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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
July-1997 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. 96649-50 July 1, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LYNDON V. MACOY

  • G.R. No. 109660 July 1, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMEO NELL

  • G.R. No. 124914 July 2, 1997 - JESUS UGADDAN v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123074 July 4, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FERNANDO M. FERNANDEZ

  • Adm. Matter No. MTJ-94-1017 July 7, 1997 - OSCAR B. LAMBINO v. AMADO A. DE VERA

  • Adm. Matter No. P-97-1245 July 7, 1997 - BENIGNO G. GAVIOLA v. NOEL NAVARETTE

  • G.R. No. 105760 July 7, 1997 - PNB v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 107193 July 7, 1997 - EUGENIO TENEBRO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 112006 July 7, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROBERTO S. DE VERA

  • G.R. No. 114275 July 7, 1997 - IÑIGO F. CARLET v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116962 July 7, 1997 - MARIA SOCORRO CACA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 118940-41 & 119407 July 7, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. GREGORIO MEJIA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119872 July 7, 1997 - REMEDIOS NAVOA RAMOS v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122206 July 7, 1997 - RAFAEL ARCEGA, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 105284 July 8, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. IGNACIO ZUMIL

  • G.R. No. 106099 July 8, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. AGUSTIN SOTTO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 109814 July 8, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FERNANDO MAALAT

  • G.R. No. 112797 July 8, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. NIDA ALEGRO

  • G.R. No. 114265 July 8, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. GREGORIO MAGALLANES

  • G.R. No. 115307 July 8, 1997 - MANUEL LAO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 115703 July 8, 1997 - EPIFANIO L. CASOLITA, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 117501 July 8, 1997 - SOLID HOMES, INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122308 July 8, 1997 - PURITA S. MAPA, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. SC-96-1 July 10, 1997 - DAMASO S. FLORES v. BERNARDO P. ABESAMIS

  • Adm. Matter No. P-97-1236 July 11, 1997 - MADONNA MACALUA v. DOMINGO TIU, JR.

  • Adm. Matter No. P-97-1249 July 11, 1997 - PACITA SY TORRES v. FROILAN S. CABLING

  • G.R. No. 104865 July 11, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. VICTORIANO PONTILAR, JR.

  • G.R. Nos. 113511-12 July 11, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DANILO SINOC

  • G.R. No. 115033 July 11, 1997 - PONCIANO T. MATANGUIHAN, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123204 July 11, 1997 - NATIONWIDE SECURITY AND ALLIED SERVICES, INC. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. P-95-1158 July 14, 1997 - EUFEMIA BERCASIO v. HERBERTO BENITO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 106153 July 14, 1997 - FLORENCIO G. BERNARDO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 108838 July 14, 1997 - PAGCOR v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 116528-31 July 14, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MARIETO ADORA

  • G.R. No. 108492 July 15, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. NOEL BANIEL, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118078 July 15, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. OSCAR VILLANUEVA

  • G.R. No. 123379 July 15, 1997 - BAROTAC SUGAR MILLS, INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 115439-41 July 16, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 120437-41 July 16, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ARMANDO ALVARIO

  • Adm. Matter No. RTJ-97-1382 July 17, 1997 - REXEL M. PACURIBOT v. RODRIGO F. LIM, JR.

  • G.R. No. 105002 July 17, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DIARANGAN DANSAL

  • G.R. No. 108634 July 17, 1997 - ANTONIO P. TAN v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111165 July 17, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROGELIO MERCADO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113257 July 17, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JOHNNY LASCOTA

  • G.R. No. 114742 July 17, 1997 - CARLITOS E. SILVA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118860 July 17, 1997 - ROLINDA B. PONO v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120262 July 17, 1997 - PAL, INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125195 July 17, 1997 - SAMAHAN NG MGA MANGGAGAWA SA BANDOLINO, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. RTJ-96-1362 July 18, 1997 - DSWD, ET AL. v. ANTONIO M. BELEN, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. RTJ-95-1283 July 21, 1997 - DAVID C. NAVAL, ET AL. v. JOSE R. PANDAY, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 108488 July 21, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RODENCIO NARCA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111002 July 21, 1997 - PACIFIC MARITIME SERVICES, INC., ET AL. v. NICANOR RANAY, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 117402 July 21, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROLLIE L. ALVARADO

  • G.R. No. 119184 July 21, 1997 - HEIRS OF FELICIDAD CANQUE v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121768 July 21, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DOMINGO CASTILLO, JR.

  • G.R. Nos. 122250 & 122258 July 21, 1997 - EDGARDO C. NOLASCO v. COMELEC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 124347 July 21, 1997 - CMS STOCK BROKERAGE, INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125510 July 21, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RENATO LISING

  • G.R. No. 111933 July 23, 1997 - PLDT v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 112429-30 July 23, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RODOLFO P. CAYETANO

  • G.R. Nos. 118736-37 July 23, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. TANG WAI LAN

  • Adm. Matter No. P-96-1205 July 24, 1997 - OSCAR P. DE LOS REYES v. ESTEBAN H. ERISPE, JR.

  • Adm. Matter No. RTJ-97-1383 July 24, 1997 - JOSE LAGATIC v. JOSE PEÑAS, JR., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 104663 July 24, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DAVID SALVATIERRA

  • G.R. No. 105004 July 24, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DIONISIO MAROLLANO

  • G.R. No. 107723 July 24, 1997 - EMS MANPOWER & PLACEMENT SERVICES v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111211 July 24, 1997 - ABS-CBN EMPLOYEES UNION, ET AL., v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113235 July 24, 1997 - VICTORINA MEDINA, ET AL. v. CITY SHERIFF, MANILA, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 113366-68 July 24, 1997 - GREGORIO ISABELO, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116635 July 24, 1997 - CONCHITA NOOL, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116736 July 24, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. BENJAMIN ORTEGA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118458 July 24, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RICKY DELA CRUZ

  • G.R. No. 120276 July 24, 1997 - SINGA SHIP MANAGEMENT PHILS., INC. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121075 July 24, 1997 - DELTA MOTORS CORP. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121867 July 24, 1997 - SMITH KLINE & FRENCH LAB., LTD. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 127262 July 24, 1997 - HUBERT WEBB, ET AL. v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL., ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter Nos. 95-6-55-MTC & P-96-1173 July 28, 1997 - REPORT ON AUDIT IN THE MTC OF PEÑARANDA, NUEVA ECIJA

  • G.R. No. 102858 July 28, 1997 - DIRECTOR OF LANDS v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 103209 July 28, 1997 - APOLONIO BONDOC, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 110823 July 28, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROCHEL TRAVERO

  • G.R. No. 112323 July 28, 1997 - HELPMATE, INC. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113344 July 28, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ATANACIO LUTO

  • G.R. No. 116668 July 28, 1997 - ERLINDA A. AGAPAY v. CARLINA V. PALANG, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116726 July 28, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LEONARDO P. DE LA CRUZ

  • G.R. No. 118822 July 28, 1997 - G.O.A.L., INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119000 July 28, 1997 - ROSA UY v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119649 July 28, 1997 - RICKY GALICIA, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119868 July 28, 1997 - PAL, INC. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120072 July 28, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FLORENTINO I. MESA

  • G.R. No. 123361 July 28, 1997 - TEOFILO CACHO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 126556 July 28, 1997 - NELSON C. DAVID v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 117742 July 29, 1997 - GEORGE M. TABERRAH v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • SBC Case No. 519 July 31, 1997 - PATRICIA FIGUEROA v. SIMEON BARRANCO, JR.

  • G.R. No. 97369 July 31, 1997 - P.I. MANPOWER PLACEMENTS, INC. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 99030 July 31, 1997 - PLDT v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 106582 July 31, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RUPERTO BALDERAS

  • G.R. No. 107802 July 31, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JASON NAREDO

  • G.R. No. 108399 July 31, 1997 - RAFAEL M. ALUNAN III, ET AL. v. ROBERT MIRASOL, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 108619 July 31, 1997 - EPIFANIO LALICAN v. FILOMENO A. VERGARA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113689 July 31, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FELIPE SANGIL, SR.

  • G.R. No. 113958 July 31, 1997 - BANANA GROWERS COLLECTIVE, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116060 July 31, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. CLEMENTE DE LA PEÑA

  • G.R. No. 116292 July 31, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JIMMY PEÑERO

  • G.R. No. 119068 July 31, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DANTE CASTRO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121027 July 31, 1997 - CORAZON DEZOLLER TISON, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121157 July 31, 1997 - HEIRS OF SEGUNDA MANINGDING, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123561 July 31, 1997 - DELIA R. NERVES v. CSC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 124678 July 31, 1997 - DELIA BANGALISAN, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  •  





     
     

    G.R. No. 116726   July 28, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LEONARDO P. DE LA CRUZ

     
    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    FIRST DIVISION

    [G.R. No. 116726. July 28, 1997.]

    PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. LEONARDO P. DE LA CRUZ, Accused-Appellant.

    The Solicitor General for Plaintiff-Appellee.

    Public Attorney’s Office for Accused-Appellant.

    SYNOPSIS


    Appellant Leonardo Dela Cruz was charged with parricide before the Regional Trial Court of Pampanga for having had beaten his wife to death. He was found guilty as charged and sentenced to Reclusion Perpetua and to indemnify her heirs for P50,000.00 and to pay the costs. The lower court justified its decision based on the testimony of the accused daughter Annabelle, as well as to the medical findings. On appeal to the Supreme Court, herein accused assails the credibility of his daughter.

    The Supreme Court ruled that the conclusion drawn by appellant from the particular testimony of his daughter is misleading. Contrary to the protestation of appellant, the place of the incident was sufficiently illumined as to enable his daughter to witness and recount her mother’s ordeal in the hands of her father. Additionally, there was no reason for Annabelle to fabricate charges against her own father. Moreover, his daughter’s testimony was strengthened by the post-mortem findings. In view of the foregoing, the decision appealed is affirmed.


    SYLLABUS


    REMEDIAL LAW; EVIDENCE; CREDIBILITY OF WITNESSES; AMPLE MARGIN OF ERROR AND UNDERSTANDING SHOULD BE ACCORDED TO YOUNG WITNESSES WHO, MUCH MORE THAN ADULTS, WOULD BE GRIPPED WITH TENSION DUE TO THE NOVELTY OF THE EXPERIENCE OF TESTIFYING BEFORE A COURT. — Annabelle may have supplied unresponsive answers to some questions; yet a child of tender aye cannot be expected to understand every question asked of her in the course of examination. Ample margin of error and understanding should he accorded to young witnesses who, much more than adults, would be gripped with tension due to the novelty of the experience of testifying before a court. With regard to the competence of a child to testify, the decision on this question rests primarily with the trial judge who sees the proposed witness, notices his manner, his apparent possession or lack of intelligence, as well as his understanding of the obligation of an oath. As many of his manners cannot be photographed into the record, the decision of the trial judge will not be disturbed on review unless from what is preserved, it is clear that it was erroneous. It was not so in the case at bench. Moreover, there was no reason for Annabelle to fabricate charges against her own father. Clearly, appellant’s guilt has been established beyond reasonable doubt.


    D E C I S I O N


    BELLOSILLO, J.:


    LEONARDO P. DE LA CRUZ was charged with parricide before the Regional Trial Court of Pampanga for having beaten his wife to death. 1 He was found guilty as charged and sentenced to reclusion perpetua, to indemnify her heirs in the amount of P50,000.00, and to pay the costs. 2

    The facts: At around eight o’clock in the evening of 12 September 1991 Leonardo P. de la Cruz arrived home from the birthday party of a friend where they had a drinking spree. He was met by his three (3) children and wife Violeta Tulud who served him dinner. After eating, he confronted Violeta, "I heard you have a lover." Her vehement denial led to a violent quarrel between husband and wife. Leonardo boxed and slapped Violeta. Their children could only cry like helpless spectators. She went down the house and ran out to the field. Leonardo pursued her. He overtook her some three (3) to four (4) meters away from their house. With both hands he pushed her head hard against the ground and fractured her skull. Annabelle witnessed this incident through their window. Violeta then returned to their house and lay down on the papag. 3 She asked her son Mac-Mac for a glass of water. A few minutes later she died.

    After midnight, Violeta’s mother Lourdes was fetched by a brother of Leonardo and brought to the house of their mother where Violeta’s children were crying over the lifeless body of their mother. Annabelle, 8-year old daughter of Violeta and Leonardo, narrated to her grandmother that her father killed her mother. The information shocked Lourdes and she lost consciousness.

    The following morning the Municipal Health Officer autopsied the victim. The examination disclosed these findings —

    Head: Hematoma measuring 1-1/2 x 1/2 cm. at the outer brim of the left eyebrow; abrasions measuring 3 x 1-1/2 cm., 2 x 1/2 cm. and 2 x 1/2 cm., left side of the face. Nose: Presence of blood clots on both nostrils. Neck: Fracture at the base of the skull, on examination the head rotates. Extremities: Abrasion measuring 3 x 1 cm. at extensor surface of right forearm. Hematoma measuring 1/2 x 1/2 cm. at the upper 1/3 of left thigh and 1 x 1/2 on the leg, middle portion. Cause of Death: Internal hemorrhage secondary to fracture, base of the skull. Approximate Date of Death: Sept. 13, 1991, between 12-1 A.M. 4

    The accused admitted that he confronted his wife that evening regarding her infidelity and slapped her once. She then went out of their house and ran away. As he was about to step down from the house to follow her she stumbled and fell face up on the earth dike. Intending to slap her again he approached her but desisted because she was crying. He also cried and then returned to their house without assisting her. Afterwards he saw her crawling her way back to their house. He went to the house of his mother. When he returned home he informed his wife of his decision to leave her with their children. She suddenly stood up and trembled. He gave her a glass of water. He noticed that she had difficulty swallowing so he rushed her to the hospital. But it was an effort in futility because she was pronounced dead on arrival.

    As aforesaid, the trial court found the accused liable for the death of his wife based on the testimony of their daughter Annabelle as well as the medical findings. Thus —

    . . . The testimony of the only eyewitness, the couple’s 8-year old first grader daughter Annabelle, was telling. She did not say so in so many words, but when she told her grandmother when asked about the circumstances of her mother’s death, that her parents had quarrelled and that her father had killed her mother she in effect said everything that needed to be said. The things that she left unsaid reveal far more than what she said. When she testified that her father "dikduk(ed)" her mother’s face to the ground, she must have tried to convey that accused dashed the victim’s head to the ground with such force as to cause the neck to snap and be wrenched from its base such that, as found by the doctor who examined the body, the neck was broken and the head could be rotated full circle. The girl’s young and immature mind could not have concocted or made up such a story even if she were so minded.

    The number and nature of the injuries sustained by the victim give the lie to the claim of the accused that she died because of an accidental fall. If she had merely tripped and fell as she ran away from him, as he claimed in court or fell from their house to the ground after he had slapped and boxed her as he stated in his statement Exhibit "F" given before the chief investigator of the Lubao PNP, the body would have (borne) only a lump in the head and none of the other injuries. The number and nature of the injuries instead support the prosecution version of the incident. 5chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

    Appellant now assails that credibility of his daughter Annabelle. According to him Annabelle could not have witnessed the incident in the field because of her testimony that although there was light on the electric post it could not reach the place of the incident so much so that some of her answers to the questions propounded by the prosecutor were vague.

    The conclusion drawn by appellant from the particular testimony of Annabelle is misleading. She testified that the light on the electric post could not reach or light their house; 6 nowhere in her testimony did she mention that it could not reach or light the place of the incident. Thus, contrary to the protestation of appellant, the place of the incident was sufficiently illumined as to enable Annabelle to witness and recount her mother’s ordeal in the hands of her father —

    Q. Will you please tell us what your father did to your mother, Violeta Tulud on that date?

    A. Pemugbug ne pu.

    Q. When you said "pemugbug ne pu" do I gather from statement of yours that your father mauled your mother?

    A. Yes, sir.

    Q. When your father mauled your mother, what happened to your mother?

    A. She ran away, sir.

    Q. Where did your mother go when she ran away?

    A. In the field, sir.

    Q. Did your father Leonardo de la Cruz follow your mother?

    A. Yes, sir,

    Q. Can you tell us what your mother did to your father in the field? (sic)

    A. Dikduk ne pu (he pushed her head to the ground). 7

    Indeed, her narration was clear and spontaneous. She was even asked on cross-examination to demonstrate how her father pushed down her mother’s head and without hesitation she answered —

    A. By pushing both his hands downward, sir. 8

    She was also asked regarding the position of her mother at that time and her quick response was —

    A. She was lying face down, Sir. 9

    The above testimonies were even strengthened by the postmortem findings. The examining physician explained that the hematoma on the outer brim of the left eyebrow of the victim could have been caused by a fall. 10 The three (3) abrasions on the left side of her face could have been brought about through friction, force on materials or rough surface or by hitting something hard. 11 The abrasion on the extensor surface of the right forearm could have been brought about by the rubbing of the skin against hard or rough objects. 12 Both testimonial and documentary evidence of the prosecution thus effectively destroyed the claim of appellant that the victim stumbled by herself and fell face up on the earth dike.chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

    Annabelle may have supplied unresponsive answers to some questions; yet a child of tender age cannot be expected to understand every question asked of her in the course of examination. Ample margin of error and understanding should be accorded to young witnesses who, much more than adults, would be gripped with tension due to the novelty of the experience of testifying before a court. 13

    With regard to the competence of a child to testify, the decision on this question rests primarily with the trial judge who sees the proposed witness, notices his manner, his apparent possession or lack of intelligence, as well as his understanding of the obligation of an oath. As many of his manners cannot be photographed into the record, the decision of the trial judge will not be disturbed on review unless from what is preserved, it is clear that it was erroneous. It was not so in the case at bench. 14 Moreover, there was no reason for Annabelle to fabricate charges against her own father. Clearly, appellant’s guilt has been established beyond reasonable doubt.

    WHEREFORE, the decision appealed from convicting LEONARDO P. DE LA CRUZ of parricide and sentencing him to reclusion perpetua and to indemnify the heirs of Violeta Tulud P50,000.00 plus costs is AFFIRMED.

    SO ORDERED.

    Padilla and Vitug, JJ., concur.

    Kapunan and Hermosisima, Jr., JJ., are on leave.

    Endnotes:



    1. Information, 8 October 1991; Rollo, p. 16.

    2. Decision penned by Judge Cesar P. Javier, RTC — Br. 49, San Fernando, Pampanga; Rollo, p. 22.

    3. An improvised bamboo bench.

    4. Exh. "B;" Folder of Exhibits, p. 3.

    5. Rollo, pp. 21-22.

    6. TSN, 5 March 1992, p. 3.

    7. TSN, 30 January 1992, p. 4.

    8. TSN, 5 March 1992, p. 5.

    9. Ibid.

    10. TSN, 2 June 1992, p. 4.

    11. Id., p. 5.

    12. Id., p. 7.

    13. People v. Salazar, G.R. No. 84391, 7 April 1993, 221 SCRA 170.

    14. People v. Libungan, G.R. No. 102351, 22 March 1993, 220 SCRA 315.

    G.R. No. 116726   July 28, 1997 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LEONARDO P. DE LA CRUZ


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