "(3) Foreclose the chattel mortgage or the thing sold, if one has been constituted, should the vendee’s failure to pay cover two or more installments. In this case, he shall have no further action against the purchaser to recover any unpaid balance of the price. Any agreement to the contrary shall be void."cralaw virtua1aw library

    The remedies under Article 1484 of the Civil Code are not cumulative but alternative and exclusive, 2 which means, as so held in Nonato v. Intermediate Appellate Court and Investor’s Finance Corporation, 3 that —

    ". . . Should the vendee or purchaser of a personal property default in the payment of two or more of the agreed installments, the vendor or seller has the option to avail of any of these three remedies — either to exact fulfillment by the purchaser of the obligation, or to cancel the sale, or to foreclose the mortgage on the purchased personal property, if one was constituted. These remedies have been recognized as alternative, not cumulative, that the exercise of one would bar the exercise of the others." 4

    When the seller assigns his credit to another person, the latter is likewise bound by the same law. Accordingly, when the assignee forecloses on the mortgage, there can be no further recovery of the deficiency, 5 and the seller-mortgagee is deemed to have renounced any right thereto 6 A contrario, in the event the seller-mortgagee first seeks, instead, the enforcement of the additional mortgages, guarantees or other security arrangements, he must then be held to have lost by waiver or non-choice his lien on the chattel mortgage of the personal property sold by any mortgaged back to him, although, similar to an action for specific performance, he may still levy on it.

    In ordinary alternative obligations; a mere choice categorically and unequivocally made and then communicated by the person entitled to exercise the option concludes the parties. The creditor may not thereafter exercise any other option, unless the chosen alternative proves to be ineffectual or unavailing due to no fault on his part. This rule, in essence, is the difference between alternative obligations, on the one hand, and alternative remedies, upon the other hand, where, in the latter case, the choice generally becomes conclusive only upon the exercise of the remedy. For instance, in one of the remedies expressed in Article 1484 of the Civil Code, it is only when there has been a foreclosure of the chattel mortgage that the vendee-mortgagor would be permitted to escape from a deficiency liability. Thus. if the case is one for specific performance, even when this action is selected after the vendee has refused to surrender the mortgaged property to permit an extrajudicial foreclosure, that property may still be levied on execution and an alias writ may be issued if the proceeds thereof are insufficient to satisfy the judgment credit. 7 So, also, a mere demand to surrender the object which is not headed by the mortgagor will not amount to a foreclosure, 8 but the repossession thereof by the vendor-mortgagee would have the effect of foreclosure.

    The parties here concede that the action for replevin has been instituted for the foreclosure of the vehicle in question (now in the possession of private respondent). The sole issue raised before us in this appeal is focused on the legal propriety of the affirmance by the appellate court of the awards made by the court a quo of liquidated damages and attorney’s fees to private Respondent. Petitioners hold that under Article 1484 of the Civil Code, aforequoted, the vendor-mortgagee or its assignees loses any right "to recover any unpaid balance of the price" and any "agreement to the contrary (would be) void."cralaw virtua1aw library

    The argument is aptly made. In Macondray & Co. v. Eustaquio 9 we have said that the phrase "any unpaid balance" can only mean the deficiency judgment to which the mortgagee may be entitled to when the proceeds from the auction sale are sufficient to cover the "full amount of the secured obligation which . . . include interest on the principal, attorney’s fees, expenses of collection, and costs." In sum, we have observed that the legislative intent is not to merely limit the proscription of any further action to the "unpaid balance of the principal" but, as so later ruled in Luneta Motor Co. v. Salvador, 10 to all other claims that may likewise be called for in the accompanying promissory note against the buyer-mortgagor or his guarantor, including costs and attorney’s fees.

    In Filipinas Investment & Finance Corporation v. Ridad 11 while we reiterated and expressed our agreement on the basic philosophy behind Article 1484, we stressed, nevertheless, that the protection given to the buyer-mortgagor should not be considered to be without circumscription or as being preclusive of all other laws or legal principles. Hence, borrowing from the examples made in Filipinas Investment, where the mortgagor unjustifiably refused to surrender the chattel subject of the mortgagee upon failure of two or more installments, or if he concealed the chattel to place it beyond the reach of the mortgagee, that thereby constrained the latter to seek court relief, the expenses, incurred for the prosecution of the case, such as attorney’s fees, could rightly be awarded.

    Private respondent bewails the instant petition in that petitioners have failed to specifically raise the issue on liquidated damages and attorney’s fees stipulated in the actionable documents. In several cases, we have ruled that as long as the questioned items bear relevance and close relation to those specifically raised, the interest of justice would dictate that they, too, must be considered and resolved and that the rule that only theories raised in the initial proceedings may be taken up by a party thereto on appeal should only refer to independent, not concomitant matters, to support or oppose the cause of action. 12

    Given the circumstances, we must strike down the award for liquidated damages made by the court a quo but we uphold the grant of attorney’s fees which we, like the appellate court, find to be reasonable. Parenthetically, while the promissory note may appear to have been a negotiable instrument, private respondent, however, clearly cannot claim unawareness of its accompanying documents so as to thereby gain a right greater than that on of the assignor.

    WHEREFORE, the appealed decision is MODIFIED by deleting therefrom the award for liquidated damages; in all other respects the judgment of the appellate court is AFFIRMED. No cost.

    SO ORDERED.

    Padilla, Bellosillo, Kapunan and Hermosisima, Jr., JJ., concur.

    Endnotes:



    1. Rollo, pp. 88-92.

    2. The rule applies to lease-purchase contracts of personal property. See Article 1485; also Filinvest Credit Corp. v. Court of Appeals, 178 SCRA 188; Servicewide Specialist v. IAC, 174 SCRA 80.

    3. 140 SCRA 255.

    4. At pp. 257-258.

    5. Zeyas v. Luneta Motors, 117 SCRA 726.

    6. Ridad v. Filipinas Investment & Finance Corporation, 120 SCRA 246.

    7. Industrial Finance Corp. v. Ramirez, 77 SCRA 152.

    8. See Industrial Finance Corporation v. Tobias, 78 SCRA 28.

    9. 64 Phil. 446.

    10. 108 Phil. 1037.

    11. 141 Phil. 237.

    12. Bank of America v. Court of Appeals, 228 SCRA 357.

    G.R. No. 106418   July 11, 1996 - DANIEL L. BORBON II, ET AL. v. SERVICEWIDE SPECIALISTS, INC., ET AL.


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