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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
September-2001 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. 137538 September 3, 2001 - OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN v. HON. FRANCISCO B. IBAY

  • A.M. No. MTJ-00-1249 September 4, 2001 - PHIL. GERIATRICS FOUNDATION, ET AL. v. LYDIA QUERUBIN LAYOSA

  • A.M. No. P-00-1373 September 4, 2001 - ELIZABETH A. TIONGCO v. ROGELIO S. MOLINA, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. P-01-1501 September 4, 2001 - JOSEPHINE D. SARMIENTO v. ALBERT S. SALAMAT

  • A.M. No. P-01-1502 September 4, 2001 - CRESENCIO N. BONGALOS v. JOSE R. MONUNGOLH and VICTORIA D. JAMITO

  • A.M. No. P-99-1357 September 4, 2001 - SHERWIN M. BALOLOY v. JOSE B. FLORES

  • A.M. No. RTJ-01-1651 September 4, 2001 - PROSECUTOR LEO C. TABAO v. JUDGE FRISCO T. LILAGAN

  • G.R. No. 125359 September 4, 2001 - ROBERTO S. BENEDICTO and HECTOR T. RIVERA v. THE COURT OF APPEALS

  • G.R. No. 126859 September 4, 2001 - YOUSEF AL-GHOUL, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 127181 September 4, 2001 - LAND BANK OF THE PHIL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 132709 September 4, 2001 - CAMILO L. SABIO, ET AL. v. INTERNATIONAL CORPORATE BANK, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 134490 September 4, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. JOEL BRAGAT

  • G.R. Nos. 135356-58 September 4, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MELECIO SAGARINO

  • G.R. No. 138923 September 4, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ANITA AYOLA, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. MTJ-01-1344 September 5, 2001 - LYDIO ARCILLA, ET AL. v. LUCIO PALAYPAYON, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128145 September 5, 2001 - J.C. LOPEZ & ASSOCIATES v. COMMISSION ON AUDIT, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 133886 September 5, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. OSCAR PARBA

  • G.R. No. 134101 September 5, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FELINO O. LLANITA

  • G.R. No. 136054 September 5, 2001 - SEVERINA SAN MIGUEL v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 132714 September 6, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RENATO LALINGJAMAN

  • G.R. Nos. 139064-66 September 6, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALBERTO ARCE

  • G.R. No. 140529 September 6, 2001 - JOSE P. LOPEZ v. OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 141400 September 6, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EVANGELINE GANENAS

  • Admin. Case. No. 4863 September 7, 2001 - URBAN BANK v. ATTY. MAGDALENO M. PEÑA

  • G.R. No. 114858-59 September 7, 2001 - COLUMBUS PHILIPPINES BUS CORPORATION v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION

  • G.R. No. 126352 September 7, 2001 - GSIS v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 127261 September 7, 2001 - VISAYAN SURETY & INSURANCE CORPORATION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129644 September 7, 2001 - CHINA BANKING CORP. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 131805 September 7, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. GREGORIO HERMOSA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 132064 September 7, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ISAGANI BAYENG, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 132320 September 7, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. CONRADO OJERIO

  • G.R. Nos. 135402-03 September 7, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. IAN GONZAGA

  • G.R. No. 136779 September 7, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ARNEL ASUNCION

  • G.R. No. 142065 September 7, 2001 - LENIDO LUMANOG v. HON. JAIME N. SALAZAR

  • G.R. No. 142875 September 7, 2001 - EDGAR AGUSTILO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 144877 September 7, 2001 - DEVELOPMENT BANK OF THE PHIL. v. VERONICA AGUIRRE, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. P-01-1506 September 10, 2001 - GEORGE S. BICBIC v. DHALIA E. BORROMEO

  • G.R. Nos. 104769 & 135016 September 10, 2001 - AFP MUTUAL BENEFIT ASSO. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118943 September 10, 2001 - MARIO HORNALES v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130362 September 10, 2001 - INT’L FLAVORS & FRAGRANCES (PHIL.) v. MERLIN J. ARGOS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 138485 September 10, 2001 - DR. v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE

  • G.R. No. 141970 September 10, 2001 - METROPOLITAN BANK v. FLORO T. ALEJO

  • G.R. No. 145588 September 10, 2001 - ESPERIDION LOPEZ, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 140398 September 11, 2001 - FRANCISCO DELA MERCED, ET AL. v. GSIS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121877 September 12, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL v. ERLINDA GONZALES

  • G.R. Nos. 138431-36 September 12, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DIOSCORA M. ARABIA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 140903 September 12, 2001 - HENRY SY v. COMMISSION ON SETTLEMENT OF LAND PROBLEMS, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. 00-1-4-03-SC September 13, 2001 - RE: REQUEST FOR LIVE RADIO-TV COVERAGE OF THE TRIAL IN THE SANDIGANBAYAN OF THE PLUNDER CASES AGAINST FORMER PRESIDENT JOSEPH E. ESTRADA v. JOSEPH E. ESTRADA and INTEGRATED BAR OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • A.M. No. 00-4-188-RTC September 13, 2001 - REQUEST OF MR. OSCAR T. LLAMAS FOR RE-ASSIGNMENT OSCAR T. LLAMAS v. EMMANUEL LACANDOLA AND ET. AL.

  • G.R. No. 120009 September 13, 2001 - DOLE PHILIPPINES v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION

  • G.R. No. 122095 September 13, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. DOMINGO DAWISAN

  • G.R. No. 127913 September 13, 2001 - RCBC v. METRO CONTAINER CORP.

  • G.R. No. 132354 September 13, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DEOMEDES IGLESIA

  • G.R. Nos. 136840-42 September 13, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMEO NAVARETTE

  • G.R. No. 137250-51 September 13, 2001 - PABLO MARGAREJO v. HON. ADELARDO ESCOSES

  • G.R. No. 138972-73 September 13, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EUGENIO B. MARQUEZ, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 140512 September 13, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PETER PELERAS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 142043 September 13, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. NELSON BITUON

  • G.R. No. 142430 September 13, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RONNIE QUINICIO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 142444 September 13, 2001 - OFELIA D. ARTUZ v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 142649 September 13, 2001 - ANTONIO C. SAN LUIS v. COURT OF APPEALS

  • G.R. No. 143702 September 13, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ZALDY MENDOZA

  • G.R. No. 129212 September 14, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. MARIO LACUESTA, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-00-1575 September 17, 2001 - ISAGANI RIZON v. JUDGE OSCAR E. ZERNA

  • A.M. No. RTJ 99-1498 September 17, 2001 - VICENTE P. LIM v. JUDGE JACINTA B. TAMBAGO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111584 September 17, 2001 - PRODUCERS BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES v. COURT OF APPEALS and SPOUSES SALVADOR Y. CHUA and EMILIA U. CHUA

  • G.R. No. 135644 September 17, 2001 - GOVERNMENT SERVICE INSURANCE SYSTEM v. SPOUSES GONZALO and MATILDE LABUNG-DEANG

  • G.R. No. 135912 September 17, 2001 - ODIN SECURITY AGENCY v. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 138219 September 17, 2001 - GERARDO V. TAMBAOAN, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 138943-44 September 17, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. HENRY ALMAZAN

  • G.R. No. 141209 September 17, 2001 - ANTONIA HUFANA, ET AL. v. WILLIAM ONG GENATO

  • A. C. No. 5043 September 19, 2001 - ABEDIN L. OSOP v. ATTY. V. EMMANUEL C. FONTANILLA

  • G.R. No. 135936 September 19, 2001 - THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. GUALBERTO MIRADOR alias "GOLING"

  • G.R. No. 144400 September 19, 2001 - DOMINGO O. IGNACIO v. COCA-COLA BOTTLERS PHILS.

  • A.M. No. MTJ-01-1369 September 20, 2001 - GUILLERMA D. CABAÑERO v. JUDGE ANTONIO K. CAÑON

  • A.M. No. MTJ-01-1371 September 20, 2001 - ATTY. NESCITO C. HILARIO v. JUDGE ROMEO A. QUILANTANG

  • A.M. No. RTJ-99-1472 September 20, 2001 - SPOUSES HERMINIO, ET Al. v. HON. DEMETRIO D. CALIMAG

  • A.M. No. P-01-1483 September 20, 2001 - EDNA FE F. AQUINO v. ISABELO LAVADIA

  • G.R. No. 116938 September 20, 2001 - LEONILA GARCIA-RUEDA v. REMEDIOS A. AMOR, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 127405 September 20, 2001 - MARJORIE TOCAO and WILLIAM T. BELO v. COURT OF APPEALS and NENITA A. ANAY

  • G.R. No. 130399 September 20, 2001 - PUBLIC UTILITIES DEPARTMENT v. HON. TEOFISTO T. GUINGONA

  • G.R. Nos. 135068-72 September 20, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MAXIMO RAMOS

  • G.R. No. 137674 September 20, 2001 - WILLIAM GO KIM HUY v. SANTIAGO GO KIM HUY, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 139410 September 20, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. SILVERIO AGUERO

  • G.R. No. 140898 September 20, 2001 - THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. JOSE ISHIKAWA AMBA

  • A.M. No. P-99-1289 September 21, 2001 - JUDGE NAPOLEON S. DIAMANTE v. ANTHONY A. ALAMBRA

  • G.R. Nos. 119609-10 September 21, 2001 - PCGG v. HONORABLE SANDIGANBAYAN (Third Division), ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128876 September 21, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. MANOLITO FELIZAR y CAPULI

  • G.R. No. 132384 September 21, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. MARLON GADIA

  • G.R. No. 134596 September 21, 2001 - RAYMUND ARDONIO v. THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 142889 September 21, 2001 - EXECUTIVE LABOR ARBITER RICARDO N. OLAIREZ v. OMBUDSMAN ANIANO A. DESIERTO

  • G.R. No. 145416 September 21, 2001 - GOLDEN HORIZON REALTY CORPORATION v. SY CHUAN

  • A.M. No. 99-6-79-MTC September 24, 2001 - REPORT ON THE JUDICIAL AUDIT CONDUCTED IN THE MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURT

  • A.M. No. P-01-1512 September 24, 2001 - TERESITA H. ZIPAGAN v. JOVENCIO N. TATTAO

  • G.R. Nos. 132442-44 September 24, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. BERNARDINO ARANZADO

  • G.R. Nos. 135524-25 September 24, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. MANOLITO AGUSTIN

  • G.R. No. 141897 September 24, 2001 - METRO CONSTRUCTION v. CHATHAM PROPERTIES

  • G.R. No. 144404 September 24, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. LEODEGARIO BASCUGUIN Y AGQUIZ

  • G.R. Nos. 127759-60 September 25, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PO3 NOEL FELICIANO

  • G.R. Nos. 134527-28 September 25, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. SERAPIO REY alias APIONG

  • G.R. Nos. 136867-68 September 25, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. RODRIGO GALVEZ y JEREZ

  • G.R. No. 137612 September 25, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. FRANCISCO ANTINERO BERIARMENTE

  • A.C. No. 4497 September 26, 2001 - MR. and MRS. VENUSTIANO G. SABURNIDO v. ATTY. FLORANTE E. MADROÑO

  • A.C. No. 4990 September 26, 2001 - ELENA ZARATE-BUSTAMANTE and LEONORA SAVET CATABIAN v. ATTY. FLORENTINO G. LIBATIQUE

  • G.R. No. 122824 September 26, 2001 - AURORA F. IGNACIO v. VALERIANO BASILIO,

  • G.R. No. 123058 September 26, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALFREDO NAPUD, JR.

  • G.R. No. 129107 September 26, 2001 - ALFONSO L. IRINGAN v. HON. COURT OF APPEALS , ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 129530-31 September 26, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. WILFREDO OLARTE

  • G.R. Nos. 138308-10 September 26, 2001 - THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. PABLO SANTOS

  • G.R. No. 142564 September 26, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. HILGEM NERIO y GIGANTO

  • G.R. Nos. 143108-09 September 26, 2001 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. v. COURT OF APPEALS

  • Adm. Case. No. 5505 September 27, 2001 - SEVERINO RAMOS v. ATTY. ELLIS JACOBA and ATTY. OLIVIA VELASCO JACOBA

  • G.R. No. 131864-65 September 27, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. SHERJOHN ARONDAIN and JOSE PRECIOSO

  • G.R. Nos. 134963-64 September 27, 2001 - ALFREDO LONG and FELIX ALMERIA v. LYDIA BASA

  • G.R. No. 137676 September 27, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. ATTY. ROBERTO DIONISIO

  • G.R. No. 144035 September 27, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. VICENTE M. BASQUEZ

  • A.M. No. P-00-1391 September 28, 2001 - LIBRADA D. TORRES v. NELSON C. CABESUELA

  • G.R. No. 122425 September 28, 2001 - FLORDELIZA H. CABUHAT v. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS

  • G.R. No. 124535 September 28, 2001 - THE RURAL BANK OF LIPA CITY, ET AL. v. HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125154 September 28, 2001 - DIGNA VERGEL v. COURT OF APPEALS and DOROTEA-TAMISIN GONZALES

  • G.R. No. 125442 September 28, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. FERNANDO ARELLANO y ROBLES

  • G.R. No. 127232 September 28, 2001 - GOLDENROD v. HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS and PATHFINDER HOLDINGS (PHILIPPINES)

  • G.R. No. 127241 September 28, 2001 - LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE, ET AL. v. NLRC , ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 134128 September 28, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. GERARDO DE LAS ERAS y ZAFRA

  • G.R. No. 134928 September 28, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. FILOMENO BARNUEVO. ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 140789-92 September 28, 2001 - THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. ALIPIO CARBONELL and DIONISIO CARBONELL

  • G.R. No. 145371 September 28, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. BEN AQUINO and ROMEO AQUINO

  •  





     
     

    G.R. No. 134101   September 5, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FELINO O. LLANITA

     
    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    EN BANC

    [G.R. No. 134101. September 5, 2001.]

    PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. FELINO LLANITA y OPIANA, Accused-Appellant.

    D E C I S I O N


    PER CURIAM:


    On automatic review is the Decision 1 dated April 22, 1998 of the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Dasmariñas, Cavite, Branch 90 in Criminal Case No. 4343-96 finding the accused, Felino Llanita y Opiana, guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of qualified rape.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    On July 29, 1996, an Information 2 for rape based on a verified complaint filed by Nenita C. Acol, the mother of the victim Catherine C. Acol (CATHERINE), was filed against the accused Felino Llanita y Opiana as follows:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "That on or about the 25th day of March 1996, at Barangay Binakayan, Municipality of Kawit, Province of Cavite, Philippines and within the jurisdiction of Honorable Court, the above-named accused, taking advantage of his superior strength over the person of the victim who is only five (5) years old, with lewd designs and by means of force, violence and intimidation, did then and there, willfully, unlawfully and feloniously, have carnal knowledge of one Catherine Acol, against her will and consent, to her damage and prejudice.

    CONTRARY TO LAW."cralaw virtua1aw library

    Upon arraignment, the accused with the assistance of counsel entered a plea of not guilty. 3 Thereafter, trial ensued.

    CATHERINE testified that she was raped by the accused inside the latter’s house in the presence of her playmates, the children of the accused, at noon of March 25, 1996.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    CATHERINE testified as follows:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "INTERPRETER:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Please state your name, age and other personal circumstances.

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    I am CATHERINE ACOL, 6 years old, student and a resident of Binakayan, Cavite.

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Your witness.

    PROS. JARLOS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    We are offering the testimony of this witness to prove to this Honorable Court that she will testify of what had transpired on March 25, 1996 when she was raped by the accused. With the kind permission of the Honorable Court.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Please proceed.

    PROS. JARLOS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Do you know Felino Llanita?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Yes, Sir.

    PROS. JARLOS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    He is also known as Junjun?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Yes, sir.

    Q: If he is inside the Courtroom, could you point to him.

    INTERPRETER:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Witness pointing to a man who when asked answered to the name Felino Llanita.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    PROS. JARLOS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Now, Catherine, this guy you pointed a while ago, is he your friend?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    No, Sir.

    Q: Is he a good guy?

    A: No, Sir.

    Q: Why do you say that he is not a friend or not a good guy?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: What did he do to you?

    A: He undressed me, Sir.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    Q: After undressing you, what did he do next?

    A: He put a blanket over me, Sir.

    Q: After putting a blanket over you, what happened next?

    A: He kissed me, Sir.

    PROS. JARLOS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    A: After kissing your what did he do to you next, if there is any?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    He inserted his penis, Sir.

    INTERPRETER:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Witness pointing to her organ.

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Where did he kissed (sic) you?chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    He kissed on my cheek, Your Honor.

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Please proceed.

    PROS. JARLOS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    For how long did the penis of the accused inserted (sic) to your vagina? "Matagal ba" ?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Yes, Sir.

    Q: Was it painful?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: Did you shout or cry?chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    A No, Sir.

    Q: Was there any person aside from the accused when this latter inserted his penis to your organ?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: Who was the person present when the accused inserted his penis?

    A: Itbe, Sir.

    PROS. JARLOS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Who is this Itbe?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    The sibling of Tintin.

    Q: And where this happened (sic)? At home?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: Who owned the house?

    A: It is the house of Junjun.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    Q: Did you not tell Junjun of what was he doing is bad?

    A: No, Sir.

    Q: How many times he inserted his penis to your organ aside from the date of March 25, 1996?

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Noong mga nakaraang araw may ginawa ba sa iyo si Junjun?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Yes, Your Honor.

    Q: How many times?

    A: 3 times, Your Honor.

    Q: When was the first time? Was it a long time?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: How about the second?chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    A: I cannot recall, anymore.

    PROS. JARLOS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    The first and the second incident, did you not tell it to your mother?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    No, Sir.

    Q: Why did you not tell it to your mother? Are you being threatened?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: What did he tell you?

    A: None, Sir.

    Q: Do you still want to go to Felino Llanita?

    A: No, Sir.chanrob1es virtual law library

    Q: Why? Where was the first time Junjun molest you?

    A: At his house.

    Q: What about the second one?

    A: Also at his house, Sir.

    Q: When did you tell to your mother about what Junjun has been doing to you?

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Yung una kailan mo sinabi?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    No, Your Honor.

    Q: Yung pangalawa kailan mo sinabi?

    A: No, Your Honor.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    Q: Yung pangatlo?

    A: No, Your Honor.

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Anymore questions?

    PROS. JARLOS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    No further questions.

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Cross?

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    With the kind permission of the Honorable Court?

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Please proceed.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    A while ago you pointed to Felino Llanita, now, why did (sic) you know him?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    She happens to be my neighbor, Sir.

    Q: Do you know where Felino Llanita is living?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: And do you know with whom he’s living?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: To whom is he living with?

    A: Bella Llanita, Sir.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    INTERPRETER:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Witness pointing to a woman beside Felino Llanita.

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Is it not true that the person with whom you mentioned are Felino Llanita’s children?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Yes, Sir.

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    And these children are your playmates?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Yes, Sir.

    Q: Do you go to the house where Felino Llanita was living?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: Why do you go there?chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    A: Because she would asked me to go there. I referring to Tintin.

    Q: Is Tintin your playmate?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: Is it not a fact that Tintin has brothers and sisters?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: Do you know how many are they?

    A: Only one.

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Is he boy or girl?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Girl your Honor.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    What is the name of Tintin’s sibling?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Itbe, Sir.

    Q: When you go to her she is always with you?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    And you play (sic)?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Yes, Sir.

    Q: After playing with Tintin did she bring you home?

    A: No, Sir.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    Q: Where (sic) you and Tintin play?

    A: At their house.

    Q: Inside the house or outside?

    A: Inside the house, Sir.

    Q: While playing inside the house, do (sic) you see Felino Llanita?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: What was he doing?

    A: None (sic), Sir.

    Q: How about the mother of Tintin, is she around?

    A: None, Sir.

    Q: Did you see Felino Llanita’s children?

    A: They were upstairs of the house.cralaw : red

    Q: Do you know what are they doing there?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    What were they doing there?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    They were playing, Sir.

    Q: She’s playing with whom?

    A: Many Sir.

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    What time day or night did you go to the house of Felino Llanita?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Noontime, Your Honor.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Do you know Tintin was taking her lunch?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    No, Sir.

    Q: And what time did you leave?

    A: Noontime, Sir.

    Q: A while ago you said Felino Llanita removed your dress and put blanket over you, where did he do this on what part of the house?

    A: On the bed.

    Q: A while ago you said that the house of Felino Llanita has two floors?

    A: Yes, Sir.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    Q: While the accused molest you where was your playmate?

    A: They were upstairs, Sir.

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Do you know what was Tintin doing?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    She was playing, Sir.

    Q: Playing with whom?

    A: She was playing with Roanna.

    Q: Who as Roanna?

    A: My playmate too.

    Q: When Junjun inserted his private organ was anybody around?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: Who were they?cralaw : red

    A: They were Roanna, Tintin and Itbe.

    Q: You did not ask them to help you?

    A: No, Sir.

    Q: Did anybody tell you what to say today?

    A: Nobody, Sir.

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    When Junjun did those things to you for the first time, second time and third time did you feel any pain?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    I felt pain, Your Honor.

    Q: When did you feel the pain, the first-time he did that to you, the second time and the third time?

    A: I cannot remember, Your Honor.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    After Junjun inserted his penis to your vagina, did you notice (sic) coming out in your private part?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    I could no longer recall.

    Q: How about the second time, did you see blood coming from your organ?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: How about the third time?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: At the time, are you wearing any panty and the blood still oozing at your panty?chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: When you went home your mother was in your house?

    A: Yes, Sir.

    Q: You change your panty or not?

    A: I did change, Sir.

    Q: Who wash your panty?

    A: My mother.

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    That would be all, Your Honor.

    PROS. JAROS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    On re-direct, Your Honor. And everytime the accused did that to you inserting his penis the woman you pointed a while ago is around?chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    No, Sir.

    PROS. JARLOS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    That will be all for the witness.

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Any re-cross?

    ATTY. TARO:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    And everytime Junjun did that to you your playmates Tintin, Roanna and Itbe are around?

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Yes, Sir.

    COURT:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    But when the accused Junjun does it to you were they around in the place where Junjun doing it to you?chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    WITNESS:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Yes, Your Honor." 4

    The accused denied that he raped CATHERINE. He claimed that he was working at a repair shop where he was employed from seven o’clock in the morning up to five o’clock in the afternoon on the date the alleged rape occurred.

    On April 22, 1998, the RTC rendered a decision finding the accused guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of rape. The dispositive portion of the decision reads:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "WHEREFORE, premises considered, the accused, FELINO LLANITA, is sentenced to suffer the penalty of DEATH, for committing the crime of rape of the five-year old Catherine Acol on the 25th day of March 1996.

    SO ORDERED." 5

    In view of the imposition of the death penalty, the case is now before this Court on automatic review.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    In his brief, the accused-appellant assigns the following error committed by the RTC:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "THE TRIAL COURT ERRED IN CONVICTING THE ACCUSED-APPELLANT DESPITE THE FACT THAT HIS GUILT HAS NOT BEEN PROVEN BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT." 6

    In support of his appeal, the accused-appellant opines that in convicting him, the lower court did not rely on the strength of the prosecution’s evidence but on the weakness of his defense. The accused-appellant stresses that it is the burden of the prosecution to prove his guilt beyond reasonable doubt and that he is presumed innocent unless proven otherwise.

    The accused-appellant also claims that the testimony of the alleged rape victim, CATHERINE, is unworthy of belief, unnatural and incredible. He points out that although CATHERINE claimed to have been raped on three occasions, she never testified as to the date of any of the rapes, not even for the third rape for which he was charged. Moreover, since CATHERINE testified that she bled during the second alleged rape, her mother would have noticed the blood stains on CATHERINE’s underwear and should have already suspected that her child was molested. It is also claimed by the accused-appellant that CATHERINE’s testimony contradicts the findings of the medical report as testified to by Dr. Armie Loreta, who stated that she did not find any fresh lacerations when she examined CATHERINE the day following the commission of the alleged rape.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    Finally, the accused-appellant claims that the prosecution never presented any competent evidence to prove the allegation in the information that CATHERINE was five (5) years old. Absent such evidence, no conclusion can be made regarding the age of the victim.

    After a meticulous review of the case, we resolve to affirm the judgment of conviction.

    The accused-appellant’s main defense consists of alibi and denial.

    The defense of alibi is the weakest of all defenses for it is easy to contrive and difficult to prove. 7 A positive identification of the accused made by an eyewitness prevails over such a defense. 8 Moreover, the denial of the accused-appellant cannot prevail over the categorical testimony of CATHERINE that he raped her. There was no showing that she was motivated to falsely implicate him in the commission of such a heinous crime and the absence of convincing evidence showing any improper motive on the part of the principal witnesses for the prosecution strongly tends to sustain the conclusion that no such improper motive exists, and that their testimonies are worthy of full faith and credit. 9 In her testimony, CATHERINE narrated in detail how she was raped by the accused-appellant and positively identified him as the perpetrator of the rape.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    The accused-appellant’s attempt to discredit CATHERINE’s testimony by claiming that she never mentioned the precise date and time of the commission of the offense and that her mother did not notice blood in her underwear despite her claim that she bled on two of the alleged rapes is unpersuasive.

    It has been consistently held that the date of the commission of the rape is not an essential element of the crime. 10 Moreover, the victim was subjected to a medical examination upon written request of the Chief of Police on March 26, 1996 as an alleged victim of rape. As regards the allegation that CATHERINE’s mother did not notice any blood on CATHERINE’s underwear, this is a mere claim made by the defense and is based merely on conjecture. Nenita Acol herself did not testify. It bears stress that the determination of the competence and credibility of a child to testify rests primarily with the trial judge who sees the witness, notices her manner, her apparent possession or lack of intelligence, as well as her understanding of the obligation of an oath. 11 The findings of the trial court on the credibility of witnesses and their testimonies are accorded great respect unless the court a quo overlooked, substantial facts and circumstances, which if considered, would materially affect the result of the case. 12 The evaluation or assessment made by the trial court acquires greater significance in rape cases because from the nature of the offense, the only evidence that can oftentimes be offered to establish the guilt of the accused is the complainant’s testimony. 13 In the present case, we find no cogent basis to disturb the trial court’s finding disregarding the testimony of the accused-appellant and upholding the credibility of the complainant CATHERINE who, despite undergoing a rigorous cross-examination, withstood a barrage of questions, stood firm on her assertions and remained unfaltering in her testimony on the unfortunate incident.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    The accused-appellant’s claim that CATHERINE’s testimony is contradicted by the findings of the medical report 14 as testified to by Dr. Armie Soreta-Umil, who stated that she did not find any fresh lacerations when she examined CATHERINE the day following the commission of the alleged rape is also unconvincing. Absence of hymenal lacerations does not disprove sexual abuse especially when the victim is of tender age. 15 To prove rape, it is sufficient to establish that the penis touched the labia of the pudendum of the victim. 16 In the present case, CATHERINE’s testimony, where she stated that the accused-appellant inserted his penis into her vagina, is uncontroverted. Dr. Armie Soreta-Umil herself confirmed that there was possibility of penetration of the tip of the male organ into the vagina despite CATHERINE’s tender age. 17 Moreover, the medical report in fact corroborates CATHERINE’s testimony to the effect that she was previously raped on two occasions by accused-appellant since the medical report reveals that there were "old healed complete hymenal lacerations present" on CATHERINE.

    Given that the guilt of the accused-appellant has been proved beyond reasonable doubt, should he be meted the supreme penalty of death despite the failure of the prosecution to present in evidence CATHERINE’s birth certificate or other documentary evidence as proof of her age?

    We rule affirmatively.

    Article 336 of the Revised Penal Code, as amended by Section 11 of R.A. 7659, insofar as applicable, reads:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "The death penalty shall also be imposed if the crime of rape is committed with any of the following attendant circumstances:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    x       x       x


    4. when the victim is a religious or a child below seven (7) years old." (Emphasis supplied)chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    The prosecution is tasked with the burden of proving the age of the victim beyond reasonable doubt in order to appreciate age as a qualifying circumstance.

    In the present case, although the only evidence presented by the prosecution to establish that CATHERINE was below seven (7) years old at the time of the commission of the rape was her own testimony, there is no reason to doubt the sufficiency of the said evidence. Her testimony as to her age was never questioned by the accused-appellant in the lower court and remained unrebutted at the trial. And such testimony regarding her age is admissible although hearsay, for she can have no personal knowledge of the date of her birth, as all knowledge as to one’s age is acquired from whatever is told by the parents or relatives and such testimony constitutes an assertion of family tradition. 18 It is admissible under Section 40 of Rule 130 of the Rules of Court (Revised Rules on Evidence) which reads:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "SECTION 40. Family reputation or tradition regarding pedigree — The reputation or tradition existing in a family previous to the controversy, in respect to the pedigree of any of its members, may be received in evidence if the witness testifying thereon be also a member of the family, either by consanguinity or affinity. . . ."cralaw virtua1aw library

    The above provision contains three requisites for its admissibility, namely: 1.) that there is a controversy in respect to the pedigree of any of the members of a family; 2.) that the reputation or tradition of the pedigree existed previous to the controversy; and 3.) that the witness testifying to the reputation or tradition regarding the pedigree of the person must be a member of the family of said person. 19 The word "pedigree" under Section 39 of the same Rule includes relationship, family genealogy, birth, marriage, death, the dates when and places where these facts occurred and the names of relatives. 20 All three requisites are present in the case at bar.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    Admittedly, there have recently been cases where the court applied a more rigid rule requiring that the prosecution present the birth certificate or other documentary evidence when testimonial evidence is insufficient or unreliable to prove the age of the victim. Thus, in People v. Javier 21 , People v. Tipay 22 , and People v. Cula 23 , it was ruled that independent proof other than testimonial evidence is required to prove the victim’s age in cases when the age of the victim is alleged to fall within fifteen (15) to eighteen (18) years old. We ratiocinated that "in this age of modernism, there is hardly a difference between a 16-year old girl and an 18-year old one insofar as physical features and attributes are concerned" and that "the crucial years pertain to the ages of fifteen to seventeen where minority may seem dubitable due to one’s physical appearance." In People v. Brigildo 24 , the testimonies of the prosecution witnesses respecting the age of the victim were deemed insufficient considering that the records were unclear as to the victim’s exact age. The Informations therein alleged that the victim was eleven (11) years old when she was raped yet, when the victim testified a year later, she stated that she was still eleven (11) years old. Moreover, the testimony of her mother was to the effect that the victim was already fifteen (15) years old at the time she was raped. Given that the true age of the victim was put in doubt, the court considered the evidence presented insufficient to prove her age.25cralaw:red

    This Court has also pronounced that the presentation of the birth certificate or any other official document is no longer necessary to prove minority. 26 Thus, when as in this case, the age of the victim was never put in doubt and was in fact sufficiently established, there is no corresponding obligation on the part of the prosecution to present other evidence if the testimony of the witness who is competent to testify is sufficient to prove the age of the victim. The presentation of the birth certificate would merely be corroborative of the evidence already, presented. 27 In his testimony, the accused-appellant himself, who claimed that CATHERINE was his niece as her mother was his first cousin, admitted that CATHERINE was "five years old last 1996." 28 Had the accused-appellant indeed doubted the age of the victim, he could have presented her birth certificate. 29 We also note that the certified true copy of CATHERINE’s birth certificate which was submitted to this Court pursuant to our Resolution dated October 10, 2000 confirms that CATHERINE was born on June 19, 1990 and was thus only five years old at the time she was raped.

    Finally, we award CATHERINE the amounts of P75,000.00 as civil indemnity and P50,000.00 as moral damages considering that the crime was committed under circumstances which justify the imposition of the death penalty in accordance with prevailing jurisprudence. 30

    Four justices of the Court maintain that R.A. 7659 is unconstitutional insofar as it prescribes the death penalty; nevertheless they submit to the ruling of the majority to the effect that the law is constitutional and that the death penalty can be lawfully imposed in the case at bar.

    WHEREFORE, the appealed decision of the Regional Trial Court finding the accused-appellant FELINO LLANITA y OPIANA, guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of qualified rape is AFFIRMED. The accused-appellant is hereby sentenced to DEATH and is further ordered to pay the victim, Catherine C. Acol, the amounts of P75,000.00 as civil indemnity and P50,000.00 as moral damages.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    Upon finality of this decision, let certified true copies thereof as well as the records of this case be forthwith forwarded to the Office of the President for possible exercise of her pardoning power.

    No pronouncement as to costs.

    SO ORDERED.

    Davide, Jr., C.J., Bellosillo, Melo, Puno, Vitug, Kapunan, Mendoza, Panganiban, Quisumbing, Pardo, Buena, Gonzaga-Reyes, Ynares-Santiago, De Leon, Jr. and Sandoval-Gutierrez, JJ., concur.

    Endnotes:



    1. Penned by Judge Dolores L. Español.

    2. Rollo, p. 4.

    3. Order dated August 9, 1996; Record, p. 14.

    4. TSN, December 9, 1996, pp. 2-13.

    5. Decision, p. 11.

    6. Appellant’s Brief, p. 1.

    7. People v. Abdul, 310 SCRA 246, 254 [1999].

    8. Ibid.

    9. Ibid., 265.

    10. People v. Carullo, 311 SCRA 680, 691 [1999].

    11. People v. Garigadi, 317 SCRA 399, 415 [1999].

    12. People v. Cheng Ho Chua, 305 SCRA 28, 36 [1999].

    13. People v. Alitagtag, 309 SCRA 325, 335 [1999].

    14. "Findings

    GENERAL PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

    Height: 101. cms. Weight: 32.5

    Normally developed, fairly nourished, conscious, coherent, cooperative, ambulatory subject.

    Breasts, infantile. Areolae, light brown, 1.1 cm in diameter. Nipples, light brown flat, 0.2 cm. in diameter.

    No extragenital physical injuries noted.

    Pubic hair, no growth. Labia majora and minora, coaptated. Fourchette, tense. Vestibular mucosa, pinkish. Hymen, short, thin, with old healed complete laceration at 7:00 o’clock position corresponding to the face of a watch, edges rounded, non coaptable. Hymenal orifice measures 1.0 cm in diameter. Vaginal walls and rugosities cannot be reached by the examining finger.

    CONCLUSIONS

    1. No evident sign of extragenital physical injuries noted on the body of the subject at the time of the examination.

    2. Old healed complete hymenal laceration present."cralaw virtua1aw library

    15. People v. Ayo, 305 SCRA 543, 549 [1999].

    16. People v. Campuhan, 329 SCRA 271, 279-282 [2000].

    17. TSN, December 9, 1996 at p. 5.

    18. People v. Velasco, G.R. Nos. 135231-33, February 28, 2001 at p. 19; People v. Silvano, 309 SCRA 362, 400 [1999].

    19. People v. Samillano, 207 SCRA 50, 54 [1992]; People v. Alegado, 201 SCRA 37, 45 [1991].

    20. People v. Samillano, Supra; People v. Alegado, Supra, 44.

    21. 311 SCRA 122 [1999].

    22. 329 SCRA 52 [2000].

    23. 329 SCRA 101 [2000].

    24. 323 SCRA 631 [2000].

    25. Ibid., pp. 649-650.

    26. People v. Velasco, supra at pp. 19-20; People v. De la Cruz, G.R. Nos. 131167-68, August 23, 2000 at pp. 18-21; People v. Tipay, Supra; See note 22 at p. 76.

    27. Corroborative evidence is additional evidence of a different kind and character, tending to prove the same point. See Vicente J. Francisco, EVIDENCE (Volume II, Part I, 1997), p. 4.

    28. TSN, November 3, 1997 at pp. 5-6.

    29. People v. De La Cruz, supra.

    30. People v. Torejos, 326 SCRA 75, 89 [2000].

    G.R. No. 134101   September 5, 2001 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FELINO O. LLANITA


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