Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence


Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence > Year 1998 > September 1998 Decisions > G.R. No. 131166 September 30, 1998 - CALTEX (PHIL.) v. SULPICIO LINES, ET AL.:




PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

FIRST DIVISION

[G.R. No. 131166. September 30, 1999.]

CALTEX (PHILIPPINES), INC., Petitioner, v. SULPICIO LINES, INC., GO SIOC SO, ENRIQUE S. GO, EUSEBIO S. GO, CARLOS S. GO, VICTORIANO S. GO, DOMINADOR S. GO, RICARDO S. GO, EDWARD S. GO, ARTURO S. GO, EDGAR S. GO, EDMUND S. GO, FRANCISCO SORIANO, VECTOR SHIPPING CORPORATION, TERESITA G. CAÑEZAL AND SOTERA E. CAÑEZAL, Respondents.


D E C I S I O N


PARDO, J.:


Is the charterer of a sea vessel liable for damages resulting from a collision between the chartered vessel and a passenger ship?chanrobles virtual lawlibrary

When MT Vector left the port of Limay, Bataan, on December 19, 1987 carrying petroleum products of Caltex (Philippines), Inc. (hereinafter Caltex) no one could have guessed that it would collide with MV Doña Paz, killing almost all the passengers and crew members of both ships, and thus resulting in one of the country’s worst maritime disasters.

The petition before us seeks to reverse the Court of Appeals decision 1 holding petitioner jointly liable with the operator of MT Vector for damages when the latter collided with Sulpicio Lines, Inc.’s passenger ship MV Doña Paz.

The facts are as follows:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

On December 19, 1987, motor tanker MT Vector left Limay, Bataan, at about 8:00 p.m., enroute to Masbate, loaded with 8,800 barrels of petroleum products shipped by petitioner Caltex. 2 MT Vector is a tramping motor tanker owned and operated by Vector Shipping Corporation, engaged in the business of transporting fuel products such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel and crude oil. During that particular voyage, the MT Vector carried on board gasoline and other oil products owned by Caltex by virtue of a charter contract between them. 3

On December 20, 1987, at about 6:30 a.m., the passenger ship MV Doña Paz left the port of Tacloban headed for Manila with a complement of 59 crew members including the master and his officers, and passengers totaling 1,493 as indicated in the Coast Guard Clearance. 4 The MV Doña Paz is a passenger and cargo vessel owned and operated by Sulpicio Lines, Inc. plying the route of Manila/ Tacloban/ Catbalogan/ Manila/ Catbalogan/ Tacloban/ Manila, making trips twice a week.

At about 10:30 p.m. of December 20, 1987, the two vessels collided in the open sea within the vicinity of Dumali Point between Marinduque and Oriental Mindoro. All the crewmembers of MV Doña Paz died, while the two survivors from MT Vector claimed that they were sleeping at the time of the incident.

The MV Doña Paz carried an estimated 4,000 passengers; many indeed, were not in the passenger manifest. Only 24 survived the tragedy after having been rescued from the burning waters by vessels that responded to distress calls. 5 Among those who perished were public school teacher Sebastian Cañezal (47 years old) and his daughter Corazon Cañezal (11 years old), both unmanifested passengers but proved to be on board the vessel.

On March 22, 1988, the board of marine inquiry in BMI Case No. 653-87 after investigation found that the MT Vector, its registered operator Francisco Soriano, and its owner and actual operator Vector Shipping Corporation, were at fault and responsible for its collision with MV Doña Paz. 6

On February 13, 1989, Teresita Cañezal and Sotera E. Cañezal, Sebastian Cañezal’s wife and mother respectively, filed with the Regional Trial Court, Branch 8, Manila, a complaint for "Damages Arising from Breach of Contract of Carriage" against Sulpicio Lines, Inc. (hereafter Sulpicio). Sulpicio, in turn, filed a third party complaint against Francisco Soriano, Vector Shipping Corporation and Caltex (Philippines), Inc. Sulpicio alleged that Caltex chartered MT Vector with gross and evident bad faith knowing fully well that MT Vector was improperly manned, ill-equipped, unseaworthy and a hazard to safe navigation; as a result, it rammed against MV Doña Paz in the open sea setting MT Vector’s highly flammable cargo ablaze.chanrobles lawlibrary : rednad

On September 15, 1992, the trial court rendered decision dismissing the third party complaint against petitioner. The dispositive portion reads:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"WHEREFORE, judgment is hereby rendered in favor of plaintiffs and against defendant-3rd party plaintiff Sulpicio Lines, Inc., to wit:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"1. For the death of Sebastian E. Cañezal and his 11-year old daughter Corazon G. Cañezal, including loss of future earnings of said Sebastian, moral and exemplary damages, attorney’s fees, in the total amount of P 1,241,287.44 and finally;

"2. The statutory costs of the proceedings.

"Likewise, the 3rd party complaint is hereby DISMISSED for want of substantiation and with costs against the 3rd party plaintiff.

"IT IS SO ORDERED.

"DONE IN MANILA, this 15th day of September 1992.

"ARSENIO M. GONONG

"Judge" 7

On appeal to the Court of Appeals interposed by Sulpicio Lines, Inc., on April 15, 1997, the Court of Appeal modified the trial court’s ruling and included petitioner Caltex as one of the those liable for damages. Thus:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"WHEREFORE, in view of all the foregoing, the judgment rendered by the Regional Trial Court is hereby MODIFIED as follows:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"WHEREFORE, defendant Sulpicio Lines, Inc., is ordered to pay the heirs of Sebastian E. Cañezal and Corazon Cañezal:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"1. Compensatory damages for the death of Sebastian E. Cañezal and Corazon Cañezal the total amount of ONE HUNDRED THOUSAND PESOS (P100,000);

"2. Compensatory damages representing the unearned income of Sebastian E. Cañezal, in the total amount of THREE HUNDRED SIX THOUSAND FOUR HUNDRED EIGHTY (P306,480.00) PESOS;

"3. Moral damages in the amount of THREE HUNDRED THOUSAND PESOS (P 300,000.00);

"4. Attorney’s fees in the concept of actual damages in the amount of FIFTY THOUSAND PESOS (P 50,000.00);

"5. Costs of the suit.

"Third party defendants Vector Shipping Co. and Caltex (Phils.), Inc. are held equally liable under the third party complaint to reimburse/indemnify defendant Sulpicio Lines, Inc. of the above-mentioned damages, attorney’s fees and costs which the latter is adjudged to pay plaintiffs, the same to be shared half by Vector Shipping Co. (being the vessel at fault for the collision) and the other half by Caltex (Phils.), Inc. (being the charterer that negligently caused the shipping of combustible cargo aboard an unseaworthy vessel).

"SO ORDERED.

"JORGE S. IMPERIAL

"Associate Justice

"WE CONCUR:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"RAMON U. MABUTAS. JR. PORTIA ALIÑO HERMACHUELOS

"Associate Justice Associate Justice" 8

Hence, this petition.

We find the petition meritorious.

First: The charterer has no liability for damages under Philippine Maritime laws.

The respective rights and duties of a shipper and the carrier depends not on whether the carrier is public or private, but on whether the contract of carriage is a bill of lading or equivalent shipping documents on the one hand, or a charter party or similar contract on the other. 9

Petitioner and Vector entered into a contract of affreightment, also known as a voyage charter. 10

A charter party is a contract by which an entire ship, or some principal part thereof, is let by the owner to another person for a specified time or use; a contract of affreightment is one by which the owner of a ship or other vessel lets the whole or part of her to a merchant or other person for the conveyance of goods, on a particular voyage, in consideration of the payment of freight. 11

A contract of affreightment may be either time charter, wherein the leased vessel is leased to the charterer for a fixed period of time, or voyage charter, wherein the ship is leased for a single voyage. In both cases, the charter-party provides for the hire of the vessel only, either for a determinate period of time or for a single or consecutive voyage, the ship owner to supply the ship’s store, pay for the wages of the master of the crew, and defray the expenses for the maintenance of the ship. 12

Under a demise or bareboat charter on the other hand, the charterer mans the vessel with his own people and becomes, in effect, the owner for the voyage or service stipulated, subject to liability for damages caused by negligence.chanrobles.com.ph : virtual law library

If the charter is a contract of affreightment, which leaves the general owner in possession of the ship as owner for the voyage, the rights and the responsibilities of ownership rest on the owner. The charterer is free from liability to third persons in respect of the ship. 13

Second: MT Vector is a common carrier

Charter parties fall into three main categories: (1) Demise or bareboat, (2) time charter, (3) voyage charter. Does a charter party agreement turn the common carrier into a private one? We need to answer this question in order to shed light on the responsibilities of the parties.

In this case, the charter party agreement did not convert the common carrier into a private carrier. The parties entered into a voyage charter, which retains the character of the vessel as a common carrier.

In Planters Products, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 14 we said:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"It is therefore imperative that a public carrier shall remain as such, notwithstanding the charter of the whole or portion of a vessel by one or more persons, provided the charter is limited to the ship only, as in the case of a time-charter or voyage charter. It is only when the charter includes both the vessel and its crew, as in a bareboat or demise that a common carrier becomes private, at least insofar as the particular voyage covering the charter-party is concerned. Indubitably, a ship-owner in a time or voyage charter retains possession and control of the ship, although her holds may, for the moment, be the property of the charterer."cralaw virtua1aw library

Later, we ruled in Coastwise Lighterage Corporation v. Court of Appeals: 15

"Although a charter party may transform a common carrier into a private one, the same however is not true in a contract of affreightment . . ."cralaw virtua1aw library

A common carrier is a person or corporation whose regular business is to carry passengers or property for all persons who may choose to employ and to remunerate him. 16 MT Vector fits the definition of a common carrier under Article 1732 of the Civil Code. In Guzman v. Court of Appeals, 17 we ruled:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"The Civil Code defines "common carriers" in the following terms:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"ARTICLE 1732. Common carriers are persons, corporations, firms or associations engaged in the business of carrying or transporting passengers for passengers or goods or both, by land, water, or air for compensation, offering their services to the public."cralaw virtua1aw library

"The above article makes no distinction between one whose principal business activity is the carrying of persons or goods or both, and one who does such carrying only as an ancillary activity (in local idiom, as "a sideline"). Article 1732 also carefully avoids making any distinction between a person or enterprise offering transportation service on a regular or scheduled basis and one offering such services on a an occasional, episodic or unscheduled basis. Neither does Article 1732 distinguish between a carrier offering its services to the "general public," i.e., the general community or population, and one who offers services or solicits business only from a narrow segment of the general population. We think that Article 1733 deliberately refrained from making such distinctions.chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

"It appears to the Court that private respondent is properly characterized as a common carrier even though he merely "back-hauled" goods for other merchants from Manila to Pangasinan, although such backhauling was done on a periodic, occasional rather than regular or scheduled manner, and even though respondent’s principal occupation was not the carriage of goods for others. There is no dispute that private respondent charged his customers a fee for hauling their goods; that the fee frequently fell below commercial freight rates is not relevant here."cralaw virtua1aw library

Under the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

SECTION 3. (1) The carrier shall be bound before and at the beginning of the voyage to exercise due diligence to —

(a) Make the ship seaworthy;

(b) Properly man, equip, and supply the ship;

x       x       x


Thus, the carriers are deemed to warrant impliedly the seaworthiness of the ship. For a vessel to be seaworthy, it must be adequately equipped for the voyage and manned with a sufficient number of competent officers and crew. The failure of a common carrier to maintain in seaworthy condition the vessel involved in its contract of carriage is a clear breach of its duty prescribed in Article 1755 of the Civil Code. 18

The provisions owed their conception to the nature of the business of common carriers. This business is impressed with a special public duty. The public must of necessity rely on the care and skill of common carriers in the vigilance over the goods and safety of the passengers, especially because with the modern development of science and invention, transportation has become more rapid, more complicated and somehow more hazardous. 19 For these reasons, a passenger or a shipper of goods is under no obligation to conduct an inspection of the ship and its crew, the carrier being obliged by law to impliedly warrant its seaworthiness.

This aside, we now rule on whether Caltex is liable for damages under the Civil Code.

Third: Is Caltex liable for damages under the Civil Code?

We rule that it is not.

Sulpicio argues that Caltex negligently shipped its highly combustible fuel cargo aboard an unseaworthy vessel such as the MT Vector when Caltex:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

1. Did not take steps to have M/T Vector’s certificate of inspection and coastwise license renewed;

2. Proceeded to ship its cargo despite defects found by Mr. Carlos Tan of Bataan Refinery Corporation;

3. Witnessed M/T Vector submitting fake documents and certificates to the Philippine Coast Guard.

Sulpicio further argues that Caltex chose MT Vector to transport its cargo despite these deficiencies:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

1. The master of M/T Vector did not possess the required Chief Mate license to command and navigate the vessel;

2. The second mate, Ronaldo Tarife, had the license of a Minor Patron, authorized to navigate only in bays and rivers when the subject collision occurred in the open sea;

3. The Chief Engineer, Filoteo Aguas, had no license to operate the engine of the vessel;

4. The vessel did not have a Third Mate, a radio operator and a lookout; and

5. The vessel had a defective main engine. 20

As basis for the liability of Caltex, the Court of Appeals relied on Articles 20 and 2176 of the Civil Code, which provide:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"ARTICLE 20. Every person who contrary to law, willfully or negligently causes damage to another, shall indemnify the latter for the same.

"ARTICLE 2176. Whoever by act or omission causes damage to another, there being fault or negligence, is obliged to pay for the damage done. Such fault or negligence, if there is no pre-existing contractual relation between the parties, is called a quasi-delict and is governed by the provisions of this Chapter."cralaw virtua1aw library

And what is negligence?

The Civil Code provides:chanrobles virtual lawlibrary

"ARTICLE 1173. The fault or negligence of the obligor consists in the omission of that diligence which is required by the nature of the obligation and corresponds with the circumstances of the persons, of the time and of the place. When negligence shows bad faith, the provisions of Article 1171 and 2201 paragraph 2, shall apply.

If the law does not state the diligence which is to be observed in the performance, that which is expected of a good father of a family shall be required."cralaw virtua1aw library

In Southeastern College, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 21 we said that negligence, as commonly understood, is conduct which naturally or reasonably creates undue risk or harm to others. It may be the failure to observe that degree of care, precaution, and vigilance, which the circumstances justly demand, or the omission to do something which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs, would do.

The charterer of a vessel has no obligation before transporting its cargo to ensure that the vessel it chartered complied with all legal requirements. The duty rests upon the common carrier simply for being engaged in "public service." 22 The Civil Code demands diligence which is required by the nature of the obligation and that which corresponds with the circumstances of the persons, the time and the place. Hence, considering the nature of the obligation between Caltex and MT Vector, the liability as found by the Court of Appeals is without basis.

The relationship between the parties in this case is governed by special laws. Because of the implied warranty of seaworthiness, 23 shippers of goods, when transacting with common carriers, are not expected to inquire into the vessel’s seaworthiness, genuineness of its licenses and compliance with all maritime laws. To demand more from shippers and hold them liable in case of failure exhibits nothing but the futility of our maritime laws insofar as the protection of the public in general is concerned. By the same token, we cannot expect passengers to inquire every time they board a common carrier, whether the carrier possesses the necessary papers or that all the carrier’s employees are qualified. Such a practice would be an absurdity in a business where time is always of the essence. Considering the nature of transportation business, passengers and shippers alike customarily presume that common carriers possess all the legal requisites in its operation.

Thus, the nature of the obligation of Caltex demands ordinary diligence like any other shipper in shipping his cargoes.

A cursory reading of the records convinces us that Caltex had reasons to believe that MT Vector could legally transport cargo that time of the year.

"Atty. Poblador: Mr. Witness, I direct your attention to this portion here containing the entries here under "VESSEL’S DOCUMENTS

1. Certificate of Inspection No. 1290-85, issued December 21, 1986, and Expires December 7, 1987", Mr. Witness, what steps did you take regarding the impending expiry of the C.I. or the Certificate of Inspection No. 1290-85 during the hiring of MT Vector?

"Apolinar Ng: At the time when I extended the Contract, I did nothing because the tanker has a valid C.I. which will expire on December 7, 1987 but on the last week of November, I called the attention of Mr. Abalos to ensure that the C.I. be renewed and Mr. Abalos, in turn, assured me they will renew the same.

"Q: What happened after that?cralawnad

"A: On the first week of December, I again made a follow-up from Mr. Abalos, and said they were going to send me a copy as soon as possible, sir. 24

x       x       x


"Q: What did you do with the C.I.?

"A: We did not insist on getting a copy of the C.I. from Mr. Abalos on the first place, because of our long business relation, we trust Mr. Abalos and the fact that the vessel was able to sail indicates that the documents are in order. . ."25cralaw:red

On cross examination —

"Atty. Sarenas:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

This being the case, and this being an admission by you, this Certificate of Inspection has expired on December 7. Did it occur to you not to let the vessel sail on that day because of the very approaching date of expiration?

"Apolinar Ng:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

No sir, because as I said before, the operation Manager assured us that they were able to secure a renewal of the Certificate of Inspection and that they will in time submit us a copy." 26

Finally, on Mr. Ng’s redirect examination:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"Atty. Poblador:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

Mr. Witness, were you aware of the pending expiry of the Certificate of Inspection in the coastwise license on December 7, 1987. What was your assurance for the record that this document was renewed by the MT Vector?

"Atty. Sarenas:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

. . .

"Atty. Poblador:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

The certificate of Inspection?

"A: As I said, firstly, we trusted Mr. Abalos as he is a long time business partner; secondly, those three years, they were allowed to sail by the Coast Guard. That are some that make me believe that they in fact were able to secure the necessary renewal.

"Q: If the Coast Guard clears a vessel to sail, what would that mean?

"Atty. Sarenas:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

Objection.

"Court:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

He already answered that in the cross examination to the effect that if it was allowed, referring to MV Vector, to sail, where it is loaded and that it was scheduled for a destination by the Coast Guard, it means that it has Certificate of Inspection extended as assured to this witness by Restituto Abalos. That in no case MV Vector will be allowed to sail if the Certificate of Inspection is, indeed, not to be extended. That was his repeated explanation to the cross-examination. So, there is no need to clarify the same in the re-direct examination." 27

Caltex and Vector Shipping Corporation had been doing business since 1985, or for about two years before the tragic incident occurred in 1987. Past services rendered showed no reason for Caltex to observe a higher degree of diligence.

Clearly, as a mere voyage charterer, Caltex had the right to presume that the ship was seaworthy as even the Philippine Coast Guard itself was convinced of its seaworthiness. All things considered, we find no legal basis to hold petitioner liable for damages.

As Vector Shipping Corporation did not appeal from the Court of Appeals’ decision, we limit our ruling to the liability of Caltex alone. However, we maintain the Court of Appeals’ ruling insofar as Vector is concerned.

WHEREFORE, the Court hereby GRANTS the petition and SETS ASIDE the decision of the Court of Appeals in CA-G. R. CV No. 39626, promulgated on April 15, 1997, insofar as it held Caltex liable under the third party complaint to reimburse/indemnify defendant Sulpicio Lines, Inc. the damages the latter is adjudged to pay plaintiffs-appellees. The Court AFFIRMS the decision of the Court of Appeals insofar as it orders Sulpicio Lines, Inc. to pay the heirs of Sebastian E. Cañezal and Corazon Cañezal damages as set forth therein. Third-party defendant-appellee Vector Shipping Corporation and Francisco Soriano are held liable to reimburse/indemnify defendant Sulpicio Lines, Inc. whatever damages, attorneys’ fees and costs the latter is adjudged to pay plaintiffs-appellees in the case.

No costs in this instance.

SO ORDERED.chanroblesvirtual|awlibrary

Davide, Jr., C.J., Kapunan, and Ynares-Santiago, JJ., concur.

Puno, J., took no part due to close relation with a party.

Endnotes:



1. In CA-G.R CV No. 29526 promulgated on April 15, 1997, Justice Jorge S. Imperial, ponente, Justices Mabutas and Hormachuelos, concurring.

2. Findings and Recommendation of the Board of Marine Inquiry dated March 22, 1988, Rollo, p. 358.

3. Ibid., Rollo, p. 350.

4. Ibid., Rollo, p. 357. Actually, there were more than 4,000 passengers.

5. Decision, Court of Appeals, dated April 15, 1997, Rollo, pp. 54-75.

6. Finding and Recommendations of the Board of Marine Inquiry dated March 22, 1988, Rollo, pp. 347-402.

7. Rollo, pp. 156-225.

8. Court of Appeals decision in CA-G. R. CV No. 39526, dated April 15, 1997, Rollo, pp. 54-75.

9. Philippine Admiralty and Maritime Law, by Attys. Eduardo Hernandez and Antero Peñasales, 1987, p. 237, citing Schoenbaum & Yiannopoulos, Admiralty and Maritime Law, at p. 364.

10. Ibid., p. 495, citing Healy & Sharp, Admiralty, p. 405.

11. Tabacalera Insurance Co. v. North Front Shipping Services, 272 SCRA 527 (1997), citing Planters Products, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 226 SCRA 476 (1993).

12. Ibid., citing Planters Products, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 226 SCRA 476 (1993).

13. Puromines v. Court of Appeals, 220 SCRA 281 (1993).

14. 226 SCRA 476 (1993).

15. 245 SCRA 797 (1995).

16. United States v. Quinajon, 31 Phil. 189, (1915); United States. v. Tan Piaoco, 40 Phil. 853 (1920).

17. 168 SCRA 612, 617-619 (1988).

18. Trans-Asia Shipping Lines v. Court of Appeals, 254 SCRA 260 (1996), citing Chan Keep v. Chan Gioco, 14 Phil. 5 (1909).

19. Arturo M. Tolentino, Commentaries and Jurisprudence on the Civil Code of the Philippines, Volume V, 1992, p. 298, citing Commission Report, pp. 66-67.

20. Memorandum of Sulpicio Lines, Inc., Rollo, pp. 493-520.

21. 292 SCRA 422 (1998), citing Valenzuela v. Court of Appeals, 253 SCRA 303 (1996); Cf. Quibal v. Sandiganbayan, 244 SCRA 224 (1995); Citibank, NA v. Gatchalian, 240 SCRA 212 (1995).

22. De Guzman v. Court of Appeals, 168 SCRA 612 (1988).

23. Under Section 3 (1) of the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act.

24. TSN, May 7, 1991, pp. 18-19.

25. TSN, Direct Examination of Apolinario Ng, dated May 7, 1991, pp. 21-22.

26. TSN, Cross-Examination of Apolinario Ng, dated May 13, 1991, p. 7.

27. TSN, Re-direct Examination of Apolinario Ng, dated May 13, 1991, p. 51.chanrobles lawlibrary : rednad




Back to Home | Back to Main


chanrobles.com



ChanRobles On-Line Bar Review

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : www.chanroblesbar.com





September-1998 Jurisprudence                 

  • A.M. No. RTJ-98-1406 September 1, 1998 - EVELYN DE AUSTRIA v. ORLANDO D. BELTRAN

  • G.R. No. 129680 September 1, 1998 - CARRARA MARBLE PHIL. v. COMMISSIONER OF CUSTOMS

  • G.R. No. 136159 September 1, 1998 - MACRINA S. SAURA, ET AL. v. RAMON G. SAURA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 96428 September 2, 1998 - WILMA T. BARRAMEDA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118784 September 2, 1998 - CHRISTINA AYUSTE v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119730 September 2, 1998 - RODOLFO NOCEDA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 127022 & 127245 September 2, 1998 - FIRESTONE CERAMICS v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130501 September 2, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ISABELO PEREZ

  • G.R. No. 130550 September 2, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ANDRES PEÑAFLORIDA

  • G.R. No. 106916 September 3, 1998 - MASAGANA CONCRETE PRODUCTS, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116568 September 3, 1998 - DELFIN GARCIA v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125808 September 3, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RENE TAPALES

  • G.R. No. 129103 September 3, 1998 - CLAUDIO DELOS REYES, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130525 September 3, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ERNESTO SACAPAÑO

  • G.R. No. 130964 September 3, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RICARDO ACUNO

  • G.R. No. 131827 September 3, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. GERLITO PELEN

  • G.R. Nos. 131830-34 September 3, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JIMMY MOSQUEDA

  • G.R. No. 125848 September 6, 1998 - EDMUNDO BENAVIDEZ v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120011 September 7, 1998 - LINO A. SANCHEZ, ET AL. v. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122732 September 7, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EDGAR BAYRON

  • G.R. No. 127844 September 7, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JOSEPH GALICGIC

  • G.R. No. 129521 September 7, 1998 - SEC, ET AL. v. MANUEL D. RECTO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122725 September 8, 1998 - BIOGENERICS MARKETING, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 124920 September 8, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ERNESTO ROSALES

  • A.C. No. 5118 September 9, 1998 - MARILOU SEBASTIAN v. DOROTHEO CALIS

  • A.M. No. P-98-1274 September 9, 1998 - ACELA P. LEONOR v. VILMA B. DELFIN

  • A.M. No. RTJ-99-1477 September 9, 1998 - MAXIMINO BALAYO v. MAMERTO M. BUBAN

  • G.R. No. 119085 September 9, 1998 - RESTAURANTE LAS CONCHAS, ET AL. v. LYDIA LLEGO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120066 September 9, 1998 - OCTABELA ALBA Vda. De RAZ v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120465 September 9, 1998 - WILLIAM UY, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121764 September 9, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RAUL H. SESBREÑO

  • G.R. No. 124506 September 9, 1998 - ROMEL JAYME v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL.

  • G.R. No. 129939 September 9, 1998 - AMOR D. DELOSO, ET AL. v. ANIANO A. DESIERTO, ET AL

  • G.R. No. 133535 September 9, 1998 - LILIA B. ORGANO v. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter Nos. MTJ- 94-923 & MTJ- 95-11-125-MCTC September 10, 1998 - ELENA E. JABAO v. MELCHOR E. BONILLA

  • G.R. No. 121982 September 10, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LEONILO CUI, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 125646 & 128663 September 10, 1998 - CITY OF PASIG v. COMELEC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129418 September 10, 1998 - RODRIGO G. HABANA v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 134222 September 10, 1998 - DON TINO REALTY AND DEVELOPMENT CORP. v. JULIAN FLORENTINO

  • G.R. No. 139043 September 10, 1998 - ALVIN B. GARCIA v. ARTURO C. MOJICA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 103073 September 14, 1998 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 108710 September 14, 1998 - ARMANDO T. DE ROSSI v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 110672 & 111201 September 14, 1998 - RURAL BANK OF STA. MARIA, v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116109 September 14, 1998 - JACINTO OLAN, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121365 September 14, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MACAPANTON SALIMBAGO

  • G.R. No. 126998 September 14, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JOEL ELLOREG DE LOS SANTOS

  • G.R. No. 127370 September 14, 1998 - PNB-REPUBLIC BANK v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128075 September 14, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALFREDO ABLANEDA

  • G.R. No. 128325 September 14, 1998 - RODOLFO CAOILI , ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128734 September 14, 1998 - ANGEL L. BOLEYLEY v. CLARENCE J. VILLANUEVA

  • G.R. No. 128927 September 14, 1998 - REMEDIOS NOTA SAPIERA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129286 September 14, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. HERMIE BANTILAN

  • G.R. No. 129843 September 14, 1998 - BLUE DAIRY CORPORATION, ET AL v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129882 September 14, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FERNANDO TAN

  • G.R. No. 130947 September 14, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RAMON ROMAN

  • G.R. No. 132244 September 14, 1998 - GERARDO ANGAT v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

  • G.R. No. 134104 September 14, 1998 - NENITA R. ORCULLO v. MARGARITO P. GERVACIO

  • G.R. No. 118971 September 15, 1998 - RODOLFO R. VASQUEZ v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129692 September 15, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ABUBAKAR ANG-NGUHO

  • G.R. No. 104944 September 16, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SAMSON SUPLITO

  • G.R. No. 115215 September 16, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ELIZALDE FACO

  • G.R. No. 121719 September 16, 1998 - VICENTE MANINANG, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125931 September 16, 1998 - UNION MOTORS CORP. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 126047 September 16, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LEOPOLDO AQUINO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130067 September 16, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ANICETA "ANNIE" MORENO

  • G.R. No. 130604 September 16, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. CELESTINO JUNTILLA

  • G.R. No. 131784 September 16, 1998 - FELIX L. GONZALES vs.THOMAS and PAULA CRUZ

  • G.R. No. 133064 September 16, 1998 - JOSE C. MIRANDA, ET AL. v. ALEXANDER AGUIRRE, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 133949-51 September 16, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EFREN BUENDIA

  • G.R. No. 136203 September 16, 1998 - LOREÑO TERRY v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL.

  • G.R. No. 138520 September 16, 1998 - BALAGTAS MULTI-PURPOSE COOPERATIVE, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-99-1483 September 17, 1998 - LAURO D. GACAYAN, ET AL. v. FERNANDO PAMINTUAN

  • A.M. No. P-93-989 September 21, 1998 - OFFICE OF THE COURT ADMINISTRATOR v. RODRIGO B. GALO

  • G.R. No. 96982 September 21, 1998 - EMILIANO A. RIZADA, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 103453 September 21, 1998 - LUIS CEREMONIA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL

  • G.R. No. 106516 September 21, 1998 - PANTRANCO NORTH EXPRESS v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120554 September 21, 1998 - SO PING BUN v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 124355 September 21, 1998 - CHING SEN BEN v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 126118 September 21, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PROCOPIO TRESBALLES

  • G.R. No. 127315 September 21, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RAFAEL "Lito" BALDEVIESO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 132061 September 21, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MELECIO HIVELA

  • A.C. No. 5135 September 22, 1998 - ELSIE B. AROMIN, ET AL. v. VALENTIN O. BONCAVIL

  • A.M. No. 99-8-126-MTC September 22, 1998 - ISSUANCE OF HOLD DEPARTURE ORDER OF JUDGE LUISITO T. ADAOAG

  • G.R. Nos. 84813 & 84848 September 22, 1998 - DOMEL TRADING CORP. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123901 September 22, 1998 - ENRIQUE A. BARROS v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128001 September 22, 1998 - MINERVA FRANCO v. COMMISSION ON AUDIT, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 131847 September 22, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. CARMELITO S. ABELLA

  • G.R. No. 133076 September 22, 1998 - MOISES S. SAMSON v. ALEXANDER AGUIRRE, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 135869 September 22, 1998 - RUSTICO H. ANTONIO v. COMELEC, ET AL.

  • Administrative Case No. 1571 September 23, 1998 - PARALUMAN B. AFURONG v. ANGEL G. AQUINO

  • A.M. No. P-99-1340 September 23, 1998 - ZENAIDA MUSNI v. ERNESTO G. MORALES

  • G.R. No. 108129 September 23, 1998 - AEROSPACE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 110873 September 23, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LEONARDO FRANCISCO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118647 September 23, 1998 - CONSOLIDATED FOOD CORP., ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130460 September 23, 1998 - HERMINIO A. SIASOCO, ET AL. v. JANUARIO N. NARVAJA

  • G.R. No. 135042 September 23, 1998 - ROBERN DEVELOPMENT CORP. v. JESUS V. QUITAIN

  • G.R. No. 135716 September 23, 1998 - FERDINAND TRINIDAD v. COMELEC, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 114299 & 118862 September 24, 1998 - TRADERS ROYAL BANK v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128874 September 24, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SAMSON B. BRAGAS

  • G.R. No. 116599 September 27, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DOMINGO PAGPAGUITAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129304 September 27, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. AVA MA. VICTORIA CARIQUEZ

  • G.R. No. 135691 September 27, 1998 - EMMANUEL SINACA v. MIGUEL MULA, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 105954-55 September 28, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. IRENEO FAJARDO

  • G.R. No. 114323 September 28, 1998 - OIL AND NATURAL GAS COMMISSION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 126152 September 28, 1998 - PNB v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128806 September 28, 1998 - KAMS INTERNATIONAL INC, ET AL.. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130632 September 28, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. NATY CHUA

  • G.R. No. 131621 September 28, 1998 - LOADSTAR SHIPPING CO. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 132324 September 28, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. NORLITO TAN, and JOSE TAN

  • G.R. No. 136294 September 28, 1998 - MARIA G. BALUYUT, ET AL. v. RODOLFO GUIAO, ET AL.

  • A.C. No. 4017 September 29, 1998 - GATCHALIAN PROMOTIONS TALENTS POOL v. PRIMO R. NALDOZA

  • A.C. No. 5141 September 29, 1998 - PRISCILA L. TOLEDO v. ERLINDA ABALOS

  • A.M. No. CA-99-30 September 29, 1998 - UNITED BF HOMEOWNERS v. ANGELINA SANDOVAL-GUTIERREZ, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. MTJ-94-904 September 29, 1998 - JOSEPHINE C. MARTINEZ v. CESAR N. ZOLETA

  • G.R. No. 105374 September 29, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MAXIMO (DAGIT) RABANG, JR.

  • G.R. No. 124736 September 29, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMEO GALLO

  • G.R. No. 125330 September 29, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. GODOFREDO TAHOP

  • G.R. No. 128157 September 29, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MANUEL MANAHAN

  • G.R. No. 132878 September 29, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EDUARDO GUTIERREZ

  • G.R. No. 137793 September 29, 1998 - NILO H. RAYMUNDO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 139281 September 29, 1998 - ROMUALDO SUAREZ v. ARSENIO SALAZAR

  • A.M. No. MTJ-99-1209 September 30, 1998 - FLAVIANO G. ARQUERO v. TERTULO A. MENDOZA

  • G.R. No. 105327 September 30, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JUANITO QUINAGORAN

  • G.R. No. 108135-36 September 30, 1998 - POTENCIANA M. EVANGELISTA v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111915 September 30, 1998 - HEIRS OF FERNANDO VINZONS v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113070 September 30, 1998 - PAMPIO A. ABARINTOS, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113781 September 30, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL v. VERGILIO REYES

  • G.R. No. 120235 September 30, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALEX DE LOS SANTOS

  • G.R. No. 121324 September 30, 1998 - PEPSI-COLA PRODUCTS PHIL INC. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122269 September 30, 1998 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, Et. Al.

  • G.R. Nos. 127173-74 September 30, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FRENETO CERVETO

  • G.R. No. 127608 September 30, 1998 - GUADALUPE S. REYES v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128129 September 30, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. TUNDAGUI GAYOMMA

  • G.R. No. 128862 September 30, 1998 - ESTRELLA REAL ESTATE CORP. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130425 September 30, 1998 - ANTONIO C. CAÑETE JR. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 131166 September 30, 1998 - CALTEX (PHIL.) v. SULPICIO LINES, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 132480 September 30, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RANDY RAQUIÑO

  • G.R. No. 135451 September 30, 1998 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DANILO F. SERRANO, SR.

  • G.R. No. 135996 September 30, 1998 - EMILIANO R. "BOY" CARUNCHO III v. COMELEC, ET AL.