The pivotal issue in this petition for review under Rule 45 of the Rules of Court is whether respondent Court of Appeals, in its Amended Decision 1 of 18 October 1994 in CA-G.R. SP No. 32672, committed reversible error in annulling an order of execution of the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Makati, Branch 133, in an expropriation case docketed as Civil Case No. 93-1412. 2 The said RTC order directed the Municipality of Parañaque (hereinafter PARAÑAQUE) to vacate the property subject of the expropriation case and to surrender possession thereof to its owner, defendant Provident International Resources, Inc. (PIRC), and was issued after the trial court had: (a) handed down an order dismissing the case for want of jurisdiction over the subject matter; (b) given due course to the appeal of PARAÑAQUE from such dismissal; and (c) directed the transmittal of the entire record of the case to the Court of Appeals.
We resolved to give due course to the petition after petitioner PIRC filed its reply to the private respondent’s comment on the petition.
The factual and procedural antecedents in this case, as gathered from the original record of CA-G.R. SP No. 32672, the pleadings of the parties, and the decision and amended decision of the Court of Appeals, are not complicated.
On 28 April 1993, PARAÑAQUE filed Civil Case No. 93-1412 with the RTC of Makati for the expropriation of certain parcels of land covered by Transfer Certificate of Title Nos. 58641, 58604, 63460, 44745, and 48033, with a total area of 68,151 square meters, located at Likod Ibayo, Barangay Sto. Niño, Ninoy Aquino Avenue, Parañaque, Metro Manila. These lots belonged to PIRC and were to be used as the site for a new municipal building. PARAÑAQUE claimed that it offered to buy the property for P54,520,800.00 based on the fair market value stated in the tax declarations, but PIRC refused to sell. The case was raffled to Branch 61 of the said court, but on motion of PARAÑAQUE, the case was transferred to the RTC of Parañaque, then presided by Judge Octavio Astilla.
On 13 May 1993, PARAÑAQUE deposited with the Philippine National Bank (PNB) the amount of P8.1 million, or fifteen percent (15%) of P54,520,800.00, pursuant to Section 19 3 of the Local Government Code of 1991 (R.A. No. 7160, hereinafter LGC). It then filed an ex-parte motion for the issuance of a writ of possession pursuant to said Section 19.
On 17 May 1993, the RTC of Parañaque granted the motion for a writ of possession and ordered: (a) the Municipal Treasurer of Parañaque to hold the money in trust for the court and to disburse it only upon a court order; and (b) the deputy sheriff of Branch 77 of the Metropolitan Trial Court (MeTC) of Parañaque to personally serve a copy of the complaint on PIRC and to place PARAÑAQUE in possession, control, and disposition of the lots in question.
On 18 May 1993, PARAÑAQUE was placed in possession of the lots.
On 28 June 1993, Judge Astilla, on motion of PIRC, inhibited himself from the case and ordered the return of the case to the Executive Judge for re-raffle. Although the case was re-raffled to Branch 60, it was returned to Branch 61 of the RTC of Makati, presided by Judge Fernando V. Gorospe, Jr.
On 19 July 1993, PIRC moved for reconsideration of the 17 May 1993 order of the RTC of Parañaque and prayed that PARAÑAQUE be ordered to vacate the lots on the following grounds: (1) the 17 May 1993 order violated PIRC’s fundamental right to due process as it was given no notice nor opportunity to be heard before it was deprived of its property; (2) there was no appropriation ordinance nor certification as to the availability of "unobligated" funds for the expropriation of the lots; (3) the mandatory legal requirements for the immediate taking of possession of the lots were not fulfilled; (4) Section 19 of the LGC 4 is unconstitutional; (5) absence of an ordinance providing for the expropriation of the lots; (6) lack of a valid and definite offer previously made to PIRC; (7) lack of necessity for the expropriation of PIRC’s lots considering the availability of other parcels of land suitable for PARAÑAQUE’s purpose; (8) the expropriation violates the national policy of encouraging private investments; (9) failure to implead the Republic of the Philippines which, through the Presidential Commission of Good Government (PCGG), had sequestered the lots in question; and (10) lack of jurisdiction because the lots in question were also the subject of an action pending before the Sandiganbayan.
On 10 August 1993, the RTC of Makati (Branch 61 — Judge Gorospe) considered the motion for reconsideration submitted for resolution with respect to the ground of lack of jurisdiction, but deferred resolution of the other arguments.
On 17 August 1993, the RTC of Makati (Branch 61) granted PIRC’s motion for reconsideration and dismissed the case for lack of jurisdiction as the lots to be expropriated were in custodia legis, being sequestered by the PCGG and involved in a case pending before the Sandiganbayan. It also set aside the previous order of 17 May 1393 granting the petitioner’s ex parte motion for the issuance of a writ of possession, and ordered the Deputy Sheriff to "maintain a [sic] status quo ante since it appears on record that this court has not yet issued the corresponding writ of possession to implement and enforce said order of 17 May 1993."cralaw virtua1aw library
On 23 August 1993, PARAÑAQUE moved for reconsideration of the 17 August 1993 order. On the other hand, PIRC filed an urgent ex parte motion for an order directing PARAÑAQUE to vacate the lots and surrender them to PIRC.
On 31 August 1993, Judge Gorospe, upon PARAÑAQUE’s motion, inhibited himself and ordered the case re-raffled. The case was eventually assigned to Branch 133 of the RTC of Makati, presided by Judge Ruben A. Mendiola. 5
On 22 October 1993, Branch 133 of the RTC of Makati, per Judge Mendiola, issued an order 6 denying PARAÑAQUE’s motion for reconsideration and directing PARAÑAQUE and its agents to vacate the lots and surrender possession to PIRC within five days from notice.
On 27 October 1993, PARAÑAQUE filed its Notice of Appeal 7 from the orders of 17 August 1993 and 22 October 1993.
On 29 October 1993, Branch 133 of the RTC of Makati issued an order 8 giving due course to PARAÑAQUE’s appeal and ordering the transmittal of "the entire records" of Civil Case No. 93-1412 to the Court of Appeals for further proceedings.
On 4 November 1993, PIRC filed a motion for the issuance of a writ implementing the order to vacate and the appointment of a special sheriff. 9 Forthwith, and on even date, the RTC of Makati (Branch 133) gave PARAÑAQUE a period of five days from receipt of the order within which to file its Comment/Opposition to the motion. 10
On 10 November 1993, PARAÑAQUE manifested 11 that the trial court had lost jurisdiction over the case "after November 6, 1993 with the perfection of [PARAÑAQUE’s] appeal by the filing of its notice of appeal on 27 October 1993 before the 15-day period for appeal expired." Hence, no longer could the court act on PIRC’s motion for an order to vacate, which, PARAÑAQUE pointed out, was not a motion for execution pending appeal; and even assuming otherwise, no good reason was cited in the motion to justify its grant. Nevertheless, PARAÑAQUE asked the trial court "should [it] be [so] minded, before transmittal of the entire records to the Court of Appeals, to reverse or reconsider its appealed order due to the supervening event of a Sandiganbayan denial . . . of the PCGG motion for reconsideration of its decision lifting the sequestration . . ."cralaw virtua1aw library
On 11 November 1993, PARAÑAQUE filed a manifestation calling the trial court’s attention to the fact that up to said date, the record of the case had not been transmitted to the Court of Appeals. 12
On 16 November 1993, Branch 133 of the RTC of Makati issued an order 13 denying PARAÑAQUE’s "prayer for reversal or second reconsideration of the August 17, 1993 order," contained in its Manifestation filed on 10 November 1993, but granting PIRC’s motion for the issuance of a writ implementing the order to vacate which the court deemed a motion for execution pending appeal. It then ordered the issuance of a writ of execution upon PIRC’s filing of a bond of P1 million, and appointed a special sheriff to implement the writ by ejecting PARAÑAQUE from the subject property and placing PIRC in physical possession thereof.
PARAÑAQUE then filed with this Court a special civil action for certiorari
and prohibition, docketed as G.R. No. 112442, to annul the orders of the trial court of 17 August 1993, 22 October 1993, and 16 November 1993. On 23 November 1993, this Court referred the case to the Court of Appeals, 14 which docketed it as CA-G.R. SP No. 32672.
It was only on 4 January 1994 when the RTC transmitted to the Court of Appeals the record of Civil Case No. 93-1412, which, nevertheless, was still undocketed with the Court of Appeals at the time the challenged Amended Decision in CA-G.R. SP No. 32672 was promulgated on 18 October 1994. 15 Parenthetically, it may be noted that PARAÑAQUE claims in its Memorandum dated 8 December 1995 that the said appeal remained undocketed "pending elevation by the trial court of the complete records to the Court of Appeals notwithstanding efforts made by Parañaque to expedite the appeal." 16
On 31 May 1994, the Court of Appeals rendered its original decision 17 in CA-G.R. SP No. 32672, dismissing the petition on the ground of forum shopping. It stated thus:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
It is evident that the subject of petitioner’s appeal and this petition are basically the same orders issued by the trial court (dated August 17, 1993 and October 22, 1993; the November 16, 1993 order is merely a consequence of the earlier orders).
It is essential for the issuance of a writ of certiorari
and prohibition that there be no appeal or any plain, speedy and adequate remedy in the ordinary course of law. (Rule 65. secs. 1 and 2)
In the case at bar, the remedy of appeal was available and in fact had been taken by petitioner on November 22, 1993. In the language of Collado v. Hernando, 161 SCRA 639, 645 (1988), where the petitioner also filed both an appeal and later a petition for certiorari
, the Supreme Court described this "as a classic case of forum-shopping which this Court definitely cannot and will not countenance."cralaw virtua1aw library
Our conclusion that petitioner is guilty of forum-shopping and that its petition therefore must be dismissed makes it unnecessary for us to discuss the other issues raised therein. 18
PARAÑAQUE seasonably moved for its reconsideration. 19
On 18 October 1994, the Court of Appeals promulgated its challenged Amended Decision 20 which disposed as follows:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
WHEREFORE, the Court GRANTS petitioner’s motion for reconsideration dated 27 June 1994. We RECALL and SET ASIDE Our decision promulgated on May 31, 1994.
In lieu thereof, the Court GRANTS the petition for certiorari
and prohibition, hereby ANNULLING the order dated 11 November 1993, in Civil Case No. 93-1412 of the respondent Court, and permanently enjoining the respondent Court from further acting in said case, without prejudice to the final decision in the appeal. 21
In support thereof, it ratiocinated as follows:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
(8) It was not until January 4, 1994, that the trial court’s record was finally transmitted to this Court. The case is still undocketed (UDK 9504), for the reason that the appealing party has no yet paid the docketing and other legal fees. Moreover, the record is not yet complete in that certain transcripts of stenographic notes have not been submitted.
The foregoing circumstances indicate that, indeed, the filing of an appeal was an inadequate remedy, and that the continuance of the proceedings in the trial court would have been an oppressive exercise of authority, which this Court, as the appellate Court, could not have stopped for the reason that the case was then not yet elevated to it. In fact, it was not until about two and a half (2½) months from the filing of the notice of appeal, and about one and a half (1½) month after the filing of this case on November 22, 1993, that the record of the trial court was forwarded to this Court on appeal. Hence, the certification on non-forum shopping should be taken as technically correct.
x x x
What is more, appeal having been perfected, the trial court should not have ordered the execution of its order to eject the plaintiff from the subject property. Even then, there is still a question as to its jurisdiction over the subject matter of the case. The order dated November 11, 1993, was issued precipitately, and with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction. 22
Its motion for reconsideration 23 of the abovementioned Amended Decision having been denied on 16 February 1995, 24 PIRC filed this petition wherein it contends that the Court of Appeals erred in: (1) failing to dismiss PARAÑAQUE’s special civil action for certiorari
and prohibition on the ground of forum-shopping; (2) concluding that PARAÑAQUE could avail itself of the extraordinary remedy of certiorari
; and (3) ruling that the RTC issued the writ for the execution pending appeal of the order to vacate precipitately or with grave abuse of discretion.25cralaw:red
The subject of PARAÑAQUE’s petition for certiorari
(CA-G.R. SP No. 32672) was the annulment of the following: (1) the order of 17 August 1993 dismissing the complaint for expropriation filed by it; (2) the order of 22 October 1993 denying the motion for reconsideration of the order of dismissal and directing PARAÑAQUE to vacate the premises and to peacefully surrender the possession thereof to PIRC; and (3) the order of 16 November 1993 granting PIRC’s motion for the issuance of a writ of execution to implement the order to vacate.
It must be pointed out that the first two orders were the subject of the ordinary appeal interposed by PARAÑAQUE. It would appear from the language of Section 1, Rule 65 of the Rules of Court that the availability of the right to appeal precludes recourse to the special civil action for certiorari
. 26 However, it is settled, as a general proposition, that the availability of an appeal does not foreclose recourse to the extraordinary remedies, such as certiorari
and prohibition, where appeal is not adequate or equally beneficial, speedy and sufficient, 27 as where the orders of the trial court were issued in excess of or without jurisdiction; 28 or there is need to promptly relieve the aggrieved party from the injurious effects of the acts of an inferior court or tribunal, e.g., the court has authorized execution of the judgment. 29
Under the peculiar, nearly bizarre circumstances obtaining in this case, the inclusion of these two orders in the special civil action for certiorari
does not defeat the propriety nor viability of the special civil action for certiorari
solely on the ground of forum shopping. For one, the said special civil action primarily attacks the 16 November 1993 order for having been issued without or in excess of jurisdiction or with grave abuse of discretion. This order was not, and could not have been, the subject of the notice of appeal, as it was issued only nineteen days after the trial court had given due course to the appeal and ordered the transmittal of the entire case record to the Court of Appeals. At that time, PARAÑAQUE had no other available plain, speedy, and adequate remedy in the ordinary course of law against the order directing execution of the order to vacate, except a special civil action for certiorari
under Section 1, Rule 65 of the Rules of Court.
In this regard, an appeal was obviously inadequate as the trial court even unreasonably and unjustly delayed the transmittal of the case record to the Court of Appeals in connection with the appeal interposed against the orders of 17 August 1993 and 22 October 1993, despite the appellate court’s 29 October 1993 order for such transmittal. Moreover, the RTC initially transmitted an incomplete record on 4 January 1994, hence, the case remained undocketed — a fact disclosed by both the challenged Amended Decision and PARAÑAQUE’s Memorandum dated 8 December 1995. 30 This delay then provided PARAÑAQUE a valid reason to likewise challenge, in the same certiorari
proceeding, the orders of 17 August 1993 and 22 October 1993, which are inexorably linked to the 16 November 1993 order. As we see it, the trial court allowed itself to be privy to a scheme to obstruct the course of the ordinary appeal and to deprive PARAÑAQUE of its possession of the lots which it had obtained on 18 May 1993 after it had deposited the required amount which entitled it to immediate possession of the properties. Under this anomalous set of circumstances which the trial court itself created, we find no cogent reason to inflict upon PARAÑAQUE the extreme penalty for forum-shopping.
There can, however, be no question as to the trial court’s authority to act upon PIRC’s motion, filed within the period to appeal, for the issuance of a writ implementing the order to vacate issued on 22 October 1993. Such a motion cannot be characterized as anything but a motion for execution pending appeal, and pursuant to Section 2, Rule 39 of the Rules of Court, such may be filed before the expiration of the period to appeal, i.e., fifteen days counted from notice of the 22 October 1993 order. 31
An appeal from such order of execution of 22 October 1993 would be deemed perfected not by the filing of the notice to appeal by one party, but upon the expiration of the last day to appeal by any party. 32
According to PARAÑAQUE, its last day to file the Notice of Appeal was on 6 November 1993 as it received a copy of the 22 October 1993 order on the latter date. 33 Assuming that PIRC likewise received a copy of the 22 October 1993 order on the said date, its last day to appeal, if it were so minded, was also on 6 November 1993. Accordingly, although PARAÑAQUE filed its notice of appeal on 27 October 1993, that appeal was not yet perfected because PIRC had until 6 November 1993 to file its notice of appeal if it so desired. The legal effect of PARAÑAQUE’s filing its notice of appeal on 27 October 1993 was merely to render the clause, "upon the expiration of the last day to appeal by any party," 34 inapplicable to PARAÑAQUE, but not to PIRC. 35 PIRC may then, at any time before 6 November 1993, have filed a motion for a writ to implement the 22 October 1993 order to vacate.
It is settled that a court may take cognizance of a motion for execution pending appeal filed by a party within its period to appeal, 36 as the filing of an appeal by a losing party does not automatically divest the adverse party of the right to ask for execution pending appeal. 37 Thus, the trial court’s 29 October 1993 order giving due course to PARAÑAQUE’s appeal and for the transmittal of the record of the case to the Court of Appeals was inconsequential, 38 for, despite that, PIRC had the right to file a motion for the execution of the order to vacate on or before 6 November 1993, and the trial court could validly act thereon even after the expiration of the period to appeal or perfection of the appeal, but before the transmittal of the record of the case to the appellate court. 39
The remaining issue for resolution is whether the trial court acted in excess of jurisdiction or with grave abuse of discretion in granting the motion for a writ to implement the order to vacate. We agree with the Court of Appeals’ affirmative conclusion thereto, but not for the reasons relied upon.
Section 2, Rule 39 of the Rules of Court provides:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
Sec. 2. Execution pending appeal. — On motion of the prevailing party with notice to the adverse party, the court may in its discretion, order execution to issue before the expiration of the time to appeal, upon good reasons to be stated in a special order. If a record on appeal is filed thereafter, the motion and the special order shall be included therein.
Obviously, the execution of judgment pending appeal is an exception to the general rule and must, therefore, be strictly construed. 40 While the grant thereof is discretionary, the aforesaid Section 2 prescribes the following requisites for the valid exercise of the discretion: (a) there must be a motion by the prevailing party with notice to the adverse party; (b) there must be a good reason for execution pending appeal; and (c) the good reason must be stated in a special order. 41
Our examination of PIRC’s motion for the issuance of a writ implementing the order to vacate and the appointment of the special sheriff 42 shows that it contained no notice of hearing to PARAÑAQUE. The notice was a request directed to the Clerk of Court to submit the motion to the court for its consideration and approval "immediately upon receipt thereof," which reads, in full as follows:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
The Clerk of Court
Regional Trial Court
National Capital Judicial Region
Makati, Branch 133
Greetings:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
Please submit the foregoing motion for the consideration and approval of the Honorable Court immediately upon receipt hereof.
(Sgd.) Ma. Dolores T. Syquia
(Typ.) MA. DOLORES T. SYQUIA
A notice of hearing addressed to the Clerk of Court, and not to the parties, is no notice at all. Accordingly, a motion that does not contain a notice of hearing to the adverse party is nothing but a mere scrap of paper. 43 The Clerk of Court did not even have the duty to accept it, much more to bring it to the attention of the Presiding Judge. Yet, the former did. Worse, the latter not only gave it undue attention, forthwith — on the date the motion was filed — he issued an order giving PARAÑAQUE five days from receipt of the order within which to file its comment/opposition to the motion, after which the motion would be deemed submitted for resolution, with or without such comment/opposition.
By overlooking the mandatory rule on notice to the adverse party in Section 2, Rule 39 of the Rules of Court, a positive duty imposed upon the movant, and by according value to a mere scrap of paper by "curing" its fatal defect by means of the order to serve as notice to PARAÑAQUE, the trial court clearly acted with grave abuse of discretion.
Since the motion in question was a mere scrap of paper for want of mandatory notice, it must be deemed, for all legal intents and purposes, as if it were not filed; hence, it did not suspend the running of PIRC’s period to appeal. As stated earlier, a motion for execution pending appeal must be filed within the period to appeal. It follows that none was properly filed by PIRC and the trial court had nothing to validly act upon. When it did through its order of 16 November 1993, it was nothing short of grave abuse of discretion.
To these must be added the palpable absence of any good reason to justify execution pending appeal.
In the challenged order of 16 November 1993, the trial judge stated the following as the reasons:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
In the subject incident, defendant alleges and explains that "the continued possession of the Municipality of defendant’s property has caused and will continue to cause great damage to defendant." It is also to be mentioned that the takeover of the subject property by plaintiff was done pursuant to proceeding which was void, meaningless and ineffectual, considering that the court has not acquired jurisdiction over the subject matter thereof. These and the fact that the implementation of the Court’s order to vacate will not result to the loss of the plaintiff, as it will only restore the subject property to its status quo ante, are reasons that the court sees to be good enough to merit the granting of the relief prayed for. Nevertheless, the Court would impose an additional requirement that defendant should first post a bond before the writ prayed for should issue. 44
Good reasons that allow or justify execution pending appeal must be superior circumstances demanding urgency which will outweigh the injury or damage should the losing party secure a reversal of the judgment. 45
The above "reasons" relied upon by the trial court hardly qualify as "good." In the first place, PIRC did not offer any evidence to prove the "great damage" it alleged in its motion. Second, the issue of whether the trial court had jurisdiction over the expropriation case or whether the proceedings earlier had therein were "void, meaningless, and ineffectual" was the pivotal issue in the appeal interposed by PARAÑAQUE, and the trial court acted improperly in making such a sweeping pronouncement after it had already given due course to PARAÑAQUE’s appeal. Moreover, the case below is an expropriation case and PARAÑAQUE was placed in possession of the property as early as 18 May 1993 after it had deposited the required amount pursuant to Section 19 of the LGC. Public interest was clearly involved, thus prudence and utmost circumspection, instead of undue haste, should have guided the trial court away from capriciousness.
The bond in the amount of P1,000,000.00 which the trial court also required for execution of the order to vacate did not make up for the absence of any good reason for the execution pending appeal. It is settled that the filing of a bond cannot, by itself, entitle one to execution pending appeal. 46
WHEREFORE, for want of merit, the instant petition is hereby DENIED, with costs against the petitioner.
, Melo, Francisco and Panganiban, JJ.
1. Rollo, 56-59. Per Vidallon-Magtolis, D., J., with Gonzaga-Reyes, M., and Pardo, B., JJ., concurring.
2. Entitled "Municipality of Parañaque v. Provident International Resources, Inc.."cralaw virtua1aw library
3. The second proviso of Section 19, reads:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
Provided, further, That the local government unit may immediately take possession of the property upon the filing of the expropriation proceedings and upon making a deposit with the proper court of at least fifteen (15%) of the fair market value of the property based on the current tax declaration of the property to be expropriated.
4. Supra note 3.
5. Original Records (OR), CA-G.R. SP No. 32672, 5-7; Rollo, 43-47.
6. OR, CA-G.R. No. SP No. 32672, 33-35.
7. Id., 181-182.
8. Id., 183; Rollo, 160.
9. OR, CA-G.R. SP No. 32672, 184-188.
10. OR, CA-G.R. SP No. 32672, 189.
11. Id., 190-197.
12. Id., 453.
13. Id., 29-32.
14. OR, CA-G.R. SP No. 32672, 204.
15. Id., 650; Rollo, 58.
16. Rollo, 216.
17. Per Mendoza, V., Presiding Justice (now an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court), with Pardo, B., and Vidallon-Magtolis, D., JJ., concurring.
18. Rollo, 52.
19. OR, CA-G.R. No. 32672, 626-632.
20. Supra note 1.
21. Rollo, 59.
22. Rollo, 58-59.
23. OR, CA-G.R. SP No. 32672, 655-666.
24. Rollo, 132.
25. Id., 20-21.
26. See Destileria Limtuaco & Co., v. Intermediate Appellate Court, 157 SCRA 706, 714 .
27. Gavieres v. Falcis, 193 SCRA 649, 657-658 ; Hualam Construction and Dev’t. Corp. v. Court of Appeals, 214 SCRA 612, 628 ; Ruiz, Jr. v. Court of Appeals, 220 SCRA 490, 500 ; People v. Court of Appeals, 223 SCRA 479, 484-485 .
28. PNB v. Hon. Florendo, 206 SCRA 582, 589 .
29. PCGG v. Sandiganbayan, 210 SCRA 136, 149 .
30. Rollo, 216.
31. Section 39, B.P. Blg. 129.
32. Section 23, Interim Rules and Guidelines Implementing B.P. Blg. 129, provides:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
SEC. 23. Perfection of appeal. — In cases where appeal is taken, the perfection of the appeal shall be upon the expiration of the last day to appeal by any party.
In cases where a record on appeal is required the appeal is perfected upon approval thereof by the court which should be done within ten (10) days.
33. See Notice of Appeal, OR, CA-G.R. SP No. 32672, 181.
34. Supra note 32.
35. Abe Industries, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 162 SCRA 48, 50 . See also Ravelo v. Court of Appeals, 207 SCRA 254, 260 .
36. Eudela v. Court of Appeals, 211 SCRA 546, 550 .
37. Ong v. Court of Appeals, 203 SCRA 38, 40-42 ; Ravelo v. Court of Appeals, supra note 35, at 260-262.
38. See Valencia v. Court of Appeals, 184 SCRA 561 .
39. Echaus v. Court of Appeals, 187 SCRA 762, 681 , citing Universal Far East Corp. v. Court of Appeals, 131 SCRA 642 .
40. City of Manila v. Court of Appeals, 204 SCRA 362, 367 .
41. Engineering Construction, Inc. v. National Power Corp., 163 SCRA 9, 15-16 ; Eudela v. Court of Appeals, supra note 36, at 551.
42. OR, G.R. SP No. 32672, 184-188.
43. Bank of the Philippine Islands v. Far East Molasses Corp., 198 SCRA 689, 689-699 ; Prado v. Veridiano II, 204 SCRA 654, 667 ; Del Castillo v. Aguinaldo, 212 SCRA 169, 174 ; Goldloop Properties, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 212 SCRA 498, 504 ; Marcos v. Ruiz, 213 SCRA 177, 191-192 .
44. OR, 31.
45. Jaca v. Davao Lumber Co., 113 SCRA 107, 121 ; Roxas v. Court of Appeals, 157 SCRA 370, 377 .
46. Roxas v. Court of Appeals, supra note 45, at 377-378; Eudela v. Court of Appeals, supra note 36, at 551.