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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
September-2000 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. 117690 September 1, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALBERTO DANO

  • G.R. No. 128567 September 1, 2000 - HUERTA ALBA RESORT INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-00-1582 September 4, 2000 - COB C. DE LA CRUZ v. RODOLFO M. SERRANO

  • G.R. No. 134763 September 4, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. WILFREDO RIGLOS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 137785 September 4, 2000 - NAPOCOR v. VINE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 139282 September 4, 2000 - ROMEO DIEGO v. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 90828 September 5, 2000 - MELVIN COLINARES, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 124077 September 5, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ADORACION SEVILLA ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129239 September 5, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PAUL LAPIZ

  • G.R. Nos. 131848-50 September 5, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RODOLFO VILLARAZA

  • G.R. No. 139853 September 5, 2000 - FERDINAND THOMAS M. SOLLER v. COMELEC, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. MTJ-00-1307 September 6, 2000 - MANUEL BUNYI, ET AL. v. FELIX A. CARAOS

  • A.M. No. MTJ-00-1309 September 6, 2000 - FREDESMINDA DAYAWON v. MAXIMINO A. BADILLA

  • A.M. No. O.C.A.-00-01 September 6, 2000 - JULIETA B. NAVARRO v. RONALDO O. NAVARRO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129220 September 6, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. BERNIE JAMON FAUSTINO

  • G.R. No. 131506 September 6, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RODEL DIZON

  • G.R. No. 133625 September 6, 2000 - REMEDIOS F. EDRIAL ET AL. v. PEDRO QUILAT-QUILAT, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. MTJ-00-1314 September 7, 2000 - CLODUALDO C. DE JESUS v. RODOLFO D. OBNAMIA JR.

  • G.R. No. 121802 September 7, 2000 - GIL MACALINO, JR. v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 126036 September 7, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PASCUAL BALINAD, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128158 September 7, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ARMANDO JUAREZ, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 137431 September 7, 2000 - EDGARDO SANTOS v. LAND BANK OF THE PHIL.

  • G.R. No. 143385 September 7, 2000 - LEARNING CHILD, ET AL. v. ANNIE LAZARO, ET AL.

  • A.M. Nos. P-93-990 & A.M. No. P-94-1042 September 8, 2000 - TERESITO D. FRANCISCO v. FERNANDO CRUZ

  • G.R. No. 125167 September 8, 2000 - PRODUCERS BANK OF THE PHIL, ET AL. v. BANK OF THE PHIL. ISLANDS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 137714 September 8, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILS.. v. ROBERTO BANIGUID

  • A. M. No. P-99-1309 September 11, 2000 - FRANCISCO B. IBAY v. VIRGINIA G. LIM

  • G.R. No. 137857 September 11, 2000 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. SANCHO MAGDATO

  • G.R. No. 115054-66 September 12, 2000 - PEOPLE-OF THE PHILIPPINES v. VICENTE MENIL

  • G.R. No. 138201 September 12, 2000 - FRANCISCO BAYOCA, ET AL. v. GAUDIOSO NOGALES, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123111 September 13, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JIMMY DAGAMI

  • G.R. No. 127444 September 13, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. TIRSO D. C. VELASCO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 126402 September 13, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LITO ROSALES

  • G.R. No. 126781 September 13, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. CALIXTO ZINAMPAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 133918 September 13, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. TIBOY ALBACIN

  • G.R. No. 133981 September 13, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. HILARION BERGONIO, JR.

  • A.M. No. 00-1281-MTJ. September 14, 2000 - OFFICE OF THE COURT ADMINISTRATOR v. SALVADOR B. MENDOZA

  • G.R. Nos. 104637-38 & 109797 September 14, 2000 - SAN MIGUEL CORPORATION, ET AL. v. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 126368 September 14, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JOHNNY CALABROSO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129208 September 14, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EDGARDO ALORO

  • G.R. No. 131680 September 14, 2000 - SUBIC BAY METROPOLITAN AUTHORITY, ET AL. v. UNIVERSAL INTERNATIONAL GROUP OF TAIWAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 140269-70 September 14, 2000 - PHIL. CARPET EMPLOYEES ASSOCIATION ET AL. v. PHIL. CARPET MANUFACTURING CORP.

  • G.R. Nos. 143351 & 144129 September 14, 2000 - MA. AMELITA C. VILLAROSA v. HRET, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 109269 September 15, 2000 - BAYER PHIL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 134266 September 15, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MELENCIO BALI-BALITA

  • G.R. Nos. 135288-93 September 15, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JESUS GIANAN

  • G.R. No. 130038 September 18, 2000 - ROSA LIM v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL.

  • G.R. No. 132603 September 18, 2000 - ELPIDIO M. SALVA, ET AL. v. ROBERTO L. MAKALINTAL, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 134651 September 18, 2000 - VIRGILIO JIMENEZ, ET AL. v. PATRICIA, INC.

  • G.R. No. 134730 September 18, 2000 - FELIPE GARCIA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 133373-77 September 18, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FAUSTINO CAMPOS

  • G.R. NO. 140268 September 18, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JOSE LLANES, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 141471 September 18, 2000 - COLEGIO DE SAN JUAN DE LETRAN v. ASSOC. OF EMPLOYEES AND FACULTY OF LETRAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 141787 September 18, 2000 - MANUEL H. AFIADO, ET AL. v. COMELEC

  • G.R. No. 142038 September 18, 2000 - ROLANDO E. COLUMBRES v. COMELEC, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 136149-51 September 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. WALPAN LADJAALAM

  • G.R. No. 137659 September 19, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. AMADEO TRELLES

  • G.R. No. 114348 September 20, 2000 - NATIONAL IRRIGATION ADMINISTRATION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 131927 September 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DAVID BANAWOR, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 135516 September 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILS. v. NEIL DUMAGUING

  • G.R. No. 132547 September 20, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ERNESTO ULEP

  • G.R. No. 117417 September 21, 2000 - MILAGROS A. CORTES v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120747 September 21, 2000 - VICENTE GOMEZ v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128990 September 21, 2000 - INVESTORS FINANCE CORP. v. AUTOWORLD SALES CORP.

  • G.R. No. 136396 September 21, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROLANDO ZASPA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 136453 September 21, 2000 - PETRITA Y. BONILLA v. COURT OF APPEALS, , ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 137571 September 21, 2000 - TUNG CHIN HUI v. RUFUS B. RODRIGUEZ, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. P-00-1424 & MTJ-00-1316 September 25, 2000 - REYNALDO B. BELLOSILLO v. DANTE DE LA CRUZ RIVERA

  • G.R. No. 129055 September 25, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EDGAR BACALSO

  • G.R. No. 129296 September 25, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHlL. v. ABE VALDEZ

  • G.R. No. 132078 September 25, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ARTEMIO BERZUELA

  • G.R. No. 133465 September 25, 2000 - AMELITA DOLFO v. REGISTER OF DEEDS FOR THE PROVINCE OF CAVITE, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-93-986 September 26, 2000 - EDUARDO C. DE VERA v. WILLIAM LAYAGUE

  • G.R. No. 122110 September 26, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FERIGEL OLIVA

  • G.R. No. 135630 September 26, 2000 - INTRAMUROS TENNIS CLUB v. PHIL. TOURISM AUTHORITY (PTA)

  • G.R. Nos. 136012-16 September 26, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ULDARICO HONRA, JR.

  • G.R. No. 138887 September 26, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JURRIE DUBRIA

  • G.R. No. 142392 September 26, 2000 - DOMINGA A. SALMONE v. EMPLOYEES’ COMPENSATION COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. MTJ-00-1319 September 27, 2000 - ROLANDO A. SULLA v. RODOLFO C. RAMOS

  • A.M. No. RTJ-99-1447 September 27, 2000 - LEONARDO DARACAN, ET AL. v. ELI G.C. NATIVIDAD

  • G.R. No. 109760 September 27, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILS. v. PABLO F. EMOY, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122498 September 27, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILS. v. ELMEDIO CAJARA

  • G.R. No. 133946 September 27, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. OSCAR NOGAR

  • G.R. Nos. 97138-39 September 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EFREN TEMANEL, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 132311 September 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MINA LIBRERO

  • G.R. No. 132725 September 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ARMANDO QUILATAN

  • G.R. No. 136843 September 28, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PEDRO ABUNGAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 138054 September 28, 2000 - ROSENDO C. CARTICIANO, ET AL. v. MARIO NUVAL

  • G.R. No. 138503 September 28, 2000 - ROBERTO FERNANDEZ v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL., ET AL.

  • A.M. No. 00-3-01-CTA September 29, 2000 - RE: JUDGE ERNESTO D. ACOSTA

  • A.M. No. RTJ-00-1589 September 29, 2000 - JEANET N. MANIO v. JOSE ENER S. FERNANDO

  • G.R. No. 106401 September 29, 2000 - FLORENTINO ZARAGOZA, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123299 September 29, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SANTIAGO CARUGAL, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 124671-75 September 29, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LINDA SAGAYDO

  • G.R. No. 126048 September 29, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL v. RODEL SAMONTE

  • G.R. No. 126254 September 29, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RONALDO PONCE

  • G.R. No. 129507 September 29, 2000 - CHAN SUI BI, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130785 September 29, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILS. v. RONALD VITAL

  • G.R. No. 131492 September 29, 2000 - ROGER POSADAS, ET AL. v. OMBUDSMAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 131813 September 29, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MARIO ABENDAN

  • G.R. No. 133443 September 29, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DOMINADOR DE LA ROSA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 134100 September 29, 2000 - PURITA ALIPIO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 135382 September 29, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LOURDES GAMBOA

  • G.R. No. 135457 September 29, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JOSE PATRIARCA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 135548 September 29, 2000 - FAR EAST BANK AND TRUST COMPANY v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 135981 September 29, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MARIVIC GENOSA

  • G.R. Nos. 137379-81 September 29, 2000 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILS. v. ARTURO GARCIA

  • G.R. No. 139910 September 29, 2000 - PHILIPPINE COCONUT AUTHORITY v. CORONA INTERNATIONAL

  • G.R. No. 141060 September 29, 2000 - PILIPINAS BANK v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 141959 September 29, 2000 - JUANITA NARZOLES, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  •  





     
     

    A.M. No. MTJ-00-1309   September 6, 2000 - FREDESMINDA DAYAWON v. MAXIMINO A. BADILLA

     
    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    THIRD DIVISION

    [A.M. No. MTJ-00-1309. September 6, 2000.]

    (Formerly A.M. OCA I.P.I. No. 98-503-MTJ)

    FREDESMINDA DAYAWON, Complainant, v. JUDGE MAXIMINO A. BADILLA, MTC, Pili, Camarines Sur, Respondent.

    D E C I S I O N


    VITUG, J.:


    In a verified letter-complaint, dated 09 January 1998, Ms. Fredesminda Dayawon charged Judge Maximino A. Badilla of the Municipal Trial Court of Pili, Camarines Sur, with "Gross Ignorance of the Law and Incompetence" relative to Criminal Case No. 5434, entitled "People of the Philippines v. Delia Alamo," for estafa.

    The records would disclose that complainant Fredesminda Dayawon delivered pieces of Schiaparelli fashion jewelry to accused Delia Alamo for sale on commission basis. It was understood that Alamo was to sell the jewelry and to remit the proceeds of the sale within one month or, if unsold during that period, to return the items to Dayawon. Due to the failure of Alamo to properly remit the proceeds of the sale or to return the unsold jewelry to Dayawon despite demand, the latter filed on 11 October 1995 a criminal complaint, docketed Criminal Case No. 5434, for estafa against Alamo.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    Alamo filed a motion to dismiss the complaint, contending, among other things, that she had already paid the account on 17 November 1995 directly to the manager of Peak Marketing, said to be the main distributor of Schiaparelli products.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    After trial, respondent judge rendered judgment, dated 06 November 1997, viz.:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "WHEREFORE, premises considered, Accused:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "1. Is acquitted of the crime charge of Estafa, as she did not wilfully, unlawfully and feloniously, misappropriate, misapply and convert to her own personal use and benefits the proceeds of the sales;

    "2. Is liable, having shown bad faith and having admitted this particular fact that her non-remittance to Mrs. Dayawon was because of personal misunderstanding, and for reasons of her own, which she would not tell the court, inspite of the fact that she received demand letter on July 10, 1995 with registry return receipt, she deliberately paid to Peak Marketing on November 17, 1995, shows her bad faith and she should be civilly liable to pay P1,227.00 (Exh.’4’) to Mrs. Fredesminda Dayawon."cralaw virtua1aw library

    Complainant averred in the administrative charge that respondent Judge exhibited gross ignorance of the law and/or inefficiency in acquitting accused Delia Alamo in the criminal case and declaring her to only be liable civilly. Complainant argued that the decision was patently erroneous considering that Alamo admitted in open court that she had received the subject goods from complainant to be sold on commission basis with the obligation to remit the proceeds of the sale or to return the items, if unsold, but had failed to comply seasonably therewith despite demand. Complainant stressed that these admissions, together with the finding that the accused had acted in bad faith, were clearly sufficient to convict the accused of the crime of estafa. Complainant called attention to the fact that respondent judge had ordered the accused to file her comment on the motion for the reconsideration of the decision but which he later recalled, issuing thereupon a resolution denying instead the motion.

    In his Comment, dated 29 May 1998, respondent Judge Maximino A. Badilla denied the charges hurled against him. He explained that the evidence submitted in the criminal case that had been adverted to was insufficient to convict the accused therein. He insisted that felonies punished by the Revised Penal Code, being in the nature of "mala in se" offenses, would require criminal intent in their commission. Respondent judge asseverated that there evidently was no criminal intent since the accused had made payments either to the complainant or directly to the company from where the latter had obtained the goods. Anent his denial of the motion for reconsideration filed by complainant, respondent judge said that he was not barred from recalling his order directing the accused to file a comment thereon particularly since he was "not persuaded to reverse itself as there (was) no shown error in the appreciation of facts." chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    The case was referred to the Office of the Court Administrator ("OCA") for evaluation, report and recommendation. On 31 January 2000, the OCA came out with its findings, pertinent portions of which read:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    "II.


    "Respondent advances the position that the crime of Estafa could not have been committed since the accused paid the alleged unliquidated amount. This argument is untenable. The records disclosed that the payment was made to PEAK Marketing and not to the complaining-witness from whom the goods were received on commission by the accused. A fortiori, said payment was belatedly made as the same was made only after the criminal case has already been filed in court. Moreover, Accused has no contract with PEAK Marketing regarding such payment, thus payment could not be made to the latter.

    "III.


    "Respondent also averred that since what is being demanded is only the residual amount of the original obligation, there is no Estafa. Again this argument is untenable. Whether the sum of money or goods misappropriated or converted constitutes the whole obligation or only part thereof is of no moment. As long as the elements of estafa with abuse of confidence under subdivision 1, par. (b), Article 315 of the Revised Penal Code are present, estafa is committed. These elements are as follows: (1) that money, goods, or other personal property be received by the offender in trust, or on commission, or for administration, or under any other obligation involving the duty to make delivery of, or to return the same; (2) that there be misappropriation or conversion of such money or property by the offender, or denial on his part of such receipt; (3) that such misappropriation or conversion or denial is to the prejudice of another; and (4) that there is a demand made by the offended party to the offender (Tubb v. People, et. al., 101 Phil. 114). These elements are overwhelmingly present in the subject criminal case.

    "IV.


    "Respondent emphasized that almost all the forms used in business transaction by the complaining-witness were from PEAK Marketing, which is in effect an indirect assertion that the complaining-witness is not the owner of the goods which were held in trust by the accused but rather it is PEAK Marketing who owns them. This is likewise untenable. If the goods really belong to PEAK Marketing, why then did respondent Judge declare the accused in bad faith when the latter paid directly to the former and ordered the latter to pay damages to the complaining-witness? Moreover, mere use by the complaining-witness of the forms of PEAK Marketing should not be taken against her, as this has become a practice among distributors.

    "In sum, respondent judge is clearly guilty of Gross Ignorance of the Law and Inefficiency. The elementary rule that ‘deceit with intent to defraud is not an essential requisite in Estafa under subdivision 1, par. (b), Article 315 of the Revised Penal Code’ has been established long before respondent became a member of the bar." 1chanrob1es virtua1 law library

    On 01 March 2000, the Court required the parties to manifest whether or not they were submitting the case for resolution on the basis of the pleadings on record. The parties responded in the affirmative.

    The contention of respondent judge that criminal intent (intent to defraud) must first be established in a crime of estafa is not always true. That element is not a necessary ingredient of embezzlement under subdivision 1, paragraph (b), of Article 315 of the Revised Penal Code. It is the breach of confidence or infidelity in the conversion or diversion of trust funds that takes the place of the usual element, in other forms of estafa, of fraud or deceit. Comparatively few men misappropriate trust funds with the intent of defrauding the owner; in most instances, the offender hopes to be able to restore the funds before the defalcation is discovered. 2 The prosecution must only establish the concurrence of the following elements in this kind of estafa, to wit: (1) that money, goods, or other personal property be received by the offender in trust, or on commission, or for administration, or under any other obligation involving the duty to make delivery of, or to return the same; (2) that there be misappropriation or conversion of such money or property by the offender, or denial on his part of such receipt; (3) that such misappropriation or conversion or denial is to the prejudice of another; and (4) that there is a demand made by the offended party to the offender. All these elements are extant in Criminal Case 5434. As has so correctly been pointed by the OCA, it is immaterial whether the sums of money or goods misappropriated constitute the whole obligation or only a part thereof. In Criminal Case No. 5434, complainant and the accused have agreed that the goods, delivered to the latter to be sold on commission, are to be disposed of within a period of one month or, if unsold, to be returned to the complainant. The failure of the accused to account, upon demand, for the funds or the property held by her in trust is evidence of the conversion of the property. 3

    Respondent judge tried to excuse himself by holding that the accused did not misappropriate and misapply to her own personal use the proceeds of the sale by effecting a direct payment to PEAK Marketing. Respondent judge failed to consider the fact that the so-called payment was effected by the accused belatedly, i.e., already during the pendency of the criminal case for estafa filed against her. A subsequent payment made by an accused would not obliterate the criminal liability theretofore already incurred. 4

    A judge is called upon to exhibit more than just a cursory acquaintance with statutes and procedural rules; 5 so long as he remains on the bench, it is imperative that he continues to be conversant with the basic law and maintain the desired professional competence.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    The Court finds it fit, however, to reduce the recommended fine of P5,000.00 to P2,000.00 considering that no nefarious motive on the part of respondent judge has been shown.

    WHEREFORE, respondent judge is found guilty of gross inefficiency and ignorance of the law, and he is hereby ordered to pay a FINE in the amount of Two Thousand Pesos (P2,000.00) with a warning that the commission of similar conduct in the future will be dealt with most severely.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    SO ORDERED.

    Melo, Panganiban, Purisima and Gonzaga-Reyes, JJ., concur.

    Endnotes:



    1. OCA Report and Recommendation, p. 3.

    2. U S. v. Sevilla, 43 Phil. 186.

    3. U.S. v. Zamora, 2 Phil. 582.

    4. U.S. v. Guzman, 1 Phil. 138.

    5. De los Santos-Reyes v. Montesa, Jr., 247 SCRA 85.

    A.M. No. MTJ-00-1309   September 6, 2000 - FREDESMINDA DAYAWON v. MAXIMINO A. BADILLA


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