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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
April-2009 Jurisprudence                 

  • A.C. No. 5195 - NELIA PASUMBAL DE-CHAVEZ-BLANCO REPRESENTED BY ATTY. EUGENIA J. MU OS v. ATTY. JAIME LUMASAG, JR.

  • A.C. No. 7813 - Carlito P. Carangdang v. Atty. Gilbert S. Obmina

  • A.M. No. 2008-12-SC Formerly A.M. No. 08-7-4-SC and A.M. NO. P-08-2510 - IN RE: IMPROPER SOLICATATION OF COURT EMPLOYEES / OFFICE OF THE COURT ADMINISTRATOR v. SHEELA R. NOBLEZA

  • A.M. No. MTJ-06-1651 Formerly OCA IPI No. 04-1576-MTJ - PROSECUTOR ROBERT M. VISBAL v. JUDGE WENCESLAO B. VANILLA

  • A.M. No. MTJ-08-1706 Formerly OCA IPI No. 08-1984-MTJ - MUTYA B. VICTORIO v. JUDGE MAXWELL S. ROSETE

  • A.M. NO. P-05-1996 - ESTELITO R. MARABE v. TYRONE V. TAN

  • A.M. No. P-05-2065 - REPORT ON THE FINANCIAL AUDIT ETC.

  • A.M. No. P-07-2298 and A.M. No. P-07-2299 - Peteb B. Mallonga v. Marites R. Manio / Hon. Lyliha Abella-Aquino v. Marites R. Manio

  • A.M. No. P-07-2321 Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 07-2492-P - JUDGE PELAGIA DALMACIO-JOAQUIN v. NICOMEDES C. DELA CRUZ ETC.

  • A.M. No. P-07-2344 - DOMINGO U. SABADO, JR. v. LANIEL P. JORNADA ETC.

  • A.M. No. P-07-2366 Formerly OCA-I.P.I. No. 07-2519-P - OFFICE OF THE COURT ADMINISTRATOR v. MA. CELIA A. FLORES

  • A.M. No. P-08-2469 Formerly OCA IPI No. 07-2509-P and A.M. OCA IPI No. 08-2857-P - ERLINA P. JOLITO v. MARLENE E. TANUDRA/ERLINA P. JOLITO v. GEORGE E. GAREZA

  • A.M. No. P-08-2523 Formerly OCA-I.P.I. No. 08-2872-P - ATTY. MARLYDS L. ESTARDO-TEODORO v. CARLOS S. SEGISMUNDO

  • A.M. No. P-09-2622 Formerly A.M. OCA IPI No. 08-2814-P - DOROTHY FE MAH-AREVALO v. ELMER P. MPE

  • A.M. No. P-09-2628 Formerly A.M. No. OCA IPI No. 07-2686-P - WILSON C. ONG v. ARIEL R. PASCAIO

  • A.M. No. RTJ-05-1917 - DEE C. CHUAN & SONS, INC. v. JUDGE WILLIAM SIMON P. PERALTA

  • A.M No. RTJ-06-1976 - PROVINCIAL PROSECUTOR MANUEL F. TORREVILLAS v. JUDGE ROBERTO A. NATIVIDAD ETC.

  • A.M. RTJ-07-2058 - Dolores S. Bago v. Judge Ernesto P. Pagayatan etc.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-09-2176 - PROSECUTOR JORGE D. BACULI v. JUDGE MEDEL ARNALDO B. BELEN

  • B.M. No. 1222 - RE: 2003 BAR EXAMINATIONS ATTY. DANILO DE GUZMAN (PETITIONER)

  • G.R. No. 126890 - United Planters Sugar Milling Co., Inc. (UPSUMCO) v. The Honorable Court of Appeals, et al.

  • G.R. No. 130088 - TALA REALY SERVICES CORP., ET AL. v. HON. ALICIA B. GONZALES-DECANO, ET AL./NANCY L. TY v. HON. WENCESLAO E. EBABAO, ETC. ET AL./TALA REALY SERVICES CORP., ET AL. VS.BANCO FILIPINO SAVINGS AND MORTAGE BANK/TALA REALY SERVICES CORP., ET A

  • G.R. No. 132540 - ALBAY ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE, INC., ET AL. v. HON. RAFAEL P. SANTELICES, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 135703 - PRESIDENTIAL AD HOC FACT FINDING COMMITTEE ON BEHEST LOANS, REPRESENTED BY ORLANDO L. SALVADOR v. OMBUDSMAN ANIANO A. DESIERTO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 138814 - MAKATI STOCK EXCHANGE, INC., ET AL. v. MIGUEL V. CAMPOS

  • G.R. No. 140717 - ANNIE L. MANUBAY, ET AL. v. HON. ERNESTO GARILAO

  • G.R. No. 145222 - SPOUSES ROBERTO BUADO AND VENUS BUADO v. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 145867 - ESTATE OF SOLEDAD MANANTAN ETC. v. ANICETO SOMERA

  • G.R. No. 146408 - PHILIPPINE AIRLINES, INC. v. ENRIQUE LIGAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 146622 - LEONORA P. CALANZA, ET AL. v. PAPER INDUSTRIES CORP., ET AL.

  • G.R. NOS. 148263 and 148271-72 - ARMANDO DAVID v. NATIONAL FEDERATION OF LABOR UNION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 149221 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK v. MARCELINO BANATAO, ET AL. AND MARCIANO CARAG, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 149907 - ROMA DRUG AND ROMEO RODRIGUEZ v. RTC OF GUAGUA PAMPANGA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 152048 - FELIX B. PEREZ, ET AL. v. PHILIPPINE TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE COMPANY

  • G.R. No. 152131 - FLORAIDA TERA A v. HON. ANTONIO DE SAGUN ETC.

  • G.R. No. 152318 - DEUTSCHE GESELLSCHAFT FUR TECHNICHE v. HON. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 154473 and G.R. NO. 155573 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. ALFREDO L. BENIPAYO / PHOTOKINA MARKETING CORPORATION v. ALFREDO L. BENIPAYO

  • G.R. No. 154609 - MA. CORAZON SAN JUAN v. CELESTE M. OFFRIL

  • G.R. No. 155639 - JUANARIA A. RIVERA v. UNITED LABORATORIES, INC.

  • G.R. No. 156302 - THE HEIRS OF GEORGE Y. POE v. MALAYAN INSURANCE CO. INC.

  • G.R. No. 156766 - ROSARIO A. GATUS v. QUALITY HOUNSE INC., AND CHRISTOPHER CHUA

  • G.R. No. 157147 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. WILFREDOO CAWALING

  • G.R. No. 157584 - Congressman Enrique T. Garcia v. The Executive Secretary, et al.

  • G.R. No. 157723 - ROMEO SAYO Y AQUINO, ET AL. v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 157862 - PHILIPPINE COUNTRYSIDE RURAL BANK INC. v. JOVENAL B. TORING

  • G.R. No. 158071 - JOSE SANTOS v. COMMITTEE ON CLAIMS SETTLEMENT, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 158805 - VALLEY GOLF & COUNTRY CLUB, INC. v. ROSA O. VDA. CARAM

  • G.R. No. 158819 - ANTERO LUISTRO v. COURT OF APPEALS AND FIRST GAS POWER CORPORATION.

  • G.R. NO. 158885 and G.R. NO. 170680 - FORT BONIFACIO DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION v. CIR, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 158956 - ILIGAN CEMENT CORPORATION v. ILIASCOR EMPLOYEES AND WORKERS UNION-SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES FEDERATION OF LABOR, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 159687 - GULF AIR JASSIM HINDRI ABDULLAH, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 160132 - SERAFIN NARANJA, ET AL. v. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 160467 - SOLEDAD MU OS MESA v. SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 160918 - CONCEPCION ALCANTARA v. HILARIA ROBLE DE TEMPLE, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 161539 - INTERNATIONAL CONTAINER TERMINAL SERVICES, INC. v. FGU INSURANCE CORPORATION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 161778 - CAYETANO A. TEJANO, JR. v. THE HON. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 161827 - SESINANDO POLINTAN v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 162272 - SANTIAGO C. DIVINAGRACIA v. CONSOLIDATED BROADCASTING SYSTEM, INC., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 162370 - DAVID TIU v. COURT OF APPEALS AND EDGARDO POSTANES

  • G.R. No. 163072 - Manila International Airport Authority v. City of Pasay, et al.

  • G.R. No. 163583 - BRITISH AMERICAN TOBACCO v. JOSE ISIDRO N. CAMACHO, ET AL.

  • G.R. NOS. 163957-58 and G.R. NOS. 164009-11 - MUNIB S. ESTINO AND ERNESTO PESCADERA v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES/ ERNESTO G. PESCADERA v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 164170 - MACA-ANGCOS ALAWIYA Y ABDUL, ET AL. v. HON. SIMEON A. DATUMANONG, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 164213 - VALENTIN CABRERA ET AL. v. ELIZABETH GETARUELA ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 164368 - People of the Philippines v. Joseph Ejercito Estrada, et al.

  • G.R. No. 164681 - BERNARDINO V. NAVARRO v. P.V. PAJARILLO LINER AND NLRC

  • G.R. No. 165443 - CALATAGAN GOLF CLUB, INC. v. SIXTO CLEMENTE, JR.

  • G.R. No. 164785 and G.R. NO. 165636 - ELISEO F. SORIANO v. MA. CONSOLIZA P. LAGUARDIA ETC.

  • G.R. No. 165927 - ERNESTO Z. GIDUQUIO v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 166199 - THE SECRETARY OF JUSTICE, ET AL. v. CHRISTOPHER KORUGA

  • G.R. No. 166510 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. BENJAMIN "KOKOY" T. ROMULADEZ AND THE SANDIGANBAYAN

  • G.R. No. 166748 - LAUREANO V. HERMOSO, ET AL. v. HEIRS OF ANTONIO FRANCIA AND PETRA FRANCIA

  • G.R. No. 167768 - MALAYAN INSURANCE COMPANY, INC. v. VICTORIAS MILLING COMPANY, INC.

  • G.R. No. 168273 - HARBOR VIEW RESTAURANT v. REYNALDO LABRO

  • G.R. No. 168631 - LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES v. CAROLINA VDA. DE ABELLO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 168716 - HFS PHLIPPINES, INC., RUBEN T. DEL ROSARIO AND IUM SHIP MANAGEMENT v. RONALDO R. PILAR

  • G.R. No. 168734 & G.R. No. 170621 - MARCELINO LOPEZ, ET AL. v. HON. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL./ NOEL RUBBER AND DEVELOPMENT CORP, ET AL. v. JOSE ESQUIVEL, JR., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 168800 - NEW REGENT SOURCES, INC. v. TEOFILO VICTOR TANJUATCO, JR. AND VICENTE CUEVAS

  • G.R. No. 169914 & 174166 - ASIA'S EMERGING DRAGON CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS, SECRETARY LEANDRO R. MENDOZA and MANILA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AUTHORITY, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 170093 - JOSE PEPITO M. AMORES M.D. v. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION, BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE LUNG CENTER OF THE PHILIPPINES AS REPRESENTED BY HON. MANUEL M. DAYRIT AND FERNANDO A. MELENDRES, M.D.

  • G.R. No. 170235 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. JAIME CADAG JIMENEZ

  • G.R. No. 170270 - Newsounds Broadcasting Network, Inc., et al. v. Hon. Ceasar G. Dy, et al.

  • G.R. No. 170532 - THE PROVINCIAL ASSESOR OF MARINDUQUE v. HON. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 170589 - OLYMPIO REVALDO v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 170750 - HEIRS OF TOMAS DOLLETON, ET AL. v. FIL-ESTATE MANAGEMENT INC., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 170977 - JOSE D. DEL VALLE, JR. AND ADOLFO C. ALEMANIA v. FRANCIS B. DY

  • G.R. No. 171072 - GOLDERES REALTY CORP. v. CYPRESS GARDENS ETC.

  • G.R. No. 171138 - H. TAMBUNTING PAWNSHOP, INC. v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE

  • G.R. No. 171253 - LAKEVIEW GOLD AND COUNTRY CLUB, INC. v. LUZVIMIN SAMAHANG NAYON, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 171536 - APRIL JOY ASETRE, ET AL. v. JUNEL ASETRE, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 171636 - NORMAN A. GAID v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 171735 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. ALEJO OBLIGADO Y MAGDARAOG

  • G.R. No. 172123 - MACARIOLA G. BARTOLO AND VIOLENDA B. SUCRO v. THE HONORABLE SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 172601 - AILEEN G. HERIDA v. F4C PAWNSHOP AND JEWELRY STORE/MARCELINO FLORETE, JR.

  • G.R. No. 172602 - HENRY T. GO. v. THE FIFTH DIVISION, SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 172607 - THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. RUFINO UMANITO

  • G.R. No. 172671 - MARISSA R. UNCHUAN v. ANTONIO J.P. LOZADA, ANITA LOZADA AND THE REGISTER OF DEEDS OF CEBU CITY

  • G.R. No. 172832 - ROSARIO T. DE VERA v. GEREN A. DE VERA

  • G.R. No. 172854 - ADAM B. GARCIA v. NLRC (SECOND DIVISION) LEGAZPI OIL COMPANY, INC. ROMEO F. MERCADO AND GUS ZULUAGA

  • G.R. No. 173115 & 173163-64 - ATTY. VIRGILIO R. GARCIA v. EASTERN TELECOMMUNICATIONS PHILIPPINES, INC. ET AL./EASTERN TELECOMMUNICATIONS PHILIPPINES INC. v. ATTY. VIRGILIO R. GARCIA

  • G.R. No. 173210 - REPUBIC OF THE PHILIPPINES v. MACARIA L. TUASTUMBAN

  • G.R. No. 173588 - ARIEL M. LOS BA OS, ON BEHALF OF P/SUPT. VICTOR AREVALO, SP02 MARCIAL OLYMPIA, SP01 ROCKY MERCENE AND P01 RAUL ADLAWAN AND IN HIS PERSONAL CAPACITY v. JOEL R. PEDRO

  • G.R. No. 173637 - DANTE TAN v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES.

  • G.R. No. 173791 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. PABLO AMODIA

  • G.R. No. 173807 - JAIME U. GUSICAO v. LETECIA CHING AND EDWIN CASTA

  • G.R. No. 173834 - ISABELITA CUNANAN, CAROLYN CUNANAN AND CARMENCITA F. NEMOTO v. JUMPING JAP TRADING CORPORATION, REPRESENTED BY REUBEN M. PROTACIO

  • G.R. No. 173931 - ALICIA D. TAGARO v. ESTER A. GARCIA, ETC.

  • G.R. No. 174105 - Reghis M. Romero II, et al. v. Sen. Jinggoy E. Estrada, et al.

  • G.R. No. 175320 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. ERNESTO PE A Y SARMIENTO

  • G.R. No. 175945 Formerly G.R. NOS. 153211-12 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. LOLITO HONOR Y ALIGWAY, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 175983 - METROPOLITAN CEBU WATER DESTRICT v. J. KING AND SONS COMPANY, INC

  • G.R. No. 176348 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. DIONISIO CABUDBOD Y TUTOR AND EDGAR CABUDBOD Y LACROA

  • G.R. No. 176531 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. ROMEO BANDIN

  • G.R. No. 176566 - ELISEO EDUARTE Y COSCOLLA v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 177163 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. ALEX BALAGAT

  • G.R. No. 177187 - SPOUSES JUANITO R. VILLAMIL ETC. ET AL. v. LAZARO CRUZ-VILLAROSA

  • G.R. No. 177210 - SUMMA KUMAGAI, INC-KUMAGAI, GUMI CO. LTD JOINT VENTURE v. ROMAGO, INC.

  • G.R. No. 177220 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. RUBEN ROBLES

  • G.R. No. 177283 - DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY, ET AL. v. DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY EMPLOYEES ASSOCIATION (DLSUEA-NAFTEU)

  • G.R. No. 177302 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. JAIME LOPEZ, ET AL.

  • G.R. NO. 177333 : April 24, 2009 - PHILIPPINE AMUSEMENT AND GAMING CORPORATION (PAGCOR) represented by ATTY. CARLOS R. BAUTISTA, JR., v. PHILIPPINE GAMING JURISDICTION INCORPORATED (PEJI), ZAMBOANGA CITY SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE AUTHORITY, et al.

  • G.R. No. 177346 - GUILLERMO PERCIANO v. HEIRS OF PROCOPIO TUMBALI REPRESENTED BY LYDIA TUMBALI

  • G.R. No. 177961 - LOURDES A. SABLE v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 178127 - VIRGEN SHIPPING CORPORATION, ET AL. v. JESUS B. BARRAQUIO

  • G.R. No. 178301 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. ROLANDO MALIBIRAN, BEVERLY TIBO-TARO

  • G.R. No. 178453 - GLORIA ARTIAGA v. SILIMAN UNIVERSITY AND SILIMAN UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER

  • G.R. No. 178678 - DR. HANS CHRISTIAN M. SE ERES v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS AND MELQUIADES A. ROBLES

  • G.R. No. 178763 - PETER PAUL PATRICK LUCAS, ET AL. v. DR. PROSPERO MA. C. TUA O

  • G.R. NOS. 178831-32, 179120, 179132-33 and 179240-41 - JOCELYN SY LIMKAICHONG v. COMELEC, ET AL.

  • G.R. NO. 178873 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. ILLUSTRE LLAGAS A.K.A. NONOY LLAGAS

  • G.R. No. 179255 - National Transmission Corp. v. Venusto D. Hamoy, Jr.

  • G.R. No. 179563 - BACOLOD-TALISAY REALTY AND DEVELOPMENT CORP., ET AL. v. ROMEO DELA CRUZ

  • G.R. No. 179271 and G.R. NO. 179295 - BARANGAY ASSOCIATION FOR NATIONAL ADVANCEMENT AND TRANSPARENCY (BANAT) v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS/ BAYAN MUNA, ET AL. v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS

  • G.R. No. 179708 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. ROGELIO ALETA, MARIO ALETA AND JOVITO ALETA

  • G.R. No. 179933 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. JOSEPH FABITO

  • G.R. No. 179955 - JOSE SY BANG (DECEASED), ET AL. v. ROSARIO SY (DECEASED), ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 180046 - Review Center Associations of the Philippines v. Executive Secretatry Eduardo Ermita, et al.

  • G.R. No. 179987 - HEIRS OF MARIO MALABANAN v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 180165 - METROPOLITAN BANK & TRUST COMPANY v. HON. SEC OF JUSTICE RAUL M. GONZALES, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 180314 - NORMALLAH A. PACASUM v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 180363 - EDGAR Y. TEVES v. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS AND HERMINIO G. TEVES

  • G.R. No. 180640 - HUTAMA-RSEA JOINT OPERATIONS, INC. v. CITRA METRO MANILA TOLLWAYS CORPORATION

  • G.R. No. 180892 - UST FACULTY UNION v. UNIVERSITY OF STO. TOMAS, REV. FR. ROLANDO DE LA ROSA, REV FR. RODELIO ALIGAN, DOMINGO LEGASPI, AND MERECEDES HINAYON

  • G.R. NO. 180923 - THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. SOLOMON DIONEDA Y DELA CRUZ

  • G.R. No. 181295 - Harlin Castillo Abayon v. Commission on Elections, et al.

  • G.R. No. 181318 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. GERMAN AGOJO Y LUNA

  • G.R. No. 181377 and G.R. NO. 181726 - RODANTE MARCOLETA, ET AL. v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ET AL./ ALAGAD PARTY-LIST REPRESENTED BY DIOGENES S. OSABEL, PRESIDENT v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 181475 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. LARRY "LAURO" DOMINGO Y CRUZ

  • G.R. No. 182231 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. EDDIE GUM-OYEN Y SACPA

  • G.R. No. 182296 - SUSAN SALES Y JIMENA v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES.

  • G.R. No. 182790 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. CESAR CANTALEJO Y MANLANGIT

  • G.R. NOS. 182978-79 and G.R. NOS. 184298-99 - BECMEN SERVICES EXPORTER AND PROMOTION, INC. v. SPS. SIMPLICIO AND MILA CUARESMA, ET AL./SPS. SIMPLICIO AND MILA CUARESMA v. WHITE FALCON SERVICES, INC., ET AL.

  • G.R. NO. 183232 - GILBERT DELA PAZ v. MARIKINA FOOTWEAR DEVELOPMENT COOPERATIVE, INC., (MAFODECO), REPRESENTED BY ITS CHAIRMAN RODOLFO DE GUZMAN

  • G.R. No. 183278 - IMELDA O. COJUANGCO, PRIME HOLDINGS, INC., AND THE ESTATE OF RAMON U. COJUANGCO v. SANDIGANBAYAN, REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES AND THE SHERIFF OF SANDIGANBAYAN

  • G.R. No. 183565 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. EDUARDO ABOGANDA

  • G.R. No. 183905 and G.R. NO. 184275 - GOVERNMENT SERVICE INSURANCE SYSTEM v. THE HON. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL. / SEC, ET AL. v. ANTHONY ROSETE, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 184174 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. REYNALDO CAPALAD

  • G.R. No. 184791 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. PEDRO NOGPO, JR. A.K.A. "TANDODOY"

  • G.R. No. 185132 - GOV. ENRIQUE T. GARCIA, JR., ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 185162 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES v. ROLLY GIDOC @ BAYENG

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    G.R. No. 173210 - REPUBIC OF THE PHILIPPINES v. MACARIA L. TUASTUMBAN

      G.R. No. 173210 - REPUBIC OF THE PHILIPPINES v. MACARIA L. TUASTUMBAN

    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    SECOND DIVISION

    [G.R. NO. 173210 : April 24, 2009]

    REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. MACARIA L. TUASTUMBAN, Respondent.

    D E C I S I O N

    TINGA, J.:

    This is a Petition for Review under Rule 45 of the Rules of Court assailing the Amended Decision1 dated 23 June 2006 of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. CV No. 71071 entitled "Macaria L. Tuastumban v. Republic of the Philippines" which granted respondent Macaria L. Tuastumban's Motion for Reconsideration of its earlier Decision2 dated 20 February 2006 and thereby affirmed with modification the Judgment3 dated 11 December 2000 of the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Cebu City, Branch 5. Said judgment granted respondent's petition for the reconstitution of a lost Original Certificate of Title (OCT).

    On 8 November 1999, respondent filed a petition for reconstitution of the OCT covering Lot No. 7129, Flr-133, Talisay-Minglanilla Estate under Patent No. 43619 in the name of the Legal Heirs of Sofia Lazo, with a total land area of approximately 3,633 square meters. The OCT which was in the possession of the Register of Deeds of the Province of Cebu was allegedly either lost or destroyed during World War II. Respondent anchored her petition for reconstitution on Sec. 2(d) of Republic Act No. 264 (R.A. No. 26) which provides that an original certificate of title may be reconstituted from an authenticated copy of the decree of registration or patent, as the case may be, pursuant to which the original certificate of title was issued.

    The RTC found the petition to be sufficient in form and substance and set the hearing of the petition on 29 March 2000. The RTC also directed the Branch Clerk of Court to publish a copy of the Notice of Hearing in the Official Gazette and to send copies thereof to the owners of the adjoining properties of Lot No. 7129, respondent's counsel, the Solicitor General, the Administrator of the Land Registration Authority and the Register of Deeds of Cebu Province.

    On the scheduled hearing, the Branch Clerk of Court announced three times in open court to find out if there was any opposition to the petition. There being none, the court proceeded to receive respondent's exhibits to establish the jurisdictional facts. Thereupon, the RTC proceeded to try the case.

    According to the Certification by the Community Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO) of Cebu City, Lot No. 7129 was granted to the heirs of Sofia Lazo via Patent No. 43619 issued on 21 July 1938. Respondent claims she bought the property from the said owners who are also her relatives, as evidenced by an Extrajudicial Declaration of Heirs with Waiver of Inheritance Rights and Deed of Absolute Sale. She claims that since the time of purchase, she has been occupying and possessing the land and paying the realty taxes thereon. Respondent prayed for reconstitution of the title covering the property since the title, supposedly on file and under the custody of the Register of Deeds of Cebu Province, had either been lost or destroyed during World War II as certified by said office. Cebu City Prosecutor Edilberto Ensomo, representing the Office of the Solicitor General, did not present any evidence against respondent.

    Thus, on 11 December 2000, the RTC rendered its decision, the dispositive portion of which reads:

    WHEREFORE, the Register of Deeds, Province of Cebu is hereby ordered to reconstitute the lost Original Certificate of Title covering Lot No. 7129, Flr-133, Talisay-Minglanilla Estate, in the name of the Legal Heirs of Sofia Lazo based on Patent No. 43619 issued on 21 July 1938 by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Community Environment and Natural Resources Office, Cebu City, upon payment of the required fees.

    Furnish copies of this Judgment to the Register of Deeds, Province of Cebu, the Administrator of the Land Registration Authority, the Office of the Solicitor General, Makati and counsel of the petitioner.

    SO ORDERED.5

    Petitioner interposed an appeal with the Court of Appeals which, on 20 February 2006,6 granted the same and reversed the RTC judgment. The appellate court held that no proper reconstitution can be done since respondent did not utilize the sources of reconstitution provided under Sec. 27 of R.A. No. 26 in the order therein stated, merely presenting as it did a Certification from the CENRO that a patent had been issued over Lot No. 7129 in the name of the heirs of Sofia Lazo.

    As found by the CA, respondent based her petition for reconstitution on the following documents: (a) Extrajudicial Declaration of Heirs with Waiver of Inheritance Rights and Deed of Absolute Sale dated 19 July 1999;8 (b) CENRO Certification dated 31 May 1999 that Lot No. 7129 is patented in the name of the Legal Heirs of Sofia Lazo;9 (c) Register of Deeds Certification dated 31 May 1999 that no certificate of title covering Lot No. 7129 was issued in the name of the legal heirs of Sofia Lazo and that all deeds/records were either burned or lost during the last World War;10 (d) Tax Declaration covering Lot No.7129 in the name of respondent;11 (e) Blue Print of Advance Plan of Lot No. 7129;12 (f) Technical Description of Lot No. 7129;13 and (g) Real Property Tax Clearance.14

    The CA held that respondent's proffered evidence fall under Sec. 2(f) of R.A. 26 which pertains to "any other document which, in the judgment of the court, is sufficient and proper basis for reconstituting the lost or destroyed certificate of title." Resort to the sources under Sec. 2(f) is justified only when the sources under Secs. 2(a) to (e) are unavailable. Respondent, though, had failed to lay the basis to warrant consideration of sources under Sec. 2(f). There was no proof of loss of the best source for reconstitution which is the owner's duplicate copy of the certificate of title; therefore, the succeeding sources for reconstitution cannot validly be considered.

    However, upon a motion for reconsideration filed by respondent, the Court of Appeals in its Amended Decision of 23 June 2006 reversed itself and held that respondent has substantially complied with the requirements for reconstitution under RA 26.

    The Court of Appeals traced the ownership of Lot No. 7129 based on the records of the Bureau of Lands, Friar Lands Division, now the CENRO of the DENR. It found that: The property was part of the Talisay-Minglanilla Friar Lands Estate covered by one mother title, OCT No. 188. Under Act No. 1120 or the Friar Lands Act, the whole estate was purchased by the Government of the Philippines and portions thereof were sold by installment to actual possessors. One such possessor was Sofia Lazo who was granted Sales Patent No. 43619 on 21 July 1938. This led to the issuance by the Philippine Government of a Deed of Conveyance which led to the issuance by the Register of Deeds of a transfer certificate of title (TCT) in favor of the Heirs of Sofia Lazo, and not an original certificate of title as claimed by respondent.chanrobles virtual law library

    The Court of Appeals noted that aside from the CENRO Certification, blue print of Advance Plan and Technical Description of Lot No. 7129, respondent also offered in evidence a Report15 from the Administrator of the Land Registration Authority (LRA) which indicated that:

    (2) The entire Talisay-Minglanilla Estate, Flr-133 of which Lot 7129 is a portion, appears in the records of this Authority to have been applied for registration of title in Court of Land Registration Case No. 3732 for which Decree No. 2787 was issued on 15 July 1908;

    (3) The plan and technical description of Lot 7129, Talisay-Minglanilla Estate, Flr-133, were verified correct by this Authority to represent the aforesaid lot and the same have been approved under (LRA) PR-18379 pursuant to the provisions of Section 12 of Republic Act No. 26.

    WHEREFORE, x x x, the plan and technical description having been approved, may be used as basis for the inscription of the technical description on the reconstituted certificate. Provided, however, that no certificate of title covering the same parcel of land exists in the office of the Register of Deeds concerned.16

    The CA believed that these government records as duly certified and reported by the CENRO and the LRA uphold the prior existence of a certificate of title in favor of the Heirs of Sofia Lazo over Lot No. 7129. Since the Register of Deeds had already certified that no such copy of the title exists in its records, coupled with the fact that there were no private oppositors or claimants to the petition for reconstitution and the failure of herein petitioner Republic of the Philippines, represented by the Cebu City Prosecutor, to present any evidence against respondent or to object to any of respondent's offer of evidence, the Court of Appeals concluded that reconstitution should issue. Respondent's alleged failure to prove the loss of the owner's duplicate certificate of title was held to be justified by petitioner's failure to deny or oppose the allegation. As the allegation of loss was never specifically denied, the averment in respondent's petition was deemed admitted without need of evidence to prove the same. Thus, respondent properly resorted to the sources of reconstitution under Sec. 2(f) of R.A 26. The CA added that petitioner's objections were belatedly raised in the appeal before the appellate court and should be barred.chanrobles virtual law library

    Thus, the fallo of the Amended Decision reads:

    WHEREFORE, premises considered, petitioner-appellee's Motion for Reconsideration is GRANTED. Thus, Our Decision dated 20 February 2006 is RECONSIDERED. Accordingly, the RTC Judgment dated 11 December 2000 is AFFIRMED WITH MODIFICATION that what is to be reconstituted is the lost Transfer Certificate of Title, and not Original Certificate of Title, over Lot No. 7129 in favor of the Legal Heirs of Sofia Lazo.

    SO ORDERED.

    In this Petition for Review, petitioner alleges that the Court of Appeals erred in reversing its 20 February 2000 Decision considering the lack of legal and factual bases for the reconstitution. It argues that:

    (1) The presentation of the required documents under Sec. 2, RA 26 is mandatory and jurisdictional and non-compliance therewith is fatal.

    (2) The loss of the owner's duplicate copy of the alleged lost or destroyed certificate of title was not duly established.

    (3) There was no factual or legal bases for reconstitution as there was no proof presented showing that a certificate of title covering Lot No. 7129 had been previously issued.17

    Petitioner argues that the Certification from the CENRO presented by respondent is insufficient because Sec. 2(d) of RA 26 explicitly requires an authenticated copy of the decree of registration or patent pursuant to which the original certificate of title was issued. What must be presented is an authenticated copy of the decree or registration patent and not a mere certification that the patent has been issued. The certification is mere hearsay especially since the issuing authority, a mere Records Officer I, was not even presented in court to identify the certification.

    Petitioner also points out that respondent, during her testimony, made no mention of the owner's duplicate copy of the alleged lost certificate of title, which is the best source for reconstitution. Neither was there executed any affidavit of loss attesting to the circumstances of the loss of said owner's duplicate copy. The tax declaration presented by respondent cannot also be relied on since it is settled that tax declarations or realty tax payments are not conclusive evidence of ownership.chanrobles virtual law library

    Petitioner also assails the Certification by the Register of Deeds of Cebu. The Certification, it is claimed, belies the fact that a certificate of title covering the subject property was issued prior to its loss since said Certification simply states that "according to the records of this office x x x no certificate of title covering Lot No. 7129, Flr-133, Talisay-Minglanilla Estate, Cebu, was issued in the name of and/or as claimed to be owned by the Legal Heirs of Sofia Lazo" and that "all deeds/records were either burned or lost during the last World War."

    Petitioner concludes that since there was no evidence presented showing that an OCT or TCT had been issued prior to its alleged loss, there can be no legal or factual basis for its reconstitution. While there were certifications, technical descriptions and tax declarations presented, these are insufficient bases under RA 26. Respondent also did not make any reference to an OCT or TCT number but merely repeatedly mentioned an "original certificate of title covering Lot No. 7129."

    The issue at bar is whether the documents presented by respondent constitute sufficient basis for the reconstitution of title to Lot No. 7129. We hold that respondent's evidence is inadequate.

    The petition should be granted.

    The governing law for judicial reconstitution of titles is R.A. No. 26. Sections 218 and 319 of RA 26 enumerate the sources upon which reconstitution should issue. Section 2 refers to source documents for reconstitution of the original certificate of title while Sec. 3 refers to sources for reconstitution of transfer certificates of title. The requirements of Secs. 2 and 3 are almost identical, referring to documents from official sources which recognize the ownership of the owner and his predecessors-in-interest.20 In Republic v. Intermediate Appellate Court,21 the Court ruled that "any other document" in Secs. 2(f) and 3(f) of RA 26 refers to documents similar to those previously enumerated therein, that is, those mentioned in Sections (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e). The Court reiterated this ruling in Heirs of Dizon v. Hon. Discaya22 and Republic v. El Gobierno de las Islas Filipinas.23 The documents alluded to in Secs. 2(f) and 3(f) must be resorted to in the absence of those preceding in order. If the petitioner for reconstitution fails to show that he had, in fact, sought to secure such prior documents and failed to find them, the presentation of the succeeding documents as substitutionary evidence is proscribed.24

    In relation to the foregoing, Secs. 1225 and 1326 of RA 26 requires compliance with additional jurisdictional requirements. Section 1527 thereof also provides when an order for reconstitution should issue.

    From the foregoing, the following must be present for an order for reconstitution to issue: (a) that the certificate of title had been lost or destroyed; (b) that the documents presented by petitioner are sufficient and proper to warrant reconstitution of the lost or destroyed certificate of title; (c) that the petitioner is the registered owner of the property or had an interest therein; (d) that the certificate of title was in force at the time it was lost and destroyed; and (e) that the description, area and boundaries of the property are substantially the same as those contained in the lost or destroyed certificate of title.

    The reconstitution of a certificate of title denotes restoration in the original form and condition of a lost or destroyed instrument attesting the title of a person to a piece of land. The purpose of the reconstitution of title is to have, after observing the procedures prescribed by law, the title reproduced in exactly the same way it has been when the loss or destruction occurred.28 RA 26 presupposes that the property whose title is sought to be reconstituted has already been brought under the provisions of the Torrens System.29

    Respondent anchored her petition for reconstitution on Sec. 2(d) of RA 26. Respondent however failed to present an authenticated copy of the decree of registration or patent pursuant to which the original certificate of title was issued. She relied on the CENRO certification which is however not the authenticated copy of the decree of registration or patent required by law. The certification plainly states only that Lot No. 7129 is patented in the name of the Legal Heirs of Sofia Lazo. It is not even a copy of the decree of registration or patent itself but a mere certification of the issuance of such patent.

    Even if we base respondent's petition on Sec. 2(f) of R.A. No. 26 as the Court of Appeals did, and as respondent now argues in this petition, reconstitution would still not issue. Resort to other documents in Sec. 2(f) must be employed only when the documents earlier referred to in Secs. 2(a) to (e) do not avail. Respondent reasons that she can only rely on Sec. 2(f) because the required documents enumerated in Secs. 2(a) to (e) may only be procured from the Register of Deeds which had already certified that all such records were burned or destroyed in the last World War. She also adds that secondary evidence may now be presented in accordance with Sec. 5, Rule 130 of the Revised Rules on Evidence. Said section provides that when the original document has been lost or destroyed, or cannot be produced in court, the offeror, upon proof of its execution or existence and the cause of its unavailability without bad faith on his part, may prove its contents by a copy, or by a recital of its contents in some authentic document, or by the testimony of witnesses in the order stated. The order of presentation of presentation of secondary evidence under Sec. 5, Rule 130 is existence, execution, loss, contents. The order may be changed if necessary in the discretion of the court.30

    The problem though is that respondent has not established the issuance or existence of the certificate of title covering Lot No. 7129 nor of the other documents enumerated in Secs. 2(b) to (e) that would prove the existence, execution and contents of the certificate of title sought to be reconstituted. There is nothing in the evidence she presented that would show that Lot No. 7129 had been registered in the name of the Legal Heirs of Sofia Lazo and that the certificate of title in the name of the said heirs over said property had been issued.

    The Extrajudicial Declaration of Heirs with Waiver of Inheritance Rights and Deed of Absolute Sale presented by respondent does not indicate that the property was registered in the name of the Legal Heirs of Sofia Lazo. Instead, said document identified and described Lot No. 7129 only through a Tax Declaration No. 04276. The CENRO certification merely certified that Sales Patent No. 43619 had been issued to the Heirs of Sofia Lazo on 21 July 1938. It does not show that the sales patent was caused to be filed with the Register of Deeds of the province where the property is located and that a certificate of title had been consequently issued,

    which should have been the normal sequence of events under Section 1231 of Act No. 1120 or the Friar Lands Act upon payment by Sofia Lazo and her heirs of the final installment to the Government. The certification from the Register of Deeds moreover categorically shows that no certificate of title over Lot No. 7129 was issued in the name of or claimed to be owned by the heirs of Sofia Lazo. The tax declaration and real property tax clearance under respondent's name also cannot be relied upon to establish the existence of the certificate of title as they merely prove payment of the realty taxes imposed on the property. The Blue Print of Advance Plan and Technical Description of Lot No. 7129 also do not prove the prior valid existence of the certificate of title as they are mere descriptions of Lot 7129. The LRA report also does not confirm the existence of the certificate of title but merely attests to the correctness of the plan and technical description which may subsequently be used as basis for the inscription of the technical description in the reconstituted title. The LRA report also states that the whole of the Talisay-Minglanilla Estate was subject of a registration case for which Decree No. 2787 was issued on 15 July 1908, but it does not indicate that Lot No. 7129 which is part of the Talisay-Minglanilla Estate was the subject of a separate registration proceeding resulting in the issuance of a decree of registration for said lot.

    At best, respondent's evidence may prove only that Lot No. 7129 was patented to Sofia Lazo and her heirs and that the same was later sold to respondent. We are not here making a categorical ruling on the ownership of Lot No. 7129, since ownership of the property is not the issue in this case. However, respondent is emphatic in her claim that ownership of the property has already been transferred from the Government to Sofia Lazo and her heirs by virtue of the issuance of Sales Patent No. 43619 on 21 July 1938. Indeed, jurisprudence has consistently held that under Act No. 1120, the equitable and beneficial title to the land passes to the purchaser the moment the first installment is paid and a certificate of sale is issued. When the purchaser finally pays the final installment on the purchase price and is given a deed of conveyance and a certificate of title, the title, at least in equity, retroacts to the time he first occupied the land, paid the first installment and was issued the corresponding certificate of sale.32 Furthermore, in the event of the death of the holder of the certificate of sale before the issuance of the deed of conveyance, the interest of

    the holder of the certificate passes to his or her legal heirs, pursuant to Sec. 1633 of Act No. 1120, as amended. However, in the case at bar, respondent failed to prove that an original certificate of title or transfer certificate of title actually existed. Lot No. 7129 may have actually been registered and the certificate of title thereto may have actually been issued, but the fact remains that this was not proven by the evidence presented in this case. There is also the possibility that the property had never been registered and that the certificate of title never issued. In that case, respondent's remedy may be another proceeding probably for the registration of title to Lot No. 7129 and not for reconstitution. Because reconstitution presupposes the existence of an original certificate of title which was lost or destroyed, if there is no such original certificate of title, there is actually nothing to reconstitute.

    One last point. Respondent contends that fair play dictates that petitioner should have timely raised its objections to the petition for reconstitution during the hearings before the RTC. She claims it is unfair of petitioner to belatedly propound its opposition and for said opposition to be given merit at this time. The fact that no opposition

    is filed by a private party or by the Republic of the Philippines will not relieve respondent, as petitioner in the petition for reconstitution, of his burden of proving not only the loss or destruction of the title sought to be reconstituted but also that at the time the said title was lost or destroyed, he or his predecessor-in interest was the registered owner thereof. The Republic is not estopped from assailing the decision granting the petition if, on the basis of the law and the evidence on record, such petition has no merit.34

    WHEREFORE, in view of the foregoing, the petition is GRANTED. The Amended Decision dated 23 June 2006 of the Court of Appeals is hereby REVERSED and SET ASIDE and its Decision dated 20 February 2006 is REINSTATED.

    SO ORDERED.

    Endnotes:


    * Acting Chairperson as replacement of Justice Leonardo A. Quisumbing who is on official leave per Special Order No. 618.

    ** Additional member of the Second Division per Special Order No. 619.

    1 Rollo, pp. 10-19. Penned by Executive Justice Arsenio J. Magpale and concurred in by Associate Justices Vicente L. Yap and Apolinario D. Brusales, Jr. of the Eighteenth Division.

    2 Id. at 117-127.

    3 Id. at 78-82. By Judge Ireneo Lee Gako, Jr.

    4 An Act Providing A Special Procedure for the Reconstitution of Torrens Certificates of Tile Lost or Destroyed (25 September 1946).

    5 Id. at 82.

    6 CA rollo, pp. 80-90.

    7 Section 2 of R.A. No. 26 reads: "Original certificates of title shall be reconstituted from such of the sources hereunder enumerated as may be available, in the following order: (a) The owner's duplicate of the certificate of title; (b) The co-owner's, mortgagee's, or lessee's duplicate of the certificate of title; (c) A certified copy of the certificate of title, previously issued by the register of deeds or by a legal custodian thereof; (d) An authenticated copy of the decree of registration or patent, as the case may be, pursuant to which the original certificate of title was issued; (e) A document, on file in the registry of deeds, by which the property, the description of which is given in said document, is mortgaged, leased or encumbered, or an authenticated copy of said document showing that its original had been registered; and (f) Any other document which, in the judgment of the court, is sufficient and proper basis for reconstituting the lost or destroyed certificate of title."

    8 RTC records, pp. 5-7.

    9 Id. at 11.

    10 Id. at 12.

    11 Id. at 50.

    12 Id. at 42.

    13 Id. at 41.

    14 Id. at 51.

    15 Id. at 37-38.

    16 Id. at 37.

    17 Rollo, p. 40.

    18 See supra note 7.

    19 Section 3. Transfer certificates of title shall be reconstituted from such of the sources hereunder enumerated as may be available, in the following order: (a) The owner's duplicate of the certificate of titles; (b) The co-owner's, mortgagee's, or lessee's duplicate of the certificate of title; (c) A certified copy of the certificate of title, previously issued by the register of deeds or by a legal custodian thereof; (d) The deed of transfer or other document on file in the registry of deeds, containing the description of the property, or an authenticated copy thereof, showing that its original had been registered, and pursuant to which the lost or destroyed transfer certificate of title was issued; (e) A document, on file in the registry of deeds, by which the property, the description of which is given in said documents, is mortgaged, leased or encumbered, or an authenticated copy of said document showing that its original had been registered; and (f) Any other document which, in the judgment of the court, is sufficient and proper basis for reconstituting the lost destroyed certificate of title.

    20 Republic of the Philippines v. Lagramada, G.R. No. 150741, 12 June 2008.

    21 No. L-68303, 15 January 1988, 157 SCRA 62.

    22 362 Phil. 536 (1999).

    23 G.R. No. 142284, 8 June 2005, 459 SCRA 533.

    24 Republic of the Philippines v. Holazo, G.R. No. 146846, 31 August 2004, 437 SCRA 345, 353.

    25 Section 12. Petitions for reconstitution from sources enumerated in Sections 2(c), 2(d), 2(e), 2(f), 3(c), 3(d), 3(e), and/or 3(f) of this Act, shall be filed with the proper Court of First Instance, by the registered owner, his assigns, or any person having an interest in the property. The petition shall state or contain, among other things, the following: (a) that the owner's duplicate of the certificate of title had been lost or destroyed; (b) that no co-owner's, mortgagee's or lessee's duplicate had been issued, or, if any had been issued, the same had been lost or destroyed; (c) the location, area and boundaries of the property; (d) the nature and description of the buildings or improvements, if any, which do not belong to the owner of the land, and the names and addresses of the owners of such buildings or improvements; (e) the names and addresses of the occupants or persons in possession of the property, of the owners of the adjoining properties and of all persons who may have interest in the property; (f) a detailed description of the encumbrances, if any, affecting the property; and (g) a statement that no deeds or other instruments affecting the property have been presented for registration, or, if there be any, the registration thereof has not been accomplished, as yet. All the documents, or authenticated copies thereof, to be introduced in evidence in support to the petition for reconstitution shall be attached thereto and filed with the same: Provided, That in case the reconstitution is to be made exclusively from sources enumerated in Section 2(f) or 3(f) of this Act, the petition shall be further accompanied with a plan and technical description of the property duly approved by the Commissioner of Land Registration, or with a certified copy of the description taken from a prior certificate of title covering the same property.

    26 Section 13. The court shall cause a notice of the petition, filed under the preceding section, to be published, at the expense of the petitioner, twice in successive issues of the Official Gazette, and to be posted on the main entrance of the provincial building and of the municipal building of the municipality or city in which the land is situated, at least thirty days prior to the date of hearing. The court shall likewise cause a copy of the notice to be sent, by registered mail or otherwise, at the expense of the petitioner, to every person named therein whose address is known, at least thirty days prior to the date of hearing. Said notice shall state, among other things, the number of the lost or destroyed certificate of title, if known, the name of the registered owner, the names of the occupants or persons in possession of the property, the owners of the adjoining properties and all other interested parties, the location, area and boundaries of the property, and the date on which all persons having any interest therein must appear and file their claim or objections to the petition. The petitioner shall, at the hearing, submit proof of the publication, posting and service of the notice as directed by the court.

    27 Section 15. If the court, after hearing, finds that the documents presented, as supported by parole evidence or otherwise, are sufficient and proper to warrant the reconstitution of the lost or destroyed certificate of title, and that the petitioner is the registered owner of the property or has an interest therein, that the said certificate of title was in force at the time it was lost or destroyed, and that the description, area and boundaries of the property are substantially the same as those contained in the lost or destroyed certificate of title, an order of reconstitution shall be issued. The clerk of court shall forward to the register of deeds a certified copy of said order and all the documents which, pursuant to said order, are to be used as the basis of the reconstitution. If the court finds that there is no sufficient evidence or basis to justify the reconstitution, the petition shall be dismissed, but such dismissal shall not preclude the right of the party or parties entitled thereto to file an application for confirmation of his or their title under the provisions of the Land Registration Act.

    28 Lee v. Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. 128195, 3 October 2001, 366 SCRA 524.

    29 Cabello v. Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. 142810, 18 August 2005, 467 SCRA 330.

    30 Republic of the Philippines v. Verzosa, G.R. No. 173525, 28 March 2008, 550 SCRA 382.

    31 SECTION 12. It shall be the duty of the Chief of the Bureau of Public Lands by proper investigation to ascertain what is the actual value of the parcel of land held by each settler and occupant, taking into consideration the location and quality of each holding of land, and any other circumstances giving its value. The basis of valuation shall likewise be, so far as practicable, such that the aggregate of the values of all the holdings included in each particular tract shall be equal to the cost to the Government to the entire tract, including the cost of surveys, administration and interest upon the purchase money to the time of sale. When the cost thereof shall have been thus ascertained, the Chief of the Bureau of Public Lands shall give the said settler and occupant a certificate which shall set forth in detail that the Government has agreed to sell to such settler and occupant the amount of land so held by him, at the price so fixed, payable as provided in this Act at the office of the Chief of Bureau of Public Lands, in gold coin of the United States or its equivalent in Philippine currency, and that upon the payment of the final installment together with all accrued interest the Government will convey to such settler and occupant the said land so held by him by proper instrument of conveyance, which shall be issued and become effective in the manner provided in section one hundred and twenty-two of the Land Registration Act. The Chief of the Bureau of Public Lands shall, in each instance where a certificate is given to the settler and occupant of any holding, take his formal receipt showing the delivery of such certificate, signed by said settler and occupant.

    32 Dela Torre v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 113095, 8 February 2000, 325 SCRA 11 citing Director of Lands v. Rizal, G.R. No. 2925, 87 Phil. 806, 810 (1950); Alvarez v. Espiritu, G.R. No. 18833, 14 SCRA 892, 897 (1965); Fabian v. Fabian, G.R. No. 20449, 22 SCRA 231, 235 (1968); Republic v. Heirs of Felix Caballero, G.R. No. 27473, 79 SCRA 177, 188-189 (1977).

    33 SECTION 16. In the event of the death of a holder of a certificate the issuance of which is provided for in section twelve hereof, prior to the execution of a deed by the Government to any purchaser, the interest of the holder of the certificate shall descend and deed shall be issued to the persons who under the laws of the Philippine Islands would have taken had the title been perfected before the death of the holder of the certificate, upon proof of compliance with all the requirements of the certificate. In case the holder of the certificate shall have sold his interest in the land before having complied with all the conditions thereof, the purchaser shall have all the rights of the holder of the certificate upon presenting his assignment to the Chief of the Bureau of Public Lands for registration.

    34 Republic of the Philippines v. Holazo, G.R. No. 146846, 31 August 2004, 437 SCRA 345.

    G.R. No. 173210 - REPUBIC OF THE PHILIPPINES v. MACARIA L. TUASTUMBAN


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