People v. Ramos : 125898 : April 14, 2004 : J. Azcuna : First Division :
[G.R. NO. 125898.
PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES,
Appellee, v. RODOLFO RAMOS y ENRIQUEZ,
D E C I S I O N
On appeal is the Decision dated May 21, 1996 of the Court of
Appeals finding appellant Rodolfo Ramos y Enriquez guilty of the crime of
murder and sentencing him to suffer the penalty of reclusion perpetua.
The information under which appellant was charged states, as
That on or about October 6, 1991, in the
City of Manila, Philippines, the said accused, did then and there willfully,
unlawfully and feloniously with intent to kill and with treachery and evident
premeditation, attack, assault and use personal violence upon one ERWIN
PUNZALAN Y MERCADO, by then and there stabbing the latter with a bladed weapon
on the different parts of his body, thereby inflicting upon him mortal stab
wounds which were the direct and immediate cause of his death thereafter.2 cralawred
In his arraignment on February 26, 1992, appellant, assisted by
counsel, pleaded not guilty to the charge of murder.3 cralawred
Appellants conviction was principally based on the testimony of
a sole eyewitness, Rigor Almodovar.
On October 13, 1991, Rigor Almodovar voluntarily reported
to the Homicide Division of the Western Police District (WPD),
knowledge of a stabbing incident he witnessed on the night of October 6,
He executed a sworn statement4 wherein he related that at around 11:00 p. m. of the same date, he was riding
his bike on his way home when he noticed a man being stabbed in front of
Alhambra Cigarette Factory at the corner of Tayuman and Juan Luna Streets.
He witnessed the assailant stab the victim
three times with a bladed weapon.
was unable to get a close look at the victim, but was able to describe the
assailant as 55 to 57 in height, with burly built, fair complexion and wavy
He narrated therein that the
assailant kept stabbing the victim even as the latter was running away.
It was only when the victim fell down to the
ground that the assailant fled towards Tayuman Street.
Almodovar further stated that his sleepless
nights spent thinking that he could suffer the same fate had prompted him to
volunteer information on the incident. He was thereafter asked by the police
investigator to look at the detainees at the station. Upon seeing appellant as one of the detainees lined up, Almodovar
pointed to him as the assailant.
On the witness stand, Almodovar testified5 that from a distance of 3 meters, and with the light coming from the electric
post, he was able to observe that the victim, then surrounded by four men, was
facing appellant when the stabbing occurred.
He recalled seeing appellant use a knife with a 6-inch blade.
He saw blood coming out of the victims
body, but was unable to recognize the latters face. He declared that he did not have personal knowledge of the
victims identity and only learned thereof when he saw the incident reported in
Neither was he
acquainted with appellant.
stated that he never talked to anyone about what he witnessed until two weeks
after, when he reported to the police out of his own volition.
On cross-examination, he stated that he did
not mention in his sworn statement that the assailant was accompanied by three
other men because appellant was the only one he recognized.
6 the victims uncle, testified on the medical and funeral expenses he incurred,
the receipts of which were allegedly kept by the victims mother who resides
PO3 Rafael Melencio
7 police officer from the WPD, was initially assigned as the investigator of
He testified that at 11:35
p. m. of the night in question, he received information that an unidentified
person was found dead along Tayuman Street in front of Alhambra Cigarette
He proceeded to the crime
scene and found the victims lifeless body with stab wounds on the chest and
No eyewitness surfaced, but he
gathered from his investigation that the victim just came from the house of the
latters girlfriend who resided 30 meters away. He prepared an Advance Information Report, which the prosecution
submitted as documentary evidence.8 cralawred
Pfc. Alfredo Salazar
9 an investigator of the WPD, Homicide Division, testified that on October
13, 1991, a witness by the name of Rigor Almodovar personally came to their
office to volunteer information on the stabbing of Erwin Punzalan. Salazar took
Almodovars statement, prepared the Progress Report, and presented the witness
to the Inquest Prosecutor, who charged appellant with murder.
He thereafter prepared the Booking Sheet and
Arrest Report of appellant, who was then already being detained for a separate
Sr. Inspector Florante
,10 Medico-Legal Officer of the Philippine National Police, conducted an autopsy on
the cadaver of the victim.
on his findings as indicated in the Autopsy Sketch11 and Medico-Legal Report12 he submitted.
His examination disclosed
that the victim suffered two fatal stab wounds on the chest and one stab wound
on the left hand, which he opines to be a defense injury.
Finding no injuries at the back of the
victim, he stated that the relative position of the victim and the assailant
was more likely to be frontal.
As the sole witness for the defense, appellant
13 interposed the defense of alibi.
declared that on October 6, 1991, from 8:00 a. m. until 11:30 p. m.,
he was in
the company of his four friends in his residence at Franco Street, Tondo,
Manila, arranging T-shirts for sale.
About five to seven days later, while selling at the Pritil Market, he
was picked up by the police authorities and was brought to the police station.
He claimed that the police officers
attempted to extract a confession from him by beating him up at the police
station, as a result of which his dentures got broken and he sustained
contusions and abrasions on different parts of his body.
He further testified that there was no
police line-up during the investigation, for he was then standing alone outside
the detention cell when he was identified by the witness Almodovar.
On April 18, 1994, the Regional Trial Court of Manila, Branch 19,
rendered a decision finding appellant guilty of murder.
It rejected the defense of alibi in light of
appellants failure to present other witnesses to substantiate it.
Hence it sentenced appellant, as follows:chanroblesvirtua1awlibrary
WHEREFORE, and in view of all of the foregoing considerations, the
accused RODOLFO RAMOS Y ENRIQUEZ alias Dupong, is hereby found guilty beyond
reasonable doubt of the crime of MURDER defined and penalized under paragraph 1
of Article 248 of the Revised Penal Code, it appearing that even as the victim
was already attempting to run away, the accused pursued him and continued to stab
him until he fell on the ground. Consequently, the accused is hereby sentenced
to suffer the penalty of imprisonment from TWELVE (12) YEARS and ONE (1) DAY to
SEVENTEEN (17) YEARS and FOUR (4) MONTHS of reclusion temporal, and to
pay the heirs of the victim the sum of
P15,000. 00 for funeral expenses, P10,000. 00
for medical expenses and the sum of P50,000. 00 for the life of Erwin
Punzalan y Mercado, which the accused snuffed out from him.
SO ORDERED.14 cralawred
Appellant sought recourse to the Court of Appeals, which affirmed
the findings of the trial court.
however raised the penalty from reclusion temporalto reclusion perpetuaand deleted the award of medical expenses.
The dispositive portion of its May 21, 1996
Decision reads, as follows:chanroblesvirtua1awlibrary
WHEREFORE, the decision appealed from is hereby AFFIRMED with the
MODIFICATION that the penalty imposed upon accused-appellant, RODOLFO RAMOS y
ENRIQUEZ, should be raised to, as he is hereby sentenced to suffer, the penalty
of reclusion perpetua, and the award of
P10,000. 00 for medical expenses
After the lapse of the period for filing a motion for
reconsideration, the Division Clerk of this Court, following Section 13, Rule
124, Revised Rules of Court, is hereby ordered to desist from entering
judgment; instead she should elevate this case with its complete records to the
Supreme Court for review.
SO ORDERED.15 cralawred
Hence the instant appeal.
Appellant questions his conviction on the same grounds on which he
anchored his appeal to the Court of Appeals:
THE TRIAL COURT GRAVELY ERRED IN FINDING
THE ACCUSED GUILTY OF THE CRIME OF MURDER DESPITE FAILURE OF THE PROSECUTION TO
PROVE POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION THAT ACCUSED WAS THE ASSAILANT.
THE TRIAL COURT GRAVELY ERRED IN
DISREGARDING THE DEFENSE OF ALIBI INTERPOSED BY THE ACCUSED.16 cralawred
In addition, appellant in his supplemental brief contests his
conviction of murder despite the prosecutions failure to prove the attendance
of treachery.17 cralawred
Appellant argues that the prosecution failed sufficiently to
prove his identification as the assailant.
Claiming that it was the policemen who pointed to him for the witness to
identify, he puts emphasis on the following portion of Almodovars testimony:chanroblesvirtua1awlibrary
QHow were you made to
identify the accused at the HomicideSection?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
AI was told to describe
and then they pointed to me.18 cralawred
Appellants assertion misleads.
When seen in the context of the rest of the witnesss testimony, it can
be gleaned that the aforecited statement was subsequently clarified by
Almodovar himself, thus:chanroblesvirtua1awlibrary
QWhy[,] where was the
accused at that time when you gave your statement?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
AHe was already at the
QWhile giving your
statement all along you can see the accused from the detention cell?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
QAfter giving that
statement you were brought to the detention cell?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
QOr the accused [was]
brought out from the detention cell?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
AThey were asked to
line up inside the prison cell and I was asked
to point.19 cralawred
This Court sees no indication of
suggestive identification from the foregoing testimony.
The policemen had asked Almodovar to
identify the assailant from among the detainees lined up, without suggesting to
the witness whom to point to.
found by the Court of Appeals, he had already given a detailed description of
the assailant before he was brought near the detention cell to view the
detainees lined up.20 cralawred
Further, it bears stressing that appellant gave no proof of
ill-motive for Almodovar to testify falsely against him.
Appellant himself admitted in court that he
met the witness for the first time only during the investigation.21 Absent any ill-motive, this Court can only conclude that his act in imputing
the responsibility for the crime on appellant stemmed from a legitimate desire
to bring the perpetrator to justice.22 As held in numerous decisions, when there is no evidence that the principal
witness for the prosecution is moved by improper motives, such witness is
entitled to full faith and credit.23 cralawred
Against the positive identification by the eyewitness, appellant
offered nothing but the lame defense of alibi. Alibi is the weakest of
defenses, as it is easy to contrive and difficult to disprove.24 To merit serious consideration, this defense must be supported by credible
corroboration, preferably from disinterested witnesses.25 In the present case, not one of appellants four friends who were allegedly
with him on the night of the incident came forward to corroborate his alibi.
Moreover, for the defense of alibi to prosper, it is not enough
to show that the accused was somewhere else when the crime was committed.
He must further demonstrate that it was
physically impossible for him to have been at the scene of the crime at the
time of the commission thereof.26 Appellant, who was allegedly in his residence within the area, glaringly failed
in this regard.
defense of alibi therefore fails to overturn the prosecutions evidence proving
Although the prosecution sufficiently established that appellant
inflicted the fatal stab wounds on the victim, this Court holds that there was
insufficient proof of treachery to qualify the crime to murder.
Treachery is never presumed.27 Like any other qualifying circumstance, it must be proven with equal certainty
and clearness as the crime itself.28 The prosecution has the burden to prove that at the time of the attack, the
victim was not in a position to defend himself, and that the offender
consciously and deliberately adopted the particular means, method and forms of
attack employed by him.29 cralawred
In this case, the only evidence the prosecution presented to
prove treachery was the sworn statement executed by the eyewitness which in
part stated: [N]akita ko po itong lalaki na binanggit ko na may hawak na
patalim at inundayan ng saksak ang isang lalaki, tumatakbo na nga palayo yung
lalaki ay hindi pa rin nito tinitigilan ng pagsaksak hanggang sa bumagsak na
30 In his testimony, however, the witness failed to recount the aforesaid
manner by which the victim was stabbed. While on the witness stand, Almodovar
narrated the assault as follows:chanroblesvirtua1awlibrary
QWhile on your way home,
do you recall any unusual incident, Mr. Witness?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
AYes sir. When I was
passing [by] Alhambra Cigarette Factory, I saw 4 men.
x x x
QUpon seeing these 4
person[s], what else transpired?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
AI saw that there was a
commotion, so I stopped to a distance of
x x x
QWhat happened when you
AWhen I saw the 4 men,
one of them stabbed the victim.
QHow many times did you
see that person stab the victim?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
AThree times, sir.
x x x
QYou said that you saw the
man stab the victim 3 times, [were] you able to see if the victim was hit by
AI saw blood coming from
the victims body.
x x x
QAfter you saw the accused
stab the victim for 3 times, what else happened?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
AI stopped, but when I
saw the incident, I ran away.
x x x
QBy the way, what was the
relative position of the accused to the victim when the latter was stabbed by
AThey were facing each
The foregoing readily shows that all he
testified to was seeing the assailant stab the victim three times while the two
were facing each other.
omitted to describe how the assailant purportedly kept stabbing the victim
while the latter was running away, as what is stated in his affidavit.
As a rule, testimonial evidence or oral
testimony commands greater weight than a mere affidavit.32 The omission of this important detail hence weakened the prosecutions proof of
It is moreover noted from the foregoing testimony that Almodovar
witnessed only the moment when appellant stabbed the victim.
No evidence was presented to establish the
circumstances prior to the very moment of aggression. It has been held that where the lone witness did not see the
commencement of the assault, treachery cannot be considered.33 cralawred
More importantly, this Court observes that the allegedly
treacherous manner of the attack as the witness declared in his sworn statement
fails to draw support from the prosecutions physical evidence.
The autopsy report34 disclosed that the victim sustained all injuries at the front, and none at the
back. It further showed a stab wound on the victims left hand, which the
Medico-Legal found to be a defensive wound.35 Clearly, there were indications that the victim had the opportunity to resist
appellants attack, thereby negating the existence of treachery.
For failure of the prosecution to prove treachery or any other
circumstance which would qualify the killing to murder, appellant should only
be held liable for the crime of homicide.36 Article 249 of the Revised Penal Code imposes the penalty of reclusion temporalfor homicide.
that there was neither mitigating nor aggravating circumstance present in the
commission of the crime, the penalty has to be imposed in the medium
Applying the Indeterminate
Sentence Law, appellant should therefore be sentenced to suffer the penalty of
eight years and one day of prision mayor medium, as minimum, to
fourteen years and eight months of reclusion temporalmedium, as
Coming now to the award of damages, the
indemnity was correctly awarded.
Court finds the award of actual damages for the funeral expenses unwarranted
for lack of supporting receipts.
in lieu thereof, temperate damages in the amount of P25,000 are
awardable in line with the ruling in People v. Abrazaldo .38 Furthermore, jurisprudence dictates the grant of moral damages in the amount of
P50,000 to the victims heirs in recognition of the latters emotional
suffering brought about by the violent death of their loved one.39 cralawred
appealed Decision is hereby MODIFIED. Appellant is found GUILTY beyond
reasonable doubt of homicide and, consequently, he is sentenced to suffer an
indeterminate penalty of eight years and one day of prision mayor medium,
as minimum, to fourteen years and eight months of reclusion temporalmedium, as maximum.
He is further
ordered to pay the heirs of the victim the amounts of
P50,000 as civil
P50,000 as moral
damages, and P25,000 as
temperate damages in lieu of the award for the funeral expenses which is
Costs de oficio.
(Chairman), Panganiban, Ynares-Santiago and Carpio, JJ., concur.
at 137, Exhibit A.
TSN, May 18, 1992, pp. 2-16.
TSN, July 1, 1992, pp. 2-6.
TSN, October 14, 1992, pp. 2-6.
Records, pp. 138-139, Exhibit B.
TSN, February 10, 1993, pp. 1-9.
TSN, April 28, 1993, pp. 1-7.
Records, pp. 143-144, Exhibit F.
Records, p. 145, Exhibit G.
TSN, August 2, 1993, pp. 1-14.
TSN, May 18, 1992, p. 14.
TSN, August 2, 1993, pp. 12-13.
27 People v. Colonia, supra,
28 People v. Visperas, Jr.,
TSN, May 18, 1992, pp. 3-7.
33 People v. Simon,
209 SCRA 148 (1992).
TSN, April 28, 1993, p. 7.
39 People v. Baltazar ,supra,
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