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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
January-2000 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. 123951 January 10, 2000 - ROMEO RANOLA, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. P-00-1360 January 18, 2000 - ELISEO SOREÑO v. RHODERICK MAXINO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 114683 January 18, 2000 - JESUS C. OCAMPO v. OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 118441-42 January 18, 2000 - ARMANDO JOSE, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119594 January 18, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. BENZON ONG

  • G.R. No. 125994 January 18, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. BENJAMIN ANDALES

  • G.R. No. 127135 January 18, 2000 - EASTERN ASSURANCE AND SURETY CORP. (EASCO) v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129846 January 18, 2000 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130944 January 18, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. VICENTE ALIB, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 131675 January 18, 2000 - PEDRO C. LAMEYRA v. GEORGE S. PANGILINAN

  • G.R. No. 132378 January 18, 2000 - ROGELIO JUAN v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL.

  • G.R. No. 132767 January 18, 2000 - PHIL. VETERANS BANK v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 134854 January 18, 2000 - FELIZARDO S. OBANDO, ET AL. v. EDUARDO F. FIGUERAS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 139465 January 18, 2000 - SECRETARY OF JUSTICE v. RALPH C. LANTION, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. MTJ-00-1245 January 19, 2000 - ANTONIO YU-ASENSI v. FRANCISCO D. VILLANUEVA

  • A.M. No. MTJ-97-1129 January 19, 2000 - FLAVIANO B. CORTES v. FELINO BANGALAN

  • A.M. No. RTJ-99-1513 January 19, 2000 - ALFREDO B. ENOJAS v. EUSTAQUIO Z. GACOTT

  • G.R. No. 107320 January 19, 2000 - A’ PRIME SECURITY SERVICES v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 113666-68 January 19, 2000 - GOLDEN DONUTS, INC. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 114761 January 19, 2000 - ALEMAR’S SIBAL & SONS v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119217 January 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MIGUEL S. LUCBAN

  • G.R. No. 122104 January 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PEPITO ORBITA, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 122297-98 January 19, 2000 - CRESCENTE Y. LLORENTE v. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122739 January 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JOSE M. PANTORILLA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123655 January 19, 2000 - ANGEL BAUTISTA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123183 January 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RUBEN SISON

  • G.R. No. 126516 January 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SHIRLEY ALAO

  • G.R. No. 127572 January 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SALVADOR VILLAR

  • G.R. No. 129072 January 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ANTONIO ABUBU

  • G.R. No. 130957 January 19, 2000 - VH MANUFACTURING v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 132152 January 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EUGENIO ADRALES, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 132248 January 19, 2000 - ERLINDA C. PEFIANCO v. MARIA LUISA C. MORAL

  • G.R. No. 132657 January 19, 2000 - WILLIAM DIU, ET AL. v. DOMINADOR IBAJAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 132779-82 January 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DONATO BERNALDEZ

  • G.R. No. 134003 January 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALBERT NAGUM

  • G.R. No. 134329 January 19, 2000 - VERONA PADA-KILARIO, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 134535 January 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALEJANDRO MAGNO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 137560 January 19, 2000 - MARIA G. CRUZ, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • A.C. No. 4749 January 20, 2000 - SOLIMAN M. SANTOS, JR. v. FRANCISCO R. LLAMAS

  • Adm. Matter No. MTJ-00-1241 January 20, 2000 - NAPOLEON S. VALENZUELA v. REYNALDO B. BELLOSILLO

  • A.M. No. MTJ-00-1242 January 20, 2000 - DANIEL DUMO, ET AL. v. ROMEO V. PEREZ

  • A.M. No. RTJ-00-1522 January 20, 2000 - ROMULO SJ TOLENTINO v. POLICARPIO S. CAMANO

  • G.R. No. 76371 January 20, 2000 - MARIANO TURQUESA, ET AL. v. ROSARIO VALERA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 87134 January 20, 2000 - PHIL. REGISTERED ELECTRICAL PRACTITIONERS, ET AL. v. JULIO FRANCA, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 100718-19 January 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FREDDIE JUAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 106282 January 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. QUINCIANO RENDOQUE, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 108067 January 20, 2000 - CYANAMID PHIL., INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 109376 January 20, 2000 - PANFILO O. DOMINGO v. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 110807 January 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. REYNALD T. NARVASA

  • G.R. No. 110929 January 20, 2000 - ABELARDO LOPEZ, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119652 & A.M. No. P-00-1358 January 20, 2000 - VENTURA O. DUCAT v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123860 January 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EDWIN NAAG, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125451 January 20, 2000 - MARCIANA MUÑOZ v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 126151 January 20, 2000 - MANILA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AUTHORITY, ET AL. v. SERGIO D. MABUNAY, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128887 January 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILS. v. EDGARDO AQUINO

  • G.R. No. 130713 January 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. GABRIEL FLORES

  • G.R. No. 130986 January 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. VICTOR PAILANCO

  • G.R. No. 131512 January 20, 2000 - LAND TRANSPORTATION OFFICE [LTO] v. CITY OF BUTUAN

  • G.R. No. 132368 January 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PACITO GARCES, JR.

  • G.R. No. 133775 January 20, 2000 - FIDEL DABUCO, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 131894-98 January 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILS. v. JESUS DOCENA

  • G.R. No. 134167 January 20, 2000 - NASSER IMMAM v. COMELEC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125965 January 21, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PATRICIO GOZANO

  • G.R. No. 133477 January 21, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. BENJAMIN RAFALES

  • G.R. No. 135904 January 21, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALVIN TAN

  • G.R. Nos. 89591-96 January 24, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. BONIFACIO SANZ MACEDA

  • G.R. No. 100518 January 24, 2000 - ASSOCIATION OF TRADE UNIONS (ATU), ET AL. v. OSCAR N. ABELLA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 101932 January 24, 2000 - FRANCISCO H. ESCAÑO, JR., ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111285 January 24, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. VICENTE VALLA

  • G.R. No. 116066 January 24, 2000 - NUEVA ECIJA I ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 124715 January 24, 2000 - RUFINA LUY LIM v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125031 January 24, 2000 - PERMEX INC., ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129693 January 24, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RUDY CORTES

  • A.M. No. RTJ-00-1525 January 25, 2000 - MARTIN D. PANTALEON v. TEOFILO L. GUADIZ, JR.

  • G.R. No. 80129 January 25, 2000 - GERARDO RUPA, SR. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL

  • G.R. No. 102706 January 25, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LEON LUMILAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 107427 January 25, 2000 - JAMES R. BRACEWELL v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113518 January 25, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ESTEBAN ARLEE

  • G.R. No. 113684 January 25, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ARMANDO GALLARDO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116332 January 25, 2000 - BAYNE ADJUSTERS AND SURVEYORS v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119595 January 25, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JOVITO BARONA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120267 January 25, 2000 - CLARA ESPIRITU BORLONGAN, ET AL. v. CONSUELO MADRIDEO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121439 January 25, 2000 - AKLAN ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE INCORPORATED (AKELCO) v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129246 January 25, 2000 - GREENFIELD REALTY CORP., ET AL. v. LORETO CARDAMA, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 131633-34 January 25, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. CRESENCIANO ENOLVA

  • G.R. No. 133132 January 25, 2000 - ALEXIS C. CANONIZADO, ET AL. v. ALEXANDER P. AGUIRRE, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 135874 January 25, 2000 - SECURITY BANK CORPORATION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. 99-12-192-MTC January 26, 2000 - HOLD DEPARTURE ORDER ISSUED BY ACTING JUDGE ANICETO L. MADRONIO

  • A.M. No. RTJ-00-1524 January 26, 2000 - LUCIA F. LAYOLA v. BASILIO R. GABO, JR.

  • G.R. No. 107395 January 26, 2000 - TOURIST DUTY FREE SHOPS v. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 126115 January 26, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALFONSO BALGOS

  • G.R. No. 131374 January 26, 2000 - ABBOTT LABORATORIES PHIL. v. ABBOTT LABORATORIES EMPLOYEES UNION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 133842 January 26, 2000 - FEDERICO S. SANDOVAL v. COMELEC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 133969 January 26, 2000 - NEMESIO GARCIA v. NICOLAS JOMOUAD, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 102961-62, 107625 & 108759 January 27, 2000 - JESUS P. LIAO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 117040 January 27, 2000 - RUBEN SERRANO v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130843 January 27, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ZOILO BORROMEO

  • Adm. Case No. 1474 January 28, 2000 - CRISTINO G. CALUB v. ABRAHAM SULLER

  • A.M. No. MTJ-00-1246 January 28, 2000 - HEIRS OF JUAN and NATIVIDAD GERMINANDA v. RICARDO SALVANERA

  • A.M. No. MTJ-99-1211 January 28, 2000 - ZENAIDA S. BESO v. JUAN DAGUMAN

  • A.M. No. P-93-985 January 28, 2000 - MARTA BUCATCAT v. EDGAR BUCATCAT, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 112177 January 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. TITO ZUELA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 112329 January 28, 2000 - VIRGINIA A. PEREZ v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 115824 January 28, 2000 - RAFAEL M. ALUNAN III, ET AL. v. MAXIMIANO C. ASUNCION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125279 January 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JESUS TANAIL

  • G.R. No. 124129 January 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DOMINGO BRIGILDO

  • G.R. Nos. 124384-86 January 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMENCIANO "OMENG" RICAFRANCA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125671 January 28, 2000 - CONDO SUITE CLUB TRAVEL v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125865 January 28, 2000 - JEFFREY LIANG (HUEFENG) v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL.

  • G.R. No. 126802 January 28, 2000 - ROBERTO G. ALARCON v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 127568 January 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROLANDO BACULE

  • G.R. Nos. 129756-58 January 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JULIAN DEEN ESCAÑO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 131520 January 28, 2000 - ESTELITA AGUIRRE v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 131778 January 28, 2000 - HERMAN TIU LAUREL v. PRESIDING JUDGE, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 132138 January 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILS. v. ROMEO LLAMO

  • G.R. No. 133486 January 28, 2000 - ABS-CBN BROADCASTING CORP. v. COMELEC

  • G.R. No. 133987 January 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JOHNNY BARTOLOME

  • G.R. No. 136805 January 28, 2000 - DIESEL CONSTRUCTION COMPANY INC. v. JOLLIBEE FOODS CORP.

  • G.R. No. 137537 January 28, 2000 - SMI DEVT. CORP. v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

  • G.R. No. 137718 January 28, 2000 - REYNALDO O. MALONZO, ET AL. v. RONALDO B. ZAMORA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 139545 January 28, 2000 - MAIMONA H. N. M. S. DIANGKA v. COMELEC, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. MTJ-99-1226 January 31, 2000 - GLORIA LUCAS v. AMELIA A. FABROS

  • G.R. Nos. 88521-22 & 89366-67 January 31, 2000 - HEIRS OF EULALIO RAGUA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 105827 January 31, 2000 - J.L. BERNARDO CONSTRUCTION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 112139 January 31, 2000 - LAPANDAY AGRICULTURAL DEVT. CORP. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 115045 January 31, 2000 - UNIVERSITY PHYSICIANS SERVICES v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116729 January 31, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MARLON LERIO

  • G.R. No. 120706 January 31, 2000 - RODRIGO CONCEPCION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123094 January 31, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LUISITO PAGLINAWAN

  • G.R. No. 125440 January 31, 2000 - GENERAL BANK AND TRUST CO., ET AL. v. OMBUDSMAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 127797 January 31, 2000 - ALEJANDRO MILLENA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128536 January 31, 2000 - ROQUE G. GALANG v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128607 January 31, 2000 - ALFREDO MALLARI SR., ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129071 January 31, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROBERTO MILLIAM, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 129505 & 133359 January 31, 2000 - OCTAVIO S. MALOLES II v. PACITA DE LOS REYES PHILLIPS

  • G.R. No. 130104 January 31, 2000 - ELIZABETH SUBLAY v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130666 January 31, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. CASIMIRO JOSE

  • G.R. No. 134437 January 31, 2000 - NATIONAL STEEL CORP. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 139758 January 31, 2000 - LUCIEN TRAN VAN NGHIA v. RUFUS B. RODRIGUEZ, ET AL.

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    G.R. No. 112177   January 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. TITO ZUELA, ET AL.

     
    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    FIRST DIVISION

    [G.R. No. 112177. January 28, 2000.]

    PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. TITO ZUELA y MORANDARTE, MAXIMO VELARDE y DE LOS REYES, and NELSON GARCIA y TEMPORAS, Accused-Appellants.

    D E C I S I O N


    PARDO, J.:


    The case is an appeal of accused Maximo Velarde y de los Reyes, Nelson Garcia y Temporas and Tito Zuela y Morandarte from the decision 1 of the Regional Trial Court, Camarines Sur, Libmanan, Branch 24, finding them guilty beyond reasonable doubt of robbery with homicide and sentencing each of them to reclusion perpetua, and to pay jointly and severally the amount of one hundred thousand (P100,000.00) pesos to the heirs of Maria Abendaño and John Abendaño, and fifty thousand (P50,000.00) pesos to the heirs of Hegino Hernandez, without subsidiary imprisonment in case of insolvency, and to pay the costs. 2

    On July 29, 1985, Assistant Provincial Fiscal Julian C. Ocampo III filed with the Regional Trial Court, Libmanan, Camarines Sur an information charging accused Maximo Velarde y de los Reyes, Nelson Garcia y Temporas and Tito Zuela y Morandarte with "robbery with triple homicide" committed as follows:chanrobles.com : virtual law library

    "That in the evening of April 27, 1985 in Camagong, Cabusao, Camarines Sur, Philippines, the above-named accused, conspiring and confederating together and mutually aiding each other, with intent to gain, did then and there, willfully, unlawfully, and feloniously, with violence and intimidation gainst [sic] persons, that is by shooting and stabbing one Hegino Hernandez, Sr., Maria S. Abendaño and John-John Abendaño, thereby inflicting upon them mortal injuries that caused their instantaneous death, take, rob and carry away the following personal properties belonging to the said Maria Abendaño, to wit:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    (1) Cash money P21,000.00

    (2) one gold ring P750.00

    (3) one Seiko wrist watch P1,250.00

    —————

    P23,000.00

    "That as a consequence of the felonious act of the accused, the heirs of the deceased suffered damages in the amount of P25,000.00 each, representing indemnity for death, loss of earning capacity and moral damages.

    "CONTRARY TO LAW." 3

    On June 1, 1985, Maximo Velarde was arrested at Magallanes, Sorsogon, while accused Nelson Garcia and Tito Zuela were arrested at Cabusao, Camarines Sur on June 4, 1985 and June 9, 1985, respectively.

    On March 26, 1987, all three accused, were arraigned with the assistance of their counsel, and pleaded not guilty to the charge. Trial ensued.

    The evidence established the following facts:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Maria Abendaño was engaged in business. She had a store, operated a passenger jeepney and engaged in the buy and sale of palay. Her house cum store was beside that of her sister Romualda Algarin’s house, by the roadside in Barcelonita, Cabusao, Camarines Sur. Romualda also had a store.

    Accused Nelson Garcia was Maria’s store helper. Accused Tito Zuela alias "Anting" helped Romualda in her store during palay season. The other accused Maximo Velarde was known to Romualda because she met him at a birthday party held at Maria’s house on April 19, 1985. The three accused were friends.

    On April 27, 1985, Maria made three (3) deliveries of palay on board her jeepney, driven by Hegino Hernandez, Jr., to the ricemill of Gerardo Benitez in San Juan, Libmanan, Camarines Sur. Every delivery costs seven thousand (P7,000.00) pesos. The three deliveries were made at 9:00 in the morning, 2:00 in the afternoon and 7:30 in the evening. 4

    Between 6:30 and 7:00 in the evening of that day, from a distance of five (5) arms length, Romualda saw the three (3) accused board the jeepney of Maria, bound for San Juan, Libmanan, Camarines Sur. Because the jeepney was filled with palay, they merely held on the railing of the jeepney. 5 There were other passengers namely, Pablo Abendaño and Roberto Echiaca. 6

    Gerardo Atienza, the buyer of palay, saw Maximo inside the jeepney during the second and third delivery of palay to his ricemill. 7 For each delivery, Gerardo paid Maria the amount of seven thousand (P7,000.00) pesos.

    The following morning, the bodies of Hegino Hernandez, Maria and John-John Abendaño were found in rigor mortis condition at New Poblacion, Cabusao, Camarines Sur. 8

    Dr. Restituto Sampilo, municipal health officer of Cabusao, found Maria in a reclining position on the front seat of the jeepney. John was in a semi-kneeling position, facing his mother with both hands clasping her left hand. Hegino was at the steering wheel with his body, from the abdomen up, resting on the side of the vehicle and his head outside of it. 9 A bullet that exited from Hegino’s left eyebrow caused the wound near his right ear. 10

    Maria had a horizontal stab wound at the front part of her neck just above the xyphoid process. 11 Her seven (7) year old son, John, had a three (3) inch slashed horizontal wound at the front base of the neck, a two (2) inch wound on the left upper arm and two (2) stab wounds on the lateral side of the neck at the junction of the right shoulder. 12 Hegino had a small wound with slightly depressed edges, about an inch from the highest tip of the right ear, a wound with everted and lacerated edges above the middle part of the left eyebrow, and seven (7) stab wounds at the back. 13

    Though there were no eyewitnesses, the prosecution established how the crime was committed with the testimony of Romualda Algarin, which was in turn based on the extrajudicial admission given by Maximo Velarde to Romualda when she visited the latter at the Camaligan municipal jail on June 6, 1985.

    Maximo, Tito and Nelson conceived the plan to hold-up Maria while drinking in front of Romualda’s store because Maximo needed money for his fare to Manila.

    When the palay-laden jeepney of Maria left for Libmanan, Camarines Sur Maximo, Tito and Nelson boarded it. They alighted at sitio Cagumpis, Camagong, Cabusao, Camarines Sur to attend a wedding. 14 Maximo was supposed to board the jeepney on its way back to Barcelonita, while the other two (2) accused, Tito and Nelson would wait along the road at the crossing of New Poblacion and Camagong, Camarines Sur to board the jeepney and hold-up Maria.

    Everything went according to plan. Nelson and Tito hailed the jeepney at the crossing of Cabusao, Camarines Sur. Upon reaching an uninhabited place, Tito alias "Anting" told Velarde: "Oragui na ngaya ang driver." 15 Maximo poked a gun at the driver and shot him. He also shot Maria at the neck when the latter shouted. 16

    Nelson and Tito alighted from the jeepney. Nelson went to the left front side of the jeepney, while Tito approached the right front side of the jeepney, in the process stepping on the sleeping John-John who was then awakened. The boy stood up and said, "You will see I will tell my father that you killed my mother." 17 To avoid being identified by the boy, Tito told Maximo "Oragui na ini." 18 Maximo took hold of the boy’s hair and slashed his neck.

    Tito took Maria’s money and divided it, each accused receiving about seven thousand (P7,000.00) pesos from the loot.

    Tito and Nelson went back to Barcelonita, Cabusao, Camarines Sur. Maximo proceeded to Manila.chanrobles virtual lawlibrary

    On June 1, 1985, Lt. Ernesto J. Idian, Station Commander, Cabusao Police Station, Cabusao, Camarines Sur assisted by two (2) other policemen, arrested Maximo in Magallanes, Sorsogon. Though no warrant of arrest had been issued, Maximo was immediately brought to the Camaligan police station in Camaligan, Camarines Sur where he was investigated and asked to give a written statement in the presence of Atty. Jose Ocampo from the Citizen’s Legal Assistance Office (CLAO), Naga City. 19

    On June 4, and 9, 1985, Tito and Nelson were taken into police custody without a warrant. They underwent custodial investigation without the assistance of counsel because no lawyer could be found in Cabusao, Camarines Sur.

    On the last page of each accused’s confession appeared a statement, in their own handwriting, to the effect that they voluntarily gave their statements and that no one coerced or promised them anything to admit responsibility for the crime.

    Maximo, Nelson and Tito signed their individual statements before Judge Lore R. Valencia Bagalacsa, Municipal Circuit Trial Court, Libmanan, Camarines Sur on three (3) different dates. 20 She followed the same procedure and line of questioning, using the local dialect, in ascertaining the voluntariness of the three (3) accused’s confessions. She ordered Lt. Idian and his companions to leave her and the accused inside the chamber. 21 Satisfied that they were properly apprised of their rights and that they voluntarily executed their statements, she had them sign their individual extrajudicial statements.

    Antonio Abendaño, the husband of Maria, was working at Saudi Arabia when his family was killed. He came to know about the tragic death of his wife and son through an overseas call from his brother Renato Abendaño. When he learned about it, he became unconscious. He arrived in the Philippines five (5) days after. 22 He knew Nelson Garcia because he was the son of his cousin. He was also familiar with Tito Zuela, but he did not know Maximo Velarde. He spent twenty thousand (P20,000.00) pesos for the funeral of his wife and son. He gave one thousand (P1,000.00) pesos financial assistance to the family of their driver, Hegino. 23

    On the other hand, Maximo, Tito and Nelson interposed common defenses: (1) denial and (2) that they were tortured and forced to make a confession. In addition, Tito and Nelson claimed they were not assisted by counsel when their confessions were taken, while Maximo alleged the defense of alibi saying that he did not leave Magallanes, Sorsogon anytime in 1985.

    On June 1, 1985, five (5) persons, led by Lt. Idian, went to the house of Maximo Velarde in Magallanes, Sorsogon to fetch him because his parents wanted him at Cabusao, Camarines Sur as his brother Benito Velarde died. He was shown the picture of the cadaver of his brother. Maximo went with the group of Lt. Idian on board a red car and traveled to Naga City, arriving there between 7:00 and 8:00 in the evening.

    In a dark place before reaching Naga City, the driver stopped the vehicle to urinate. Before the driver could return, Maximo felt a hard object hit his head and he passed out. When he regained consciousness, he was already handcuffed. Pointing a gun at him, Lt. Idian told him that he had two choices, either to die or sign the statement they prepared because his brother had wronged them. He was warned not to tell anyone that he was mauled. Thereafter, they proceeded to the Camaligan municipal jail.

    Two days later or on June 3, 1985, Maximo was brought out of the jail and ushered into a small room where he saw three persons, namely Lt. Idian, Atty. Jose Ocampo from CLAO, Naga City and Pat. Gonsalo Refe, a police investigator from Cabusao, Camarines Sur. Atty. Ocampo read to him the contents of a prepared statement, which in substance mentioned that some people died and that he was responsible for their death. Maximo refused to sign. Atty. Ocampo stepped out of the room, followed by Lt. Idian and he overheard that he would be made to sign the statement in Atty. Ocampo’s office in Naga City. Atty. Ocampo then left and Lt. Idian returned to the room.

    Upon Lt. Idian’s return to the smaller room, he kicked Maximo in the stomach and poked a gun at him. Consumed by fear, Maximo promised that he would sign the prepared statement. He was then handed a piece of paper and ordered to copy its contents on the prepared statement. Found on page 5 of his extrajudicial confession was this statement, in his own handwriting:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "Opo binasa ko po ang apedabeth na ito na may 5# pahina na pawang totoo at sasareling kagustohan at walang nantakot o nangako." 24

    On June 4, 1985, Maximo again signed the statement before Judge Lore R. Valencia Bagalacsa, Municipal Circuit Trial Court, Libmanan, Camarines Sur. From the time accused Maximo was arrested, he was never released. Maximo denied that he saw and talked to Romualda on June 6, 1985 at the Camaligan municipal jail because he had been detained at the Libmanan municipal jail since June 4, 1985.

    For his part, Nelson Garcia denied any knowledge of the crime. On June 4, 1985, the group of Pat. Gonsalo Refe went to his house and invited him to the office of Lt. Idian. He was brought to the Camaligan Police Station. Upon their arrival, Lt. Idian talked to him and tried to convince him to confess to the killing of the Abendaños. Because Nelson refused, Lt. Idian brought him upstairs and mauled him. He was transferred to Naga City jail, where he was detained for two (2) hours.

    Thereafter, he was brought to the Cabusao Police Station where Pat. Rodolfo O. Cariño subjected him to another investigation. Because of his continued refusal to confess, he was mauled again, this time by Pat. Cariño.

    To avoid further injury to his person, on June 5, 1985, Nelson Garcia was forced to sign the prepared statement. He was neither informed of its contents nor assisted by counsel. He was handed a piece of paper, the contents of which he was ordered to copy, in his own handwriting, and in substance was similar to what Maximo was ordered to copy as his own extrajudicial statement. He was brought to the office of Judge Bagalacsa that same afternoon so that he could sign his extrajudicial statement.

    From the time he was invited to the office of Lt. Idian, Nelson was never released from police custody. He was first detained at the Libmanan municipal jail, and later on transferred to the Tinangis Penal Farm in Pili, Camarines Sur. Though he suffered physically from the beatings he got from the policemen, he was never permitted to see a doctor. His relatives were not able to visit or talk to him because the policemen prohibited visitors.25cralaw:red

    Like Nelson, Tito alias "Anting," denied participation in the crime. On July 9, 1985, Pat. Refe invited him to the office of Lt. Idian in Cabusao, Camarines Sur. Upon arrival at the police station, he was investigated about his knowledge of the crime. Failing to elicit any information from him, he was brought to Libmanan jail where he spent the night.

    The following day, Tito was again brought to Cabusao Police Station and presented to Lt. Idian. In Lt. Idian’s office, he was investigated about his involvement in the crime. When he could not provide any answer, he was made to board the police jeep, to be brought back to the Libmanan jail.

    Along the way, the police jeep stopped and Pat. Cabrera got off and kicked Tito who fell to the ground. He heard a gunshot and was shown the piece of paper that he was ordered to sign before Judge Bagalacsa. He was threatened with death should he refuse to sign the prepared statement. Out of fear for his life, Tito promised to sign. Thereafter, they boarded the police jeep and proceeded to the office of Judge Bagalacsa in Libmanan, Camarines Sur.

    Upon arrival at the office of Judge Bagalacsa, he was ordered to sign the statement without the assistance of counsel and without being informed of its contents. Thereafter, he was brought to Libmanan municipal jail and later to Tinangis Penal Farm. Like his co-accused, he was never released from police custody from the time of arrest.

    On August 26, 1993, the trial court promulgated its decision convicting the three (3) accused of robbery with homicide, the dispositive portion of which reads:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "WHEREFORE, after a careful and serious evaluation of the evidence presented by the prosecution and the defense, the Court is morally convinced beyond reasonable doubt, that the three (3) accused Maximo Velarde, Tito Zuela and Nelson Garcia had committed the crime of Robbery with Homicide and, therefore, sentences them to suffer the penalty of imprisonment of reclusion perpetua and to pay jointly and severally an indemnity in the amount of ONE HUNDRED THOUSAND (P100,000.00) PESOS for the Heirs of Maria Abendaño and John Abendaño and FIFTY THOUSAND (P50,000.00) PESOS for the Heirs of Hegino Hernandez, without imprisonment in case of insolvency, and to pay the costs.

    "SO ORDERED.

    "GIVEN this 26th day of July, 1993 at Libmanan, Camarines Sur, Philippines.

    "(Sgd.) SALVADOR G. CAJOT

    "Presiding Judge" 26

    On the same day, all three (3) accused filed a notice of appeal with the trial court.

    In their appeal, Accused-appellants claim that the trial court erred in:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    (1) relying on Maximo Velarde’s extra-judicial confession notwithstanding the violation of his constitutional rights;

    (2) giving full faith and credit to Romualda Algarin’s testimony; and

    (3) finding all three (3) accused guilty as charged despite the prosecution’s failure to prove their guilt beyond reasonable doubt.

    Considering that there were no eyewitnesses to the commission of the crime, the extra-judicial confessions of the three (3) accused play a pivotal role in the determination of their culpability. The Court is duty-bound, therefore, to resolve the issue of whether or not the extra-judicial confessions were executed in accordance with the provisions of the 1973 Constitution, in light of the fact that the crime took place in 1985.chanrobles.com : red

    The pertinent provision of the 1973 Constitution provides:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "Article IV, Section 20. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to remain silent and to counsel, and to be informed of such right. No force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means, which vitiates the free will, shall be used against him. Any confession obtained in violation of this section shall be inadmissible in evidence." 27

    The right to counsel attaches the moment an investigating officer starts to ask questions to elicit information on the crime from the suspected offender. It is at this point that the law requires the assistance of counsel to avoid the pernicious practice of extorting forced or coerced admissions or confessions from the person undergoing interrogation. In other words, "the moment there is a move or even urge of said investigators to elicit admissions or confessions or even plain information which may appear innocent or innocuous at the time, from said suspect, he should then and there be assisted by counsel, unless he waives the right, but the waiver shall be made in writing and in the presence of counsel." 28

    Lt. Idian’s team apprehended appellant Maximo in Magallanes, Sorsogon on June 1, 1985 when no warrant had been issued for his arrest. Immediately thereafter, the arresting peace officers investigated appellant Maximo. His statement was reduced in writing when they were in Camaligan, Camarines Sur. It was in Camaligan that CLAO lawyer Ocampo was summoned to assist appellant Maximo in the execution of his written confession. Atty. Ocampo was not present during the entire duration that accused Maximo was subjected to custodial investigation as could be inferred from the testimony of Pat. Rodolfo Cariño, to wit:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "Q: And after taking the statement of Velarde, what did you do with the statement of Velarde?

    A: It was presented to Atty. Ocampo.

    Q: Do you want to tell me that inspite of the fact that he was present when the confession was made you still present the statement to Atty. Ocampo?

    A: In order to let him sign the statement.

    Q: And where did Atty. Ocampo sign the confession of Velarde?

    A: It was sign [sic] at Naga because he went ahead.

    Q: Do you mean to tell me now that after the confession was made, the confession was left to you and after the confession was brought to his office at the CLAO Office in Naga, is that what you want to tell this court.

    A: We went to Naga with Lt. Idian and Velarde.

    Q: But it remains a fact that Atty. Ocampo was already at Naga when the statement of Velarde was presented to him for signature, is that correct?

    A: Yes he went ahead to Naga." 29

    There was no evidence that Maximo executed a waiver of his right to counsel. In light of these facts, we are constrained to rule that Maximo Velarde’s extra-judicial statement is inadmissible in evidence. 30 "An uncounselled extra-judicial confession without a valid waiver of the right to counsel — that is, in writing and in the presence of counsel — is inadmissible in evidence." 31

    The respective sworn statements of appellants Tito and Nelson were likewise inadmissible in evidence because they were executed without the assistance of counsel. Despite the fact that the reason for the absence of lawyer during the custodial investigation was the scarcity of lawyers in the area, the Court could not be lenient in this case. The absence or scarcity of lawyers in any given place is not a valid reason for defying the constitutional mandate on counseled confessions.

    Contrary to the ruling of the trial court, the defect in the confessions of Tito and Nelson was not cured by their signing the extra-judicial statements before Judge Bagalacsa.

    Nevertheless, the infirmity of accused-appellants’ sworn statements did not leave a void in the prosecution’s case. Accused-appellant Maximo repeated the contents of his sworn statement to Romualda Algarin who, in turn, related these in court. Such declaration to a private person is admissible in evidence against accused-appellant Maximo pursuant to Rule 130, Section 26 of the Rules of Court stating that the "act, declaration or omission of a party as to a relevant fact may be given in evidence against him." The trial court, therefore, correctly gave evidentiary value to Romualda’s testimony. In People v. Maqueda, 32 we held:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "However, the extrajudicial admissions of Maqueda to Prosecutor Zarate and to Ray Dean Salvosa stand on a different footing. These are not governed by the exclusionary rules under the Bill of Rights. Maqueda voluntarily and freely made them to Prosecutor Zarate not in the course of an investigation, but in connection with Maqueda’s plea to be utilized as a state witness; and as to the other admission, it was given to a private person. The provisions of the Bill of Rights are primarily limitations on government, declaring the rights that exist without governmental grant, that may not be taken away by government and that government has the duty to protect; or restrictions on the power of the government found ‘not in particular specific types of action prohibited, but in the general principle that keeps alive in the public mind the doctrine that governmental power is not unlimited.’ They are the fundamental safeguards against aggressions of arbitrary power, or state tyranny and abuse of authority. In laying down the principles of the government and fundamental liberties of the people, the Constitution did not govern the relationships between individuals.

    "Accordingly, Maqueda’s admissions to Ray Dean Salvosa, a private party, are admissible in evidence against the former under Section 26, Rule 130 of the Rules of Court. In Aballe v. People (183 SCRA 196 [1990]), this Court held that the declaration of an accused expressly acknowledging his guilt of the offense may be given in evidence against him and any person, otherwise competent to testify as a witness, who heard the confession, is competent to testify as to the substance of what he heard if he heard and understood it. The said witness need not repeat verbatim the oral confession; it suffices if he gives its substance. By analogy, that rule applies to oral extrajudicial admission." (Emphasis supplied.) 33

    And in the recent case of People v. Andan 34 the Court reiterated the doctrine enunciated in the Maqueda case. In Andan, the Court said that "when the accused talked with the mayor as confidant and not as a law enforcement officer, his uncounselled confession did not violate his constitutional rights. Constitutional procedures on custodial investigation do not apply to a spontaneous statement, not elicited through questioning by the authorities, but given in an ordinary manner whereby appellant orally admitted having committed the crime." Of course, Accused-appellant Maximo attempted to discredit Romualda’s credibility as a witness when he swore that he could not have been in Camaligan on June 6, 1985 because since June 4, 1985 until some three weeks later, he was detained at the Libmanan jail. 35 The trial court correctly disregarded this self-serving uncorroborated assertion.

    The defense failed to attribute any ill-motive on the part of Romualda for testifying on accused-appellant Maximo’s admission and therefore the presumption that in so testifying, she was impelled by no other reason than to tell the truth, stands. The fact that she is related to two of the victims did not render her testimony incredible. Relationship per se is not proof of prejudice. 36 She might have been mistaken as to the date when she talked with accused-appellant Maximo while he was detained considering the more than three-year gap between June 1985 and September to October 1988 when Romualda testified. However, it is not necessary that the witness should be able to fix accurately the date of the conversation in which the admission was made. What is important is that the witness is able to state the substance of the conversation or declaration. 37

    Romualda’s testimony on accused-appellant Maximo’s admission sealed not only the latter’s fate but also that of appellants Tito and Nelson. The rule that an extrajudicial confession is binding only upon the confessant and is not admissible against his co-accused because the latter has no opportunity to cross-examine the confessant and therefore, as against him, the confession is hearsay, 38 is not applicable here. What is involved here is an admission, not a confession. Wharton distinguished these terms as follows:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "A confession is an acknowledgment in express terms, by a party in a criminal case, of his guilt of the crime charged, while an admission is a statement by the accused, direct or implied, of facts pertinent to the issue and tending, in connection with proof of other facts, to prove his guilt. In other words, an admission is something less than a confession, and is but an acknowledgment of some fact or circumstance which in itself is insufficient to authorize a conviction and which tends only to establish the ultimate fact of guilt." 39

    Appellants Tito and Nelson were afforded the opportunity to cross-examine witness Romualda on accused-appellant Maximo’s declaration. They could have questioned its veracity by presenting evidence in support of their defenses of denial and alibi so they could put to test Romualda’s credibility. Having failed to do so, Romualda’s testimony, which the trial court correctly considered as credible, stands unscathed.

    Romualda’s testimony on the substance of accused-appellant Maximo’s admission standing alone, may not be the basis for conviction of the appellants. However, such testimony, taken with circumstances duly established by the prosecution, point unerringly to accused-appellants’ culpability. These circumstances are: (1) accused-appellants and the victims were all residents of Barcelonita, Cabusao, Camarines Sur, a small barangay where everyone knew everybody; (2) accused-appellants Tito and Nelson helped in the stores of the sisters Maria and Romualda a week before the incident; (3) Romualda saw the three accused-appellants as they boarded Maria’s jeepney during its last palay delivery to Libmanan; (4) Gerardo Atienza saw accused-appellant Maximo with Maria’s group during the jeepney’s second delivery of palay; (5) Atienza saw accused-appellant Maximo riding in Maria’s jeepney after the last delivery; (6) after the commission of the crime, Accused-appellants Tito and Nelson no longer went to the store of Romualda; (7) accused-appellants never attended the wake of the victims, and (8) accused-appellant Maximo fled to Manila.chanrobles.com : law library

    These circumstances form an unbroken chain, which, by themselves, lead to a fair and reasonable conclusion that accused-appellants were the culprits in the robbery with homicide. 40 Under the law, circumstantial evidence is sufficient basis for conviction as long as: (1) there is more than one circumstance; (2) the facts from which the inferences are derived are proved, and (3) the combination of all the circumstances is such as to produce conviction beyond reasonable doubt. 41 These requisites were present in this case.

    Accused-appellants’ diverse courses of action after the commission of the crime, with accused-appellant Maximo going to Manila and accused-appellants Tito and Nelson staying in Barcelonita, do not negate their guilt. As regards accused-appellant Maximo, his flight to Manila and to Magallanes, Sorsogon with no plausible explanation therefor is a clear indication of guilt. 42 With respect to accused-appellants Tito and Nelson, their decision to stay in Barcelonita did not mean that they were not equally guilty as accused-appellant Maximo. As this Court once said:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "Accused-appellant argues that had he participated in the crime, his natural reaction would have been to flee. We do not agree. Each culprit behaves differently in externalizing and manifesting his guilt. Others may escape or flee — which circumstance is strongly indicative of guilt, while others may remain in the same vicinity so as to create a semblance of normalcy, careful not to arouse suspicion in the community." 43

    Conspiracy may be inferred from the acts of accused-appellants before, during and after the commission of the crime, which indicate a joint purpose, concerted action and concurrence of sentiments. 44 Whenever homicide is committed as a consequence or on the occasion of the robbery, all those who took part as principals in the conspiracy are also guilty as principals in the special complex crime of robbery with homicide although they did not actually take part in the killing, unless there is proof that they tried to prevent the crime. 45 There is no evidence that any of the accused-appellants desisted from the malevolent intent of the others to kill the victims during the robbery. As such, they shall equally bear the responsibility for the resulting crime.

    Treachery was not alleged in the information but the suddenness of the assault upon Hegino and Maria from behind was proven beyond reasonable doubt. As such, treachery may be appreciated as a generic aggravating circumstance. 46 As regards seven-year-old John, even if the manner by which he was attacked was not shown, treachery may be deemed to have attended his killing. Treachery exists when an adult person illegally attacks a child of tender years and causes his death. 47

    The crime committed is the special complex crime of robbery with homicide defined and penalized in Article 294 of the Revised Penal Code. The trial court correctly considered the crime as robbery with homicide and not "robbery with triple homicide" as charged in the information. The term "homicide" in Article 294(1) is used in its generic sense, embracing not only the act which results in death but also all other acts producing anything short of death. 48 Neither is the nature of the offense altered by the number of killings in connection with the robbery. 49 The multiplicity of victims slain on the occasion of the robbery is only appreciated as an aggravating circumstance. This would preclude an anomalous situation where, from the standpoint of the gravity of the offense, robbery with one killing would be treated in the same way that robbery with multiple killings would be. 50

    Under Article 294 (1) of the Revised Penal Code, robbery with homicide is punishable by reclusion perpetua to death. By the presence of two aggravating circumstances, namely, treachery and multiplicity of slain victims, the proper penalty should be death in view of Article 63 (1) of the same Code. 51 However, considering that when this case happened, the imposition of the death penalty was proscribed, the proper imposable penalty was reclusion perpetua. The heinousness of the crime they committed notwithstanding, Accused-appellants may not be deprived of such favorable factor in their case.

    The Solicitor General’s plea for modification of the penalty in accordance with Republic Act No. 7659 which "has already expressly converted reclusion perpetua into a divisible penalty" and on account of the decision in People v. Lucas, 52 is untenable. It must be stressed that the Lucas ruling has been reconsidered and, accordingly, the Court has held:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "After deliberating on the motion and re-examining the legislative history of R.A. No. 7659, the Court concludes that although Section 17 of the R.A. No. 7659 has fixed the duration of reclusion perpetua from twenty (20) years and one (1) day to forty (40) years, there was no clear legislative intent to alter its original classification as an indivisible penalty. It shall then remain as an indivisible penalty." 53

    The trial court failed to award the heirs of Maria Abendaño the amount of twenty three thousand (P23,000.00) pesos in reimbursement of the stolen cash, ring and wristwatch and the expenses amounting to twenty thousand (P20,000.00) pesos for her wake and that of her son, which were duly proved. 54 The heirs are entitled to those amounts as reparation of the damage caused by Accused-Appellants. They shall also be liable for exemplary damages in view of the presence of two aggravating circumstances in the commission of the crime. 55

    WHEREFORE, the Court AFFIRMS with MODIFICATION the decision of the trial court. The Court renders judgment finding accused-appellants Tito Zuela y Morandarte, Maximo Velarde y de los Reyes, and Nelson Garcia y Temporas guilty beyond reasonable doubt of robbery with homicide, defined and penalized under Article 294 (1) of the Revised Penal Code, and sentences each of them to reclusion perpetua with all its accessory penalties and to pay civil indemnity of one hundred thousand (P100,000.00) pesos to the heirs of Maria Abendaño and John Abendaño and fifty thousand (P50,000.00) pesos to the heirs of Hegino Hernandez, Jr.

    In addition, the Court sentences each of the accused-appellants solidarily to pay the additional amounts of forty three thousand (P43,000.00) pesos as reimbursement of damages to the heirs of Maria Abendaño, and fifty thousand (P50,000.00) pesos as exemplary damages to the heirs of each of the three (3) victims.chanrobles.com : virtual law library

    With costs.

    SO ORDERED.

    Davide, Jr., C.J., Puno, Kapunan and Ynares-Santiago, JJ., concur.

    Endnotes:



    1. In Criminal Case No. l-337, dated July 26, 1993, Judge Salvador G. Cajot, presiding.

    2. Trial Court Decision, Rollo, pp. 23-44.

    3. Information, Trial Court Records, p. 35.

    4. TSN, April 11, 1988, p. 420.

    5. TSN, October 17, 1988, p. 480.

    6. TSN, September 14, 1988, p. 465.

    7. TSN, April 11, 1988, p. 420.

    8. Original Record, Exhs. "G", "H", "I", pp. 4, 6, 8.

    9. TSN, May 11, 1988, pp. 8-9.

    10. Ibid, p. 11.

    11. Exh. E, Trial Court Records, p. 5.

    12. Exh. D, Trial Court Records, p. 3.

    13. Exh. F, Trial Court Records, p. 7.

    14. TSN, September 14, 1988, pp. 468-470.

    15. When translated in Filipino, this means "Tirahin mo na ang driver."cralaw virtua1aw library

    16. TSN, ibid, p. 472.

    17. TSN, ibid.

    18. In Filipino, it means, "Tirahin mo na ito."cralaw virtua1aw library

    19. TSN, March 10, 1988, pp. 8, 16.

    20. Judge Bagalacsa administered the oath on the extrajudicial statements of the three accused on different dates: Maximo Velarde on June 4, 1985, while Nelson Garcia and Tito Zuela on June 6, 1985 and June 10, respectively.

    21. TSN, December 1, 1989, p. 521.

    22. TSN, August 16, 1988, p. 451.

    23. TSN, ibid, pp. 456-457.

    24. Regional Trial Court Records, p. 19.

    25. TSN, September 6, 1990, pp. 11-14.

    26. Trial Court Decision, Rollo, p. 44.

    27. The above provision is carried over in the 1987 Constitution, but has been broken into two sections. The traditional right against self-incrimination has been placed in Section 17 and the right of persons under investigation was set apart and put in Section 12 to emphasize that it is not just a right against self-incrimination but also a guarantee of the right to proper treatment of those under investigation. Bernas, S. J., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines A Commentary, 1996 edition, p. 409.

    28. Gamboa v. Cruz, 162 SCRA 642, 648, 651 (1988)

    29. TSN, February 23, 1989, p. 508.

    30. People v. Quidato, Jr., 297 SCRA 1, 9 (1998).

    31. People v. Cabiles, 284 SCRA 199, 211 (1998), citing People v. Cabintoy, 241 SCRA 442 (1995).

    32. 312 Phil. 646 (1995).

    33. People v. Maqueda, supra, at 675-676 (1995).

    34. 269 SCRA 95, 110 (1997).

    35. TSN, April 30, 1990, pp. 13-14.

    36. People v. Escandor, 333 Phil. 277, 282 (1996).

    37. 7 Francisco, The Revised Rules of Court of the Philippines, Part I, 1990 ed., 307.

    38. People v. Pamon, 217 SCRA 501, 515-516 (1993).

    39. People v. Maqueda, supra, pp. 667-668 citing 2 WHARTON’S CRIMINAL EVIDENCE S. 337, 12th ed., (1935).

    40. People v. Cedenio, 233 SCRA 356, 363 (1994).

    41. People v. Olivarez, Jr., 299 SCRA 635, 651 (1998).

    42. People v. Igat, 291 SCRA 100, 109-110 (1998).

    43. People v. Ocampo, 218 SCRA 609, 618 (1993).

    44. People v. De Leon, 315 Phil. 584, 594 (1995).

    45. People v. Angeles, 315 Phil. 23, 38 (1995).

    46. People v. Cantre, 186 SCRA 76, 79 (1990).

    47. People v. Ganohon, 196 SCRA 431, 446 (1991), citing People v. Retubado, 162 SCRA 276 (1988); People v. Valerio, 112 SCRA 208 (1982); U.S. v. Lansangan, 27 Phil. 474 (1914); U.S. v. Baul, 39 Phil. 846 (1919).

    48. People v. Servillon, 236 SCRA 385, 392 (1994).

    49. People v. Sinoc, 341 Phil. 355, 375 (1997).

    50. People v. Timple, 237 SCRA 52, 70 (1994).

    51. The pertinent provision of this Article states: "In all cases in which the law prescribes a penalty composed of two indivisible penalties, the following rules shall be observed in the application thereof:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    1. When in the commission of the deed there is present only one aggravating circumstance, the greater penalty shall be applied; . . ."cralaw virtua1aw library

    52. 232 SCRA 537 (1994).

    53. 310 Phil. 77, 80 (1995).

    54. Arts. 104 & 106, Revised Penal Code.

    55. Art. 2230, Civil Code; People v. Esguerra, 326 Phil. 670, 679 (1996).

    G.R. No. 112177   January 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. TITO ZUELA, ET AL.


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