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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
July-2009 Jurisprudence                 

  • A.C. No. 6121 - TRINIDAD H. CAMARA, ET AL. v. ATTY. OSCAR AMONDY REYES

  • A.C. No. 7199 Formerly CBD 04-1386 - Foodsphere, Inc. v. Atty. Melanio L. Mauricio, Jr.

  • A.C. No. 7815 - Dolores C. Belleza v. Atty. Alan S. Macasa

  • A.C. No. 8243 - Rolando B. Pacana, Jr. v. Atty. Maricel Pascual-Lopez

  • A.C. No. 8252 - Natividad Uy v. Atty. Braulio RG Tansisin

  • A.M. No. 02-8-207-MTCC - Re: Report on the Judicial Audit Conducted in the Municipal Trial Court in Cities, Branch 2, Cagayan De Oro City

  • A.M. No. 03-7-170-MCTC - Re: Report on the Judicial Audit in Municipal Circuit Trial Court, Jiminez-Sinacaban, Misamis Occidental/ Judge Pricilla Hernandez

  • A.M. No. 08-3-73-MeTC - Re: Report on the Judicial Audit Conducted at the Metropolitan Trial Court, Branch 55, Malabon City

  • A.M. No. 08-4-4-SC - Re: Request of the Police Director General Avelino I. Razon for authority to delegate the endorsement of application for search warrant

  • A.M. No. 2008-24-SC - Re: Fighting incident between two(2) SC shutle bus drivers, namely, Messrs. Edilbert L. Idulsa and Ross C. Romero

  • A.M. No. MTJ-06-1651 - Prosecutor Robert M. Visbal v. Judge Wenceslao B. Vanilla, MTCC, Br. 2, Tacloban City

  • A.M. No. MTJ-08-1709 Formerly A.M. OCA IPI No. 02-1225-MTJ - Lanie Cervantes v. Judge Heriberto M. Pangilinan, and Clerk of Court III Carmencita P. Baloco, etc.

  • A.M. No. P-03-1677 & A.M. No. P-07-2317 - Liberty M. Toledo v. Liza Perez, Court Stenographer III, Office of the Clerk of Court, RTC, Manila

  • A.M. No. P-06-2212 - Geronimo Francisco v. Sebastian Bolivar, etc.

  • A.M. No. P-06-2217 Formerly OCA IPI No. 06-2375-P - Concerned Employees of the Municipal Trial Court of Meycauayan, Bulacan v. Larizza Paguio-Bacani, Branch COC II, MTC, Meycauayan, Bulacan

  • A.M. No. P-06-2219 Formerly A.M. No. 06-7-392-RTC - Office of the Court Administrator v. Officer-in-charge and Legal Researcher Nilda Cinco, RTC, Br. 28, Catbalogan, Samar

  • A.M. No. P-06-2245 Formerly OCA IPI NO. 06-2373-P and A.M. NO. MTJ-09-1741 Formerly OCA IPI No. 06-1853-MTJ : July 31, 2009 - Judge Jaime L. Dojillo, Jr. v. Concepcion Z. Ching, etc.

  • A.M. No. P-08-2578 Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 08-2924-P - Gaspar R. Dutosme v. Atty. Rey D. Caayona

  • A.M. No. P-09-2644 Formerly OCA IPI No. 08-2787-P - Edgardo A. Quilo v. Rogelio G. Jundarino, Sheriff III, Metropolitan Trail Court, Branch 19, Manila

  • A.M. No. P-08-2132 Formerly A.M. OCA IPI No. 07-2549-RTJ - Atty. Florencio Alay Binalay v. Judge Elias O. Lelina, Jr.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-08-2158 Formerly OCA IPI No. 04-2018-RTJ - Alfredo Favor v. Judge Cesar O. Untalan, RTC, Branch 149, Makati City

  • A.M. No. RTJ-09-2175 - Venancio Inonog v. Judge Francisco B. Ibay, Presiding Judge, Regional Trial Court, Branch 135, Makati City

  • A.M. No. RTJ-09-2183 Formerly A.M. OCA IPI No. 05-2346-RTJ - Concerned Lawyers of Bulacan v. Presiding Judge Pornillos, RTC Br. 10, Malolos City.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-09-2186 Formerly A.M. OCA-IPI No. 03-1893-RTJ and A.M. No. RTJ-09-2187 Formerly A.M. OCA IPI No. 04-1993-RTJ - Atty. Nelson T. Antolin, et al. v. Judge Alex L. Quiroz, et al.

  • G.R. No. 141888 - Melba Rose R. Sasot v. Amado Yuson, et al.

  • G.R. No. 147957 - Privatization Management Office v. Legaspi Towers 300, Inc.

  • G.R. No. 148600 - Atty. Emmanuel Pontejos v. Hon. Aniano Desierto and Restituto Aquino

  • G.R. No. 149763 - Eduardo J. Mari o, Jr. et al. v. Gil Y. Gamilla, et al.

  • G.R. No. 150228 - Bank of America NT & SA v. Philippine Racing Club

  • G.R. No. 151424 - Eagle Realty Corporation v. Republic of the Philippines, etc., et al.

  • G.R. No. 151973 - National Power Corporation v. Sps. Lorenzo L. Laohoo, et al.

  • G.R. No. 152263 - Arthur Zarate v. Regional Trial Court, Br. Gingoog City, Misamis Oriental

  • G.R. No. 152496 - Sps. German Anunciacion, et al. v. Perpetua M. Bocanegra, et al.

  • G.R. No. 155491 - Smart Communications, Inc., v. The City of Davao, represented by its Mayor Hon. Rodrigo Duterte and the Sangguniang Panlunsod of Davao City

  • G.R. No. 156946 - Secretary of Finance v. Oro Maura Shipping Lines

  • G.R. No. 157607 - Land Bank of the Philippines v. Rowena O. Paden

  • G.R. No. 159131 - Heirs of Toribio Waga, represented by Merba A. Waga v. Isabelo Sacabin

  • G.R. No. 159358 - Eureka Personnel and Management Corp., and Nari K. Gidwani v. The Hon. National Labor Relations Commission, et al.

  • G.R. No. 159624 - Cebu Mactan Members Center, Inc. v. Masahiro Tsukahara

  • G.R. NOS. 160243-52 - Romeo D. Lonzanida v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 160265 - Nely T. Co. v. People of the Philippines, et al.

  • G.R. No. 160380 - Sps. Eduardo & Leticia Monta o v. Rosalina Francisco, et al

  • G.R. No. 160772 - Hilario P. Soriano v. Ombudsman Simeon V. Marcelo, et al.

  • G.R. No. 161051 - Compania General de Tabacos De Filipinas and La Flor De La Isabela, inc. v. Hon. Virgilio A. Sevandal, et al.

  • G.R. No. 161062 - Republic of the Philippines v. Ferventino U, Tango

  • G.R. No. 161238 - Heirs of Jose G. Santiago, namely: Julia G. Santiago, et al. v. Aurea G. Santiago, et al.

  • G.R. No. 161748 - Spouses Francisco and Betty Wong and Spouses Joaquin and Lolita Wong v. City of Iloilo, et al.

  • G.R. No. 162074 - Cecilleville Realty and Service Corporation v. Spouses Tito Acu a, et al.

  • G.R. No. 162540 - Gemma T. Jacinto v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 162721 - Petronila Maylem v. Carmelita Ellano and Antonia Morciento

  • G.R. No. 162738 - Sps. Elizabeth S. Tagle Ernesto R. Tagle v. Hon. Court of Appeals, RTC, Quezon City, Branch 97, Sps. Federico and Rosamyrna Carandang and Shriff Carol Bulacan

  • G.R. No. 162836 - Cerefina Argallon-Jocson and Rodolfo Tuising v. Maria Cristina Fertilizer Corporation and/or Marcelo Steel Corporation

  • G.R. No. 164244 - National Housing Authority v. Reynaldo Magat

  • G.R. No. 164315 - Alcatel Philippines, Inc. v. Rene R. Relos

  • G.R. No. 164560 - Ana De Guia San Pedro, et al. v. Hon. Fatima G. Asdala (etc.), et al.

  • G.R. No. 164800 - Republic of the Philippines v. Estate of Alfonso Lim, Sr., et al.

  • G.R. No. 164817 - Digna A. Najera v. Eduardo J. Najera

  • G.R. No. 164968 - Gloria Ocampo, et al. v. Land Bank of the Philippines, et al.

  • G.R. No. 165448 - Ernesto Aquino v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 165568 - Government Service Insurance System v. Abraham Lopez

  • G.R. No. 165678 - Rosario Panuncio v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 165907 - Spouses Dominador R. Narvaez and Lilia W. Narvaez v. Spouses Rose Ogas Alciso and Antonio Alciso

  • G.R. No. 166198 - Marcelino A. Magdadaro v. Philippine National Bank

  • G.R. No. 166553 - Republic of the Philippines, represented by the National Power Corporation v. Sps. Ruperto and Sonia S. Libuano, et al.

  • G.R. No. 166640 - Herminio Mariano, Jr. v. Ildefonso C. Callejas and Edgar De Borja

  • G.R. No. 166705 - Mantle Trading Services, Incorporated and/or Bobby Del Rosario v. National Labor Relations Commission and Pablo S. Madriaga

  • G.R. No. 166734 - Mandy Commodities Co., Inc. v. The International Commercial Bank of China

  • G.R. No. 166988 - Heirs of Emiliano San Pedro, etc. v. Pablito Garcia and Jose Calderon

  • G.R. No. 167232 - D.B.T. Mar-Bay Construction Incorporated v. Ricaredo Panes, et al.

  • G.R. No. 167546 - Sonny Romero y Dominguez v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 167809 - Land Bank of the Philippines v. Josefina R. Dumlao, et al.

  • G.R. No. 168406 - Club Filipino, Inc. and Atty. Roberto F. De Leon v. Benjamin Bautista, et al.

  • G.R. No. 169519 - Irenorio B. Balaba v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 169700 - In the Matter of the Allowance of the Will of Moises F. Banayad Apolonia Banayad Frianela v. Servillano Banayad, Jr.

  • G.R. No. 169878 - People of the Philippines v. Jesus Obero

  • G.R. No. 170014 - Renita Del Rosario, et al. v. Makati Cinema Square Corporation

  • G.R. No. 170472 - People of the Philippines v. Jojo Musa y Santos, et al.

  • G.R. NOS. 170615-16 - The Repuclic of the Philippines, represented by the Office of the Ombudsman, Ma. Merceditas N. Gutierrez, in her capacity as the Ombudsman v. Rufino V. Maijares, Roberto G. Ferrera, Alfredo M. Ruba and Romeo Querubin.

  • G.R. No. 171275 - Victor Meteoro, et al. v. Creative Creatures, Inc.

  • G.R. No. 171386 - Gloria R. Motos and Martin Motos v. Real Bank (A Thrift Bank), Inc.

  • G.R. No. 171586 - National Power Corporation v. Province of Quezon and Municipality of Pabgilao

  • G.R. No. 171655 - People of the Philippines v. Pablo L. Estacio, Jr. and Maritess Ang

  • G.R. No. 171842 - Gloria S. Dy v. Mandy Commodities Co., Inc.

  • G.R. No. 171968 - XYST Corporation v. DMC Urban Properties Development, Inc., Fe Aurora C. Castro (Intervenor)

  • G.R. No. 172174 - Davao Contractors Development Cooperative (DACODECO), represented by Chairman of the Board Engr. L. Chavez v. Marilyn A. Pasawa.

  • G.R. No. 172212 - Rafael Rondina v. Court of Appeals formet special 19th Division, unicraft Industries International Corp., Inc. Robert Dino, Cristina Dino, Michael Lloyd Dino, Allan Dino and Mylene June Dino.

  • G.R. No. 172342 - LWV Construction Corporation v. Marcelo B. Dupo

  • G.R. No. 172574 - Noli Lim v. Angelito Delos Santos, etc., Denia R. Adoyo, et al., (Intervenors) Gloria Murillo, et al., (Protestants)

  • G.R. No. 172640 - Victoriano Dela Pe a, et al. v. Spouses Vicente Alonzo, et al.

  • G.R. No. 172796 - Sps. Artemio and Esperanza Aduan v. Levi Chong

  • G.R. No. 173252 - Unisource Commercial and Development Corporation v. Joseph Chung, et al.

  • G.R. No. 173654-765 - People of the Philippines v. Teresita Puig and Romeo Porras

  • G.R. No. 174154 - Jesus Cuenco v. Talisay Tourist Sprots Complex, Incorporated and Matias B. Aznar III

  • G.R. No. 174238 - Anita Cheng v. Souses William and Tessie Sy

  • G.R. No. 174364 - Northwest Airlines v. Delfin S. Catapang

  • G.R. No. 174370 - People of the Philippines v. Willy Mardo Ganoy y Mamayabay

  • G.R. No. 174610 - Soriamont Steamship Agencies, Inc., et al. v. Sprint Transport Services, inc. etc.

  • G.R. No. 174803 - Marywin Albano-Sales v. Mayor Reynolan T. Sales and Court of Appeals

  • G.R. No. 174830 - Isabelita Vda. De Dayao and Heirs of Vicente Dayao v. Heirs of Gavino Robles, namely: Placida vda. De Robles, et al.

  • G.R. No. 174986, G.R. NO. 175071 and G.R. NO. 181415 - Armand O. Raquel-Santos, et al. v. Court of Appeals, et al.

  • G.R. No. 175352 - Dante Liban, et al. v. Richard J. Gordon

  • G.R. No. 175551 - Republic of the Philippines represented by the Manila International Airport Authority (MIAA) v. Hon. Francisco G. Mendioal, etc.

  • G.R. No. 175677 and G.R. NO. 177133 - Spouses Azucena B. Corpuz and Renato S. Corpuz v. Citibank, N.A. et al.

  • G.R. No. 175910 - Atty. Rogelio E. Sarsaba v. Fe vda De Te, represented by her Attorney-in-Fact Faustino Casta eda

  • G.R. No. 177007 - Sansio Philippines, Inc. v. Sps. Alicia Leodegario Mogol, Jr.

  • G.R. No. 177181 - Rabaja Ranch and Development Corporation v. AFP Retirement and Separation Benefits System

  • G.R. No. 177430 and G.R. NO. 178935 - Rene M. Francisco v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 177594 - University of San Agustin, Inc. v. University of San Agustin Employees Union-FFW

  • G.R. No. 177624 - Modesta Luna v. Juliana P. Luna, et al.

  • G.R. No. 177728 - Jenie San Juan Dela Cruz, et al., etc., v. Ronald Paul S. Gracia, etc.

  • G.R. No. 177766 - People of the Philippines v. Claro Jampas

  • G.R. No. 177768 - People of the Philippines v. Charmen Olivo y Along, Nelson Danda y Sambuto and Joey Zafra y Reyes

  • G.R. No. 177847 - Laurence M. Sison v. Eusebia Cariaga

  • G.R. No. 178058 - People of the Philippines v. Jessie Maliao y Masakit, Norberto Chiong y Discotido and Luciano Bohol y Gamana, Jessie Maliao y Masakit(Accused-Appellant)

  • G.R. No. 178205 - People of the Philippines v. Leo Quemeggen, Juanito De Luna

  • G.R. No. 178330 - Martin T. Sagarbarria v. Philippine Business Bank

  • G.R. No. 178490 - Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Bank of the Philippine Islands

  • G.R. No. 178760 - Carmen B. Dy-Dumalasa v. Domingo Sabado S. Fernandez, et al.

  • G.R. NOS. 178831-32, G.R. No. 179120, G.R. NOS. 179132-33 and G.R. NOS. 179240-41 - Limkaichong v. Comission on Election

  • G.R. No. 178976 - Abelardo P. Abel v. Philex Mining Corporation represented by Fernando Agustin

  • G.R. No. 179061 - Sheala P. Matrido v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 179154 - People of the Philippines v. Roger Perez and Danilo Perez

  • G.R. No. 179177 - Carlos N. Nisda v. Sea Serve Maritime Agency, et al.

  • G.R. No. 179187 - People of the Philippines v. Renato Talusan y Panganiban

  • G.R. No. 179430 - Jamela Salic Maruhom v. Commssion on Elections and Mohammad Ali "Mericano" A. Abinal

  • G.R. No. 179271 and G.R. No. 179295 - BANAT v. Commission on Election

  • G.R. No. 179512 - Eagle Star Security Services, Inc. v. Bonifacio L. Mirando.

  • G.R. No. 179546 - Coca-Cola Bottlers Phils, Inc. v. Alan M. Agito, Regolo S. Oca III, et al.

  • G.R. No. 179653 - United Muslim and Christian Urban Poor Association, Inc., etc. v. BRYC-V Development Corporation, etc., et al.

  • G.R. No. 179674 - Pyro Coppermining Corporation v. Mines Adjudication Board-Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al.

  • G.R. No. 179807 - Ramy Gallego v. Bayer Philippines, Inc., et al.

  • G.R. No. 179937 - The People of the Philippines v. Gerald Librea y Camitan

  • G.R. No. 180043 - Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Philippine Airline, Inc. (PAL)

  • G.R. No. 180055 and G.R. No. 183055 - Franklin M. Drilon, et al. v. Hon. Jose de Venecia, Jr., et al.

  • G.R. No. 180066 - Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Philippine Airlines, Inc.

  • G.R. No. 180458 - Development Bank of the Philippines v. Family Foods Manufacturing Co. Ltd. and Spouses Juliano and Catalina Centeno

  • G.R. No. 180465 - Eric Dela Cruz and Paul M. Lacuata v. Coca-Cola Bottlers Phils.

  • G.R. No. 180528 - Civil Service Commission v. Nelia O. Tahanlangit

  • G.R. No. 180568 - Lydia Montebon a.k.a. Jingle Montebon v. The Honorable Court of Appeals, et al.

  • G.R. No. 180675 - Virgilio Bote v. San Pedro Cineplex Properties Corporation

  • G.R. No. 181235 - Banco De Oro-EPCI, Inc. v. John Tansipek

  • G.R. No. 181393 - Grandteq Industrial Steel Products, Inc. and Abelardo M. Gonzales v. Edna Margallo

  • G.R. No. 181478 - Eddie T. Panlilio v. Commission on Elections and Lilia G. Pineda

  • G.R. No. 181531 - National Union of Workers in Hotels Restaurant and Allied Industries-Manila Pavilion Hotel Chapter v. Secretary of Labor and Employment, et al.

  • G.R. No. 182420 - People of the Philippines v. Elsie Barba

  • G.R .No. 182454 - People of the Philippines v. Felix Wasit

  • G.R. No. 182485 - Sps. Henry O and Pacita Cheng v. Sps. Jose Javier and Claudia Dailisan

  • G.R. No. 182567 - Guillermo M. Telmo v. Luciano M. Bustamante

  • G.R. No. 182687 - People of the Philippines v. Warlito Martinez

  • G.R. No. 182941 - Roberto Sierra y Caneda v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 183105 - Erna Casals, et al. v. Tayud Golf and Country Club, et al..

  • G.R. No. 183819 - People of the Philippines v. Arsenio Cortez y Macalindong a.k.a. "Archie"

  • G.R. No. 184586 - Rafael Flauta, Jr., et al. v. Commission on Elections, et al.

  • G.R. No. 184801 - Jonas Taguiam v. Commission on Election, et al.

  • G.R. No. 184948 - Cong. Glenn A. Chong, Mr. Charles Chong, and Mr. Romeo Arribe v. Hon. Philip L. Dela Cruz, et al.

  • G.R. No. 185035 - Government Service Insurance System v. Salvador A. De Castro

  • G.R. No. 185063 - Sps. Lita De Leon, et al. v. Anita B. De Leon, et al.

  • G.R. No. 185095 - Maria Susan L. Ra ola, et al. v. Spouses Fernando & Ma. Concepcion M. Ra ola

  • G.R. No. 185220 - Laguna Metts Corporation v. Court of Appeals, Aries C. Caalam and Geraldine Esguerra

  • G.R. No. 185389 - People of the Philippines v. Benjie Resurrection

  • G.R. No. 185401 - Henry "June" Due as, Jr. v. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal and Angelito "Jett" P. Reyes

  • G.R. NO. 186007 and G.R. No. 186016 - Salvador Divinagracia, Jr. v. Commission on Elections and Alex A. Centena

  • G.R. No. 187152 - People of the Philippines v. Teodulo Villanueva, Jr.

  • UDK-14071 - Martin Gibbs Fletcher v. The Director of Bureau of Corrections or his representative

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    G.R. No. 175352 - Dante Liban, et al. v. Richard J. Gordon

      G.R. No. 175352 - Dante Liban, et al. v. Richard J. Gordon

    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    EN BANC

    [G.R. NO. 175352 : July 15, 2009]

    DANTE V. LIBAN, REYNALDO M. BERNARDO, and SALVADOR M. VIARI, Petitioners, v. RICHARD J. GORDON, Respondent.

    D E C I S I O N

    CARPIO, J.:

    The Case

    This is a petition to declare Senator Richard J. Gordon (respondent) as having forfeited his seat in the Senate.

    The Facts

    Petitioners Dante V. Liban, Reynaldo M. Bernardo, and Salvador M. Viari (petitioners) filed with this Court a Petition to Declare Richard J. Gordon as Having Forfeited His Seat in the Senate. Petitioners are officers of the Board of Directors of the Quezon City Red Cross Chapter while respondent is Chairman of the Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC) Board of Governors.

    During respondent's incumbency as a member of the Senate of the Philippines,1 he was elected Chairman of the PNRC during the 23 February 2006 meeting of the PNRC Board of Governors. Petitioners allege that by accepting the chairmanship of the PNRC Board of Governors, respondent has ceased to be a member of the Senate as provided in Section 13, Article VI of the Constitution, which reads:

    SEC. 13. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries, during his term without forfeiting his seat. Neither shall he be appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for which he was elected.

    Petitioners cite Camporedondo v. NLRC,2 which held that the PNRC is a government-owned or controlled corporation. Petitioners claim that in accepting and holding the position of Chairman of the PNRC Board of Governors, respondent has automatically forfeited his seat in the Senate, pursuant to Flores v. Drilon,3 which held that incumbent national legislators lose their elective posts upon their appointment to another government office.

    In his Comment, respondent asserts that petitioners have no standing to file this petition which appears to be an action for quo warranto, since the petition alleges that respondent committed an act which, by provision of law, constitutes a ground for forfeiture of his public office. Petitioners do not claim to be entitled to the Senate office of respondent. Under Section 5, Rule 66 of the Rules of Civil Procedure, only a person claiming to be entitled to a public office usurped or unlawfully held by another may bring an action for quo warranto in his own name. If the petition is one for quo warranto, it is already barred by prescription since under Section 11, Rule 66 of the Rules of Civil Procedure, the action should be commenced within one year after the cause of the public officer's forfeiture of office. In this case, respondent has been working as a Red Cross volunteer for the past 40 years. Respondent was already Chairman of the PNRC Board of Governors when he was elected Senator in May 2004, having been elected Chairman in 2003 and re-elected in 2005.

    Respondent contends that even if the present petition is treated as a taxpayer's suit, petitioners cannot be allowed to raise a constitutional question in the absence of any claim that they suffered some actual damage or threatened injury as a result of the allegedly illegal act of respondent. Furthermore, taxpayers are allowed to sue only when there is a claim of illegal disbursement of public funds, or that public money is being diverted to any improper purpose, or where petitioners seek to restrain respondent from enforcing an invalid law that results in wastage of public funds.

    Respondent also maintains that if the petition is treated as one for declaratory relief, this Court would have no jurisdiction since original jurisdiction for declaratory relief lies with the Regional Trial Court.

    Respondent further insists that the PNRC is not a government-owned or controlled corporation and that the prohibition under Section 13, Article VI of the Constitution does not apply in the present case since volunteer service to the PNRC is neither an office nor an employment.

    In their Reply, petitioners claim that their petition is neither an action for quo warranto nor an action for declaratory relief. Petitioners maintain that the present petition is a taxpayer's suit questioning the unlawful disbursement of funds, considering that respondent has been drawing his salaries and other compensation as a Senator even if he is no longer entitled to his office. Petitioners point out that this Court has jurisdiction over this petition since it involves a legal or constitutional issue which is of transcendental importance.

    The Issues

    Petitioners raise the following issues:

    1. Whether the Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC) is a government - owned or controlled corporation;

    2. Whether Section 13, Article VI of the Philippine Constitution applies to the case of respondent who is Chairman of the PNRC and at the same time a Member of the Senate;

    3. Whether respondent should be automatically removed as a Senator pursuant to Section 13, Article VI of the Philippine Constitution; andcralawlibrary

    4. Whether petitioners may legally institute this petition against respondent.4

    The substantial issue boils down to whether the office of the PNRC Chairman is a government office or an office in a government-owned or controlled corporation for purposes of the prohibition in Section 13, Article VI of the Constitution.

    The Court's Ruling

    We find the petition without merit.

    Petitioners Have No Standing to File this Petition

    A careful reading of the petition reveals that it is an action for quo warranto. Section 1, Rule 66 of the Rules of Court provides:

    Section 1. Action by Government against individuals. - An action for the usurpation of a public office, position or franchise may be commenced by a verified petition brought in the name of the Republic of the Philippines against:

    (a) A person who usurps, intrudes into, or unlawfully holds or exercises a public office, position or franchise;

    (b) A public officer who does or suffers an act which by provision of law, constitutes a ground for the forfeiture of his office; or

    (c) An association which acts as a corporation within the Philippines without being legally incorporated or without lawful authority so to act. (Emphasis supplied)cralawlibrary

    Petitioners allege in their petition that:

    4. Respondent became the Chairman of the PNRC when he was elected as such during the First Regular Luncheon-Meeting of the Board of Governors of the PNRC held on February 23, 2006, the minutes of which is hereto attached and made integral part hereof as Annex "A."

    5. Respondent was elected as Chairman of the PNRC Board of Governors, during his incumbency as a Member of the House of Senate of the Congress of the Philippines, having been elected as such during the national elections last May 2004.

    6. Since his election as Chairman of the PNRC Board of Governors, which position he duly accepted, respondent has been exercising the powers and discharging the functions and duties of said office, despite the fact that he is still a senator.

    7. It is the respectful submission of the petitioner[s] that by accepting the chairmanship of the Board of Governors of the PNRC, respondent has ceased to be a Member of the House of Senate as provided in Section 13, Article VI of the Philippine Constitution, x x x

    x x x

    10. It is respectfully submitted that in accepting the position of Chairman of the Board of Governors of the PNRC on February 23, 2006, respondent has automatically forfeited his seat in the House of Senate and, therefore, has long ceased to be a Senator, pursuant to the ruling of this Honorable Court in the case of FLORES, ET AL. v. DRILON AND GORDON, G.R. No. 104732, x x x

    11. Despite the fact that he is no longer a senator, respondent continues to act as such and still performs the powers, functions and duties of a senator, contrary to the constitution, law and jurisprudence.

    12. Unless restrained, therefore, respondent will continue to falsely act and represent himself as a senator or member of the House of Senate, collecting the salaries, emoluments and other compensations, benefits and privileges appertaining and due only to the legitimate senators, to the damage, great and irreparable injury of the Government and the Filipino people.5 (Emphasis supplied)cralawlibrary

    Thus, petitioners are alleging that by accepting the position of Chairman of the PNRC Board of Governors, respondent has automatically forfeited his seat in the Senate. In short, petitioners filed an action for usurpation of public office against respondent, a public officer who allegedly committed an act which constitutes a ground for the forfeiture of his public office. Clearly, such an action is for quo warranto, specifically under Section 1(b), Rule 66 of the Rules of Court.

    Quo warranto is generally commenced by the Government as the proper party plaintiff. However, under Section 5, Rule 66 of the Rules of Court, an individual may commence such an action if he claims to be entitled to the public office allegedly usurped by another, in which case he can bring the action in his own name. The person instituting quo warranto proceedings in his own behalf must claim and be able to show that he is entitled to the office in dispute, otherwise the action may be dismissed at any stage.6 In the present case, petitioners do not claim to be entitled to the Senate office of respondent. Clearly, petitioners have no standing to file the present petition.

    Even if the Court disregards the infirmities of the petition and treats it as a taxpayer's suit, the petition would still fail on the merits.

    PNRC is a Private Organization Performing Public Functions

    On 22 March 1947, President Manuel A. Roxas signed Republic Act No. 95,7 otherwise known as the PNRC Charter. The PNRC is a non-profit, donor-funded, voluntary, humanitarian organization, whose mission is to bring timely, effective, and compassionate humanitarian assistance for the most vulnerable without consideration of nationality, race, religion, gender, social status, or political affiliation.8 The PNRC provides six major services: Blood Services, Disaster Management, Safety Services, Community Health and Nursing, Social Services and Voluntary Service.9

    The Republic of the Philippines, adhering to the Geneva Conventions, established the PNRC as a voluntary organization for the purpose contemplated in the Geneva Convention of 27 July 1929.10 The Whereas clauses of the PNRC Charter read:

    WHEREAS, there was developed at Geneva, Switzerland, on August 22, 1864, a convention by which the nations of the world were invited to join together in diminishing, so far lies within their power, the evils inherent in war;

    WHEREAS, more than sixty nations of the world have ratified or adhered to the subsequent revision of said convention, namely the "Convention of Geneva of July 29 [sic], 1929 for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick of Armies in the Field" (referred to in this Charter as the Geneva Red Cross Convention);

    WHEREAS, the Geneva Red Cross Convention envisages the establishment in each country of a voluntary organization to assist in caring for the wounded and sick of the armed forces and to furnish supplies for that purpose;

    WHEREAS, the Republic of the Philippines became an independent nation on July 4, 1946 and proclaimed its adherence to the Geneva Red Cross Convention on February 14, 1947, and by that action indicated its desire to participate with the nations of the world in mitigating the suffering caused by war and to establish in the Philippines a voluntary organization for that purpose as contemplated by the Geneva Red Cross Convention;

    WHEREAS, there existed in the Philippines since 1917 a Charter of the American National Red Cross which must be terminated in view of the independence of the Philippines; andcralawlibrary

    WHEREAS, the volunteer organizations established in the other countries which have ratified or adhered to the Geneva Red Cross Convention assist in promoting the health and welfare of their people in peace and in war, and through their mutual assistance and cooperation directly and through their international organizations promote better understanding and sympathy among the peoples of the world. (Emphasis supplied)cralawlibrary

    The PNRC is a member National Society of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (Movement), which is composed of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (International Federation), and the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (National Societies). The Movement is united and guided by its seven Fundamental Principles:

    1. HUMANITY - The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, born of a desire to bring assistance without discrimination to the wounded on the battlefield, endeavors, in its international and national capacity, to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found. Its purpose is to protect life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. It promotes mutual understanding, friendship, cooperation and lasting peace amongst all peoples.

    2. IMPARTIALITY - It makes no discrimination as to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. It endeavors to relieve the suffering of individuals, being guided solely by their needs, and to give priority to the most urgent cases of distress.

    3. NEUTRALITY - In order to continue to enjoy the confidence of all, the Movement may not take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a political, racial, religious or ideological nature.

    4. INDEPENDENCE - The Movement is independent. The National Societies, while auxiliaries in the humanitarian services of their governments and subject to the laws of their respective countries, must always maintain their autonomy so that they may be able at all times to act in accordance with the principles of the Movement.

    5. VOLUNTARY SERVICE - It is a voluntary relief movement not prompted in any manner by desire for gain.

    6. UNITY - There can be only one Red Cross or one Red Crescent Society in any one country. It must be open to all. It must carry on its humanitarian work throughout its territory.

    7. UNIVERSALITY - The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, in which all Societies have equal status and share equal responsibilities and duties in helping each other, is worldwide. (Emphasis supplied)cralawlibrary

    The Fundamental Principles provide a universal standard of reference for all members of the Movement. The PNRC, as a member National Society of the Movement, has the duty to uphold the Fundamental Principles and ideals of the Movement. In order to be recognized as a National Society, the PNRC has to be autonomous and must operate in conformity with the Fundamental Principles of the Movement.11

    The reason for this autonomy is fundamental. To be accepted by warring belligerents as neutral workers during international or internal armed conflicts, the PNRC volunteers must not be seen as belonging to any side of the armed conflict. In the Philippines where there is a communist insurgency and a Muslim separatist rebellion, the PNRC cannot be seen as government-owned or controlled, and neither can the PNRC volunteers be identified as government personnel or as instruments of government policy. Otherwise, the insurgents or separatists will treat PNRC volunteers as enemies when the volunteers tend to the wounded in the battlefield or the displaced civilians in conflict areas.

    Thus, the PNRC must not only be, but must also be seen to be, autonomous, neutral and independent in order to conduct its activities in accordance with the Fundamental Principles. The PNRC must not appear to be an instrument or agency that implements government policy; otherwise, it cannot merit the trust of all and cannot effectively carry out its mission as a National Red Cross Society.12 It is imperative that the PNRC must be autonomous, neutral, and independent in relation to the State.

    To ensure and maintain its autonomy, neutrality, and independence, the PNRC cannot be owned or controlled by the government. Indeed, the Philippine government does not own the PNRC. The PNRC does not have government assets and does not receive any appropriation from the Philippine Congress.13 The PNRC is financed primarily by contributions from private individuals and private entities obtained through solicitation campaigns organized by its Board of Governors, as provided under Section 11 of the PNRC Charter:

    SECTION 11. As a national voluntary organization, the Philippine National Red Cross shall be financed primarily by contributions obtained through solicitation campaigns throughout the year which shall be organized by the Board of Governors and conducted by the Chapters in their respective jurisdictions. These fund raising campaigns shall be conducted independently of other fund drives by other organizations. (Emphasis supplied)cralawlibrary

    The government does not control the PNRC. Under the PNRC Charter, as amended, only six of the thirty members of the PNRC Board of Governors are appointed by the President of the Philippines. Thus, twenty-four members, or four-fifths (4/5), of the PNRC Board of Governors are not appointed by the President. Section 6 of the PNRC Charter, as amended, provides:

    SECTION 6. The governing powers and authority shall be vested in a Board of Governors composed of thirty members, six of whom shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines, eighteen shall be elected by chapter delegates in biennial conventions and the remaining six shall be selected by the twenty-four members of the Board already chosen. x x x.

    Thus, of the twenty-four members of the PNRC Board, eighteen are elected by the chapter delegates of the PNRC, and six are elected by the twenty-four members already chosen - a select group where the private sector members have three-fourths majority. Clearly, an overwhelming majority of four-fifths of the PNRC Board are elected or chosen by the private sector members of the PNRC.

    The PNRC Board of Governors, which exercises all corporate powers of the PNRC, elects the PNRC Chairman and all other officers of the PNRC. The incumbent Chairman of PNRC, respondent Senator Gordon, was elected, as all PNRC Chairmen are elected, by a private sector-controlled PNRC Board four-fifths of whom are private sector members of the PNRC. The PNRC Chairman is not appointed by the President or by any subordinate government official.

    Under Section 16, Article VII of the Constitution,14 the President appoints all officials and employees in the Executive branch whose appointments are vested in the President by the Constitution or by law. The President also appoints those whose appointments are not otherwise provided by law. Under this Section 16, the law may also authorize the "headsof departments, agencies, commissions, or boards" to appoint officers lower in rank than such heads of departments, agencies, commissions or boards.15 In Rufino v. Endriga,16 the Court explained appointments under Section 16 in this wise:

    Under Section 16, Article VII of the 1987 Constitution, the President appoints three groups of officers. The first group refers to the heads of the Executive departments, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in the President by the Constitution. The second group refers to those whom the President may be authorized by law to appoint. The third group refers to all other officers of the Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided by law.

    Under the same Section 16, there is a fourth group of lower-ranked officers whose appointments Congress may by law vest in the heads of departments, agencies, commissions, or boards. x x x

    x x x

    In a department in the Executive branch, the head is the Secretary. The law may not authorize the Undersecretary, acting as such Undersecretary, to appoint lower-ranked officers in the Executive department. In an agency, the power is vested in the head of the agency for it would be preposterous to vest it in the agency itself. In a commission, the head is the chairperson of the commission. In a board, the head is also the chairperson of the board. In the last three situations, the law may not also authorize officers other than the heads of the agency, commission, or board to appoint lower-ranked officers.

    x x x

    The Constitution authorizes Congress to vest the power to appoint lower-ranked officers specifically in the "heads" of the specified offices, and in no other person. The word "heads" refers to the chairpersons of the commissions or boards and not to their members, for several reasons.

    The President does not appoint the Chairman of the PNRC. Neither does the head of any department, agency, commission or board appoint the PNRC Chairman. Thus, the PNRC Chairman is not an official or employee of the Executive branch since his appointment does not fall under Section 16, Article VII of the Constitution. Certainly, the PNRC Chairman is not an official or employee of the Judiciary or Legislature. This leads us to the obvious conclusion that the PNRC Chairman is not an official or employee of the Philippine Government. Not being a government official or employee, the PNRC Chairman, as such, does not hold a government office or employment.

    Under Section 17, Article VII of the Constitution,17 the President exercises control over all government offices in the Executive branch. If an office is legally not under the control of the President, then such office is not part of the Executive branch. In Rufino v. Endriga,18 the Court explained the President's power of control over all government offices as follows:

    Every government office, entity, or agency must fall under the Executive, Legislative, or Judicial branches, or must belong to one of the independent constitutional bodies, or must be a quasi-judicial body or local government unit. Otherwise, such government office, entity, or agency has no legal and constitutional basis for its existence.

    The CCP does not fall under the Legislative or Judicial branches of government. The CCP is also not one of the independent constitutional bodies. Neither is the CCP a quasi-judicial body nor a local government unit. Thus, the CCP must fall under the Executive branch. Under the Revised Administrative Code of 1987, any agency "not placed by law or order creating them under any specific department" falls "under the Office of the President."

    Since the President exercises control over "all the executive departments, bureaus, and offices," the President necessarily exercises control over the CCP which is an office in the Executive branch. In mandating that the President "shall have control of all executive . . . offices," Section 17, Article VII of the 1987 Constitution does not exempt any executive office - one performing executive functions outside of the independent constitutional bodies - from the President's power of control. There is no dispute that the CCP performs executive, and not legislative, judicial, or quasi-judicial functions.

    The President's power of control applies to the acts or decisions of all officers in the Executive branch. This is true whether such officers are appointed by the President or by heads of departments, agencies, commissions, or boards. The power of control means the power to revise or reverse the acts or decisions of a subordinate officer involving the exercise of discretion.

    In short, the President sits at the apex of the Executive branch, and exercises "control of all the executive departments, bureaus, and offices." There can be no instance under the Constitution where an officer of the Executive branch is outside the control of the President. The Executive branch is unitary since there is only one President vested with executive power exercising control over the entire Executive branch. Any office in the Executive branch that is not under the control of the President is a lost command whose existence is without any legal or constitutional basis. (Emphasis supplied)cralawlibrary

    An overwhelming four-fifths majority of the PNRC Board are private sector individuals elected to the PNRC Board by the private sector members of the PNRC. The PNRC Board exercises all corporate powers of the PNRC. The PNRC is controlled by private sector individuals. Decisions or actions of the PNRC Board are not reviewable by the President. The President cannot reverse or modify the decisions or actions of the PNRC Board. Neither can the President reverse or modify the decisions or actions of the PNRC Chairman. It is the PNRC Board that can review, reverse or modify the decisions or actions of the PNRC Chairman. This proves again that the office of the PNRC Chairman is a private office, not a government office.ςηαñrοblεš νιr†υαl lαω lιbrαrÿ

    Although the State is often represented in the governing bodies of a National Society, this can be justified by the need for proper coordination with the public authorities, and the government representatives may take part in decision-making within a National Society. However, the freely-elected representatives of a National Society's active members must remain in a large majority in a National Society's governing bodies.19

    The PNRC is not government-owned but privately owned. The vast majority of the thousands of PNRC members are private individuals, including students. Under the PNRC Charter, those who contribute to the annual fund campaign of the PNRC are entitled to membership in the PNRC for one year. Thus, any one between 6 and 65 years of age can be a PNRC member for one year upon contributing P35, P100, P300, P500 or P1,000 for the year.20 Even foreigners, whether residents or not, can be members of the PNRC. Section 5 of the PNRC Charter, as amended by Presidential Decree No. 1264,21 reads:

    SEC. 5. Membership in the Philippine National Red Cross shall be open to the entire population in the Philippines regardless of citizenship. Any contribution to the Philippine National Red Cross Annual Fund Campaign shall entitle the contributor to membership for one year and said contribution shall be deductible in full for taxation purposes.

    Thus, the PNRC is a privately owned, privately funded, and privately run charitable organization. The PNRC is not a government-owned or controlled corporation.

    Petitioners anchor their petition on the 1999 case of Camporedondo v. NLRC,22 which ruled that the PNRC is a government-owned or controlled corporation. In ruling that the PNRC is a government-owned or controlled corporation, the simple test used was whether the corporation was created by its own special charter for the exercise of a public function or by incorporation under the general corporation law. Since the PNRC was created under a special charter, the Court then ruled that it is a government corporation. However, the Camporedondo ruling failed to consider the definition of a government-owned or controlled corporation as provided under Section 2(13) of the Introductory Provisions of the Administrative Code of 1987:

    SEC. 2. General Terms Defined. - x x x

    (13) Government-owned or controlled corporation refers to any agency organized as a stock or non-stock corporation, vested with functions relating to public needs whether governmental or proprietary in nature, and owned by the Government directly or through its instrumentalities either wholly, or where applicable as in the case of stock corporations, to the extent of at least fifty-one (51) percent of its capital stock: Provided, That government-owned or controlled corporations may be further categorized by the Department of the Budget, the Civil Service Commission, and the Commission on Audit for purposes of the exercise and discharge of their respective powers, functions and responsibilities with respect to such corporations.(Boldfacing and underscoring supplied)

    A government-owned or controlled corporation must be owned by the government, and in the case of a stock corporation, at least a majority of its capital stock must be owned by the government. In the case of a non-stock corporation, by analogy at least a majority of the members must be government officials holding such membership by appointment or designation by the government. Under this criterion, and as discussed earlier, the government does not own or control PNRC.

    The PNRC Charter is Violative of the Constitutional Proscription against the Creation of Private Corporations by Special Law

    The 1935 Constitution, as amended, was in force when the PNRC was created by special charter on 22 March 1947. Section 7, Article XIV of the 1935 Constitution, as amended, reads:

    SEC. 7. The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations, unless such corporations are owned or controlled by the Government or any subdivision or instrumentality thereof.

    The subsequent 1973 and 1987 Constitutions contain similar provisions prohibiting Congress from creating private corporations except by general law. Section 1 of the PNRC Charter, as amended, creates the PNRC as a "body corporate and politic," thus:

    SECTION 1. There is hereby created in the Republic of the Philippines a body corporate and politic to be the voluntary organization officially designated to assist the Republic of the Philippines in discharging the obligations set forth in the Geneva Conventions and to perform such other duties as are inherent upon a National Red Cross Society. The national headquarters of this Corporation shall be located in Metropolitan Manila. (Emphasis supplied)cralawlibrary

    In Feliciano v. Commission on Audit,23 the Court explained the constitutional provision prohibiting Congress from creating private corporations in this wise:

    We begin by explaining the general framework under the fundamental law. The Constitution recognizes two classes of corporations. The first refers to private corporations created under a general law. The second refers to government-owned or controlled corporations created by special charters. Section 16, Article XII of the Constitution provides:

    Sec. 16. The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations. Government-owned or controlled corporations may be created or established by special charters in the interest of the common good and subject to the test of economic viability.

    The Constitution emphatically prohibits the creation of private corporations except by general law applicable to all citizens. The purpose of this constitutional provision is to ban private corporations created by special charters, which historically gave certain individuals, families or groups special privileges denied to other citizens.

    In short, Congress cannot enact a law creating a private corporation with a special charter. Such legislation would be unconstitutional. Private corporations may exist only under a general law. If the corporation is private, it must necessarily exist under a general law. Stated differently, only corporations created under a general law can qualify as private corporations. Under existing laws, the general law is the Corporation Code, except that the Cooperative Code governs the incorporation of cooperatives.

    The Constitution authorizes Congress to create government-owned or controlled corporations through special charters. Since private corporations cannot have special charters, it follows that Congress can create corporations with special charters only if such corporations are government-owned or controlled.24 (Emphasis supplied)cralawlibrary

    In Feliciano, the Court held that the Local Water Districts are government-owned or controlled corporations since they exist by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 198, which constitutes their special charter. The seed capital assets of the Local Water Districts, such as waterworks and sewerage facilities, were public property which were managed, operated by or under the control of the city, municipality or province before the assets were transferred to the Local Water Districts. The Local Water Districts also receive subsidies and loans from the Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA). In fact, under the 2009 General Appropriations Act,25 the LWUA has a budget amounting to P400,000,000 for its subsidy requirements.26 There is no private capital invested in the Local Water Districts. The capital assets and operating funds of the Local Water Districts all come from the government, either through transfer of assets, loans, subsidies or the income from such assets or funds.

    The government also controls the Local Water Districts because the municipal or city mayor, or the provincial governor, appoints all the board directors of the Local Water Districts. Furthermore, the board directors and other personnel of the Local Water Districts are government employees subject to civil service laws and anti-graft laws. Clearly, the Local Water Districts are considered government-owned or controlled corporations not only because of their creation by special charter but also because the government in fact owns and controls the Local Water Districts.

    Just like the Local Water Districts, the PNRC was created through a special charter. However, unlike the Local Water Districts, the elements of government ownership and control are clearly lacking in the PNRC. Thus, although the PNRC is created by a special charter, it cannot be considered a government-owned or controlled corporation in the absence of the essential elements of ownership and control by the government. In creating the PNRC as a corporate entity, Congress was in fact creating a private corporation. However, the constitutional prohibition against the creation of private corporations by special charters provides no exception even for non-profit or charitable corporations. Consequently, the PNRC Charter, insofar as it creates the PNRC as a private corporation and grants it corporate powers,27 is void for being unconstitutional. Thus, Sections 1,28 2,29 3,30 4(a),31 5,32 6,33 7,34 8,35 9,36 10,37 11,38 12,39 and 1340 of the PNRC Charter, as amended, are void.

    The other provisions41 of the PNRC Charter remain valid as they can be considered as a recognition by the State that the unincorporated PNRC is the local National Society of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, and thus entitled to the benefits, exemptions and privileges set forth in the PNRC Charter. The other provisions of the PNRC Charter implement the Philippine Government's treaty obligations under Article 4(5) of the Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, which provides that to be recognized as a National Society, the Society must be "duly recognized by the legal government of its country on the basis of the Geneva Conventions and of the national legislation as a voluntary aid society, auxiliary to the public authorities in the humanitarian field."

    In sum, we hold that the office of the PNRC Chairman is not a government office or an office in a government-owned or controlled corporation for purposes of the prohibition in Section 13, Article VI of the 1987 Constitution. However, since the PNRC Charter is void insofar as it creates the PNRC as a private corporation, the PNRC should incorporate under the Corporation Code and register with the Securities and Exchange Commission if it wants to be a private corporation.

    WHEREFORE, we declare that the office of the Chairman of the Philippine National Red Cross is not a government office or an office in a government-owned or controlled corporation for purposes of the prohibition in Section 13, Article VI of the 1987 Constitution. We also declare that Sections 1, 2, 3, 4(a), 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 of the Charter of the Philippine National Red Cross, or Republic Act No. 95, as amended by Presidential Decree Nos. 1264 and 1643, are VOID because they create the PNRC as a private corporation or grant it corporate powers.

    SO ORDERED.


    Endnotes:


    1 Respondent was elected as a Senator during the May 2004 elections.

    2 370 Phil. 901 (1999).

    3 G.R. No. 104732, 22 June 1993, 223 SCRA 568.

    4 Rollo, p. 181.

    5 Id. at 3-5.

    6 The Secretary of Justice Cuevas v. Atty. Bacal, 400 Phil. 1115 (2000); Garcia v. Perez, 188 Phil. 43 (1980).

    7 An Act to Incorporate the Philippine National Red Cross, as amended by Presidential Decree No. 1264.

    8 PNRC Website, HYPERLINK "http://www.redcross.org.ph/Site/PNRC/StrategicDirections.aspx" HYPERLINK "http://www.redcross.org.ph/Site/PNRC/StrategicDirections.aspx" http://www.redcross.org.ph/Site/PNRC/StrategicDirections.aspxHYPERLINK "http://www.redcross.org.ph/Site/PNRC/StrategicDirections.aspx" (visited 25 March 2009).

    9 PNRC Website, HYPERLINK "http://www.redcross.org.ph/Site/PNRC/StrategicDirections.aspx" HYPERLINK "http://www.redcross.org.ph/Site/PNRC/About.aspx" http://www.redcross.org.ph/Site/PNRC/About.aspx (visited 25 March 2009).

    10 Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field.

    11 Article 4 of the Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement reads:

    Article 4

    Conditions for Recognition of National Societies

    In order to be recognized in terms of Article 5, paragraph 2 b) as a National Society, the Society shall meet the following conditions:

    1. Be constituted on the territory of an independent State where the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field is in force.

    2. Be the only National Red Cross or Red Crescent Society of the said State and be directed by a central body which shall alone be competent to represent it in its dealings with other components of the Movement.

    3. Be duly recognized by the legal government of its country on the basis of the Geneva Conventions and of the national legislation as a voluntary aid society, auxiliary to the public authorities in the humanitarian field.

    4. Have an autonomous status which allows it to operation in conformity with the Fundamental Principles of the Movement.

    5. Use a name and distinctive emblem in conformity with the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols.

    6. Be so organized as to be able to fulfill the tasks defined in its own statutes, including the preparation in peace time for its statutory tasks in case of armed conflicts.

    7. Extend its activities to the entire territory of the State.

    8. Recruit its voluntary members and its staff without consideration of race, sex, class, religion or political opinions.

    9. Adhere to the present Statutes, share in the fellowship which unites the components of the Movement and cooperate with them.

    10. Respect the Fundamental Principles of the Movement and be guided in its work by the principles of international humanitarian law. (Emphasis supplied)cralawlibrary

    12 The Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, ICRC Publication, p. 17.

    13 Although under Section 4(c) of the PNRC Charter, as amended, the PNRC is allotted one lottery draw yearly by the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes for the support of its disaster relief operations, in addition to its existing lottery draws for the Blood Program, such allotments are donations given to most charitable organizations.

    14 Section 16, Article VII of the Constitution provides:

    The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Commission on Appointments, appoint the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this Constitution. He shall also appoint all other officers of the Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law, and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint. The Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of other officers lower in rank in the President alone, in the courts, or in the heads of departments, agencies, commissions, or boards.

    The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of the Congress, whether voluntary or compulsory, but such appointments shall be effective only until after disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of the Congress.

    15 Endriga v. Rufino, G.R. NOS. 139554 & 139565, 21 July 2006, 496 SCRA 13.

    16 Id. at 50-57.

    17 Section 17, Article VII of the Constitution provides:

    The President shall have control of all the executive departments, bureaus, and offices. He shall ensure that the laws be faithfully executed.

    18 Supra note 15 at 63-65.

    19 See note 12 at 20.

    20 PNRC Website, http://202.57.124.158/Site/PNRC/membershipInfo.aspx#5 (visited 15 June 2009).

    21 Issued on 15 December 1977.

    22 Supra note 2.

    23 464 Phil. 439 (2004).

    24 Id. at 454-455.

    25 Republic Act No. 9524.

    26 DBM Website, HYPERLINK "http://www.dbm.gov.ph/GAA09/bsgc/C1.pdf" HYPERLINK "http://www.dbm.gov.ph/GAA09/bsgc/C1.pdf" http://www.dbm.gov.ph/GAA09/bsgc/C1.pdf (visited 25 June 2009).

    27 Section 36 of the Corporation Code enumerates the general powers of a corporation:

    SEC. 36. Corporate powers and capacity. - Every corporation incorporated under this Code has the power and capacity:

    1. To sue and be sued in its corporate name;

    2. Of succession by its corporate name for the period of time stated in the articles of incorporation and the certificate of incorporation;

    3. To adopt and use a corporate seal;

    4. To amend its articles of incorporation in accordance with the provisions of this Code;

    5. To adopt by-laws, not contrary to law, morals or public policy, and to amend or repeal the same in accordance with this Code;

    6. In case of stock corporations, to issue or sell stocks to subscribers and to sell treasury stocks in accordance with the provisions of this Code; and to admit members to the corporation if it be a non-stock corporation;

    7. To purchase, receive, take or grant, hold, convey, sell, lease, pledge, mortgage and otherwise deal with such real and personal property, including securities and bonds of other corporations, as the transaction of the lawful business of the corporation may reasonably and necessarily require, subject to the limitations prescribed by law and the Constitution;

    8. To adopt any plan of merger or consolidation as provided in this Code;

    9. To make reasonable donations, including those for the public welfare or for hospital, charitable, cultural, scientific, civic, or similar purposes: Provided, That no corporation, domestic or foreign, shall give donations in aid of any political party or candidate or for purposes of partisan political activity;

    10. To establish pension, retirement and other plans for the benefit of its directors, trustees, officers and employees; andcralawlibrary

    11. To exercise such other powers as may be essential or necessary to carry out its purpose or purposes as stated in its articles of incorporation.

    28 SECTION 1. There is hereby created in the Republic of the Philippines a body corporate and politic to be the voluntary organization officially designated to assist the Republic of the Philippines in discharging the obligations set forth in the Geneva Conventions and to perform such other duties as are inherent upon a national Red Cross Society. The national headquarters of this Corporation shall be located in Metro Manila.

    29 SEC. 2. The name of this corporation shall be "The Philippine National Red Cross" and by that name shall have perpetual succession with the power to sue and be sued; to own and hold such real and personal estate as shall be deemed advisable and to accept bequests, donations and contributions of property of all classes for the purpose of this Corporation hereinafter set forth; to adopt a seal and to alter and destroy the same at pleasure; and to have the right to adopt and to use, in carrying out its purposes hereinafter designated, as an emblem and badge, a red Greek cross on a white ground, the same as has been described in the Geneva Conventions, and adopted by the several nations ratifying or adhering thereto; to ordain and establish by-laws and regulations not inconsistent with the laws of the Republic of the Philippines, and generally to do all such acts and things as may be necessary to carry into effect the provisions of this Act and promote the purposes of said organization; and the corporation hereby created is designated as the organization which is authorized to act in matters of relief under said Convention. In accordance with the Geneva Conventions, the issuance of the distinctive Red Cross emblem to medical units and establishments, personnel and materials neutralized in time of war shall be left to the military authorities. The red Greek cross on a white ground, as has been described by the Geneva Conventions is not, and shall not be construed as a religious symbol, and shall have equal efficacy and applicability to persons of all faiths, creeds and beliefs. The operational jurisdiction of the Philippine National Red Cross shall be over the entire territory of the Philippines.

    30 SEC. 3. That the purposes of this Corporation shall be as follows:

    A. To provide volunteer aid to the sick and wounded of the armed forces in time of war, in accordance with the spirit of and under the conditions prescribed by the Geneva Conventions to which the Republic of the Philippines proclaimed its adherence;

    b. For the purposes mentioned in the preceding sub-section, to perform all duties devolving upon the Corporation as a result of the adherence of the Republic of the Philippines to the said Convention;

    c. To act in matters of voluntary relief and in accordance with the authorities of the armed forces as a medium of communication between the people of the Republic of the Philippines and their Armed Forces, in time of peace and in time of war, and to act in such matters between similar national societies of other governments and the Government and people and the Armed Forces of the Republic of the Philippines;

    d. To establish and maintain a system of national and international relief in time of peace and in time of war and apply the same in meeting the emergency needs caused by typhoons, flood, fires, earthquakes, and other natural disasters and to devise and carry on measures for minimizing the suffering caused by such disasters;

    e. To devise and promote such other services in time of peace and in time of war as may be found desirable in improving the health, safety and welfare of the Filipino people;

    f. To devise such means as to make every citizen and/or resident of the Philippines a member of the Red Cross.

    31 SEC. 4. In furtherance of the purposes mentioned in the preceding sub-paragraphs, the Philippine National Red Cross shall:

    A. Be authorized to secure loans from any financial institution which shall not exceed its budget of the previous year.

    32 SEC. 5. Membership in the Philippine National Red Cross shall be open to the entire population in the Philippines regardless of citizenship. Any contribution to the Philippine National Red Cross Annual Fund Campaign shall entitle the contributor to membership for one year and said contribution shall be deductible in full for taxation purposes.

    33 SEC. 6. The governing powers and authority shall be vested in the Board of Governors composed of thirty members, six of whom shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines, eighteen shall be elected by chapter delegates in biennial conventions and the remaining six shall be selected by the twenty-four members of the Board already chosen. At least one but not more than three of the Presidential appointees shall be chosen from the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

    A. The term of office of all members of the Board shall be four years, including those appointed by the President of the Philippines, renewable at the pleasure of the appointing power or elective bodies.

    b. Vacancies in the Board of Governors caused by death or resignation shall be filled by election by the Board of Governors at its next meeting, except that vacancies among the Presidential appointees shall be filled by the President.

    34 SEC. 7. The President of the Philippines shall be the Honorary President of the Philippine National Red Cross. The officers shall consist of a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman, a Secretary, a Treasurer, a Counselor, an Assistant Secretary and an Assistant Treasurer, all of whom shall be elected by the Board of Governors from among its membership for a term of two years and may be re-elected. The election of officers shall take place within sixty days after all the members of the Board of Governors have been chosen and have qualified.

    35 SEC. 8. The Biennial meeting of chapter delegates shall be held on such date and such place as may be specified by the Board of Governors to elect members of the Board of Governors and advice the Board of Governors on the activities of the Philippine National Red Cross; Provided, however, that during periods of great emergency, the Board of Governors in its discretion may determine that the best interest of the corporation shall be served by postponing such biennial meeting.

    36 SEC. 9. The power to ordain, adopt and amend by-laws and regulations shall be vested in the Board of Governors.

    37 SEC. 10. The members of the Board of Governors, as well as the officers of the corporation, shall serve without compensation. The compensation of the paid staff of the corporation shall be determined by the Board of Governors upon the recommendation of the Secretary General.

    38 SEC. 11. As a national voluntary organization, the Philippine National Red Cross shall be financed primarily by contributions obtained through solicitation campaigns throughout the year which shall be organized by the Board of Governors and conducted by the Chapters in their respective jurisdictions. These fund raising campaigns shall be conducted independently of other fund drives by other organizations.

    39 SEC. 12. The Board of Governors shall promulgate rules and regulations for the organization of local units of the Philippine National Red Cross to be known as Chapters. Said rules and regulations shall fix the relationship of the Chapters to the Corporation, define their territorial jurisdictions, and determine the number of delegates for each chapter based on population, fund campaign potentials and service needs.

    40 SEC. 13. The Corporation shall, at the end of every calendar year submit to the President of the Philippines an annual report containing the activities of the Corporation showing its financial condition, the receipts and disbursements.

    41 The valid provisions are Sections 4(b) and (c), 14, 15, 16, and 17:

    SEC. 4. In furtherance of the purposes mentioned in the preceding sub-paragraphs, the Philippine National Red Cross shall:

    x x x

    b. Be exempt from payment of all duties, taxes, fees, and other charges of all kinds on all importations and purchases for its exclusive use, on donations for its disaster relief work and other Red Cross services, and in its benefits and fund raising drives all provisions of law to the contrary notwithstanding.

    c. Be allotted by the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office one lottery draw yearly for the support of its disaster relief operations in addition to its existing lottery draws for the Blood Program.

    SEC. 14. It shall be unlawful for any person to solicit, collect or receive money, materials, or property of any kind by falsely representing or pretending himself to be a member, agent or representative of the Philippine National Red Cross.

    SEC. 15. The use of the name Red Cross is reserved exclusively to the Philippine National Red Cross and the use of the emblem of the red Greek cross on a white ground is reserved exclusively to the Philippine National Red Cross, medical services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and such other medical facilities or other institutions as may be authorized by the Philippine National Red Cross as provided under Article 44 of the Geneva Conventions. It shall be unlawful for any other person or entity to use the words Red Cross or Geneva Cross or to use the emblem of the red Greek cross on a white ground or any designation, sign, or insignia constituting an imitation thereof for any purpose whatsoever.

    SEC. 16. As used in this Decree, the term person shall include any legal person, group, or legal entity whatsoever nature, and any person violating any section of this Article shall, upon conviction therefore be liable to a fin[e] of not less than one thousand pesos or imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or both, at the discretion of the court, for each and every offense. In case the violation is committed by a corporation or association, the penalty shall devolve upon the president, director or any other officer responsible for such violation.

    SEC. 17. All acts or parts of acts which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Decree are hereby repealed.



    DISSENTING OPINION

    NACHURA, J.:

    I am constrained to register my dissent because the ponencia does not only endorse an unmistakably flagrant transgression of the Constitution but also unwittingly espouses the destruction of the Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC) as an institution. With all due respect, I disagree with the principal arguments advanced in the ponencia to justify Senator Richard J. Gordon's unconstitutional holding of the chairmanship of the PNRC Board of Governors while concurrently sitting as a member of the Senate of the Philippines.

    Procedurally, I maintain that the petition is one for prohibition and that petitioners have standing to file the same. On the merits, I remain earnestly convinced that PNRC is a government owned or controlled corporation (GOCC), if not a government instrumentality; that its charter does not violate the constitutional proscription against the creation of private corporations by special law; and that Senator Gordon's continuous occupancy of two incompatible positions is a clear violation of the Constitution.

    Allow me to elucidate.

    I.

    The petition should be treated
    as one for prohibition; and
    petitioners have locus standi

    I submit that the present petition should be treated as one for prohibition rather than for quo warranto. In the main, the petitioners seek from this Court the declaration that Senator Gordon has forfeited his seat in the Senate, and the consequent proscription from further acting or representing himself as a Senator and from receiving the salaries, emoluments, compensations, privileges and benefits thereof.1 Hence, the remedy sought is preventive and restrictive an injunction against an alleged continuing violation of the fundamental law. Furthermore, the petitioners raise a constitutional issue, without claiming any entitlement to either the Senate seat or the chairmanship of PNRC.

    Considering that the issue involved is of fundamental constitutional significance and of paramount importance, i.e., whether the Senator continues to commit an infringement of the Constitution by holding two positions claimed to be incompatible, the Court has full authority, nay the bounden duty, to treat the vaguely worded petition as one for prohibition and assume jurisdiction.2

    Petitioners, as citizens of the Republic and by being taxpayers, have locus standi to institute the instant case. Garcillano v. the House of Representatives Committees on Public Information, Public Order and Safety, National Defense and Security, Information and Communications Technology, and Suffrage and Electoral Reforms3 echoes the current policy of the Court, as laid down in Chavez v. Gonzales,4 to disallow procedural barriers to serve as impediments to addressing and resolving serious legal questions that greatly impact on public interest. This is in keeping with the Court's responsibility under the Constitution to determine whether or not other branches of government have kept themselves within the limits of the Constitution and the laws, and that they have not abused the discretion given them.5

    Finally, as aforementioned, petitioners advance a constitutional issue which deserves the attention of this Court in view of its seriousness, novelty and weight as precedent.6 Considering that Senator Gordon is charged with continuously violating the Constitution by holding incompatible offices, the institution of the instant action by the petitioners is proper.

    II.

    A brief history of the PNRC

    A historical account of the PNRC's creation is imperative in order to comprehend the nature of the institution and to put things in their proper perspective.

    Even before its incorporation in 1947, the Red Cross, as an organization, was already in existence in the Philippines. Apolinario Mabini played an important role in the approval by the Malolos Republic, on February 17, 1899, of the Constitution of the National Association of the Red Cross. Appointed to serve as its president was Hilario del Rosario de Aguinaldo. On August 29, 1900, International Delegate of Diplomacy Felipe Agoncillo met with International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) President Gustave Moynier to lobby for the recognition of the Filipino Red Cross Society and the application of the 1864 Geneva Convention to the country during the Filipino-American war.7 The Geneva Convention of August 22, 1864 dealt mainly on the relief to wounded soldiers without any distinction as to nationality, on the neutrality and inviolability of medical personnel and medical establishments and units; and on the adoption of the distinctive sign of the red cross on a white ground by hospitals, ambulances and evacuation parties and personnel.8

    On August 30, 1905, a Philippine branch of the American National Red Cross (ANRC) was organized. This was later officially recognized as an ANRC chapter on December 4, 1917. In 1934, President Manuel L. Quezon initiated the establishment of an independent Philippine Red Cross, but this did not materialize because the Commonwealth Government at that time could not ratify the Geneva Convention. During the Japanese occupation, a Japanese-controlled Philippine Red Cross was created to take care of internment camps in the country. After the liberation of Manila in 1945, local Red Cross officials and the ANRC undertook to reconstitute the organization.9 The Republic of the Philippines became an independent nation on July 4, 1946, and proclaimed its adherence to the Geneva Convention on February 14, 1947. On March 22 of that year, the PNRC was officially created when President Manuel A. Roxas signed Republic Act (R.A.) No. 95.10

    PNRC is a GOCC

    Section 16, Article XII, of the Philippine Constitution, provides the inflexible imperative for the formation or organization of private corporations, as follows:

    Sec. 16. The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation, organization or regulation of private corporations. Government-owned or controlled corporations may be created or established by special charters in the interest of the common good and subject to the test of economic viability.

    Delineating the nature of a GOCC, compared to a private corporation, Justice Carpio explains this inviolable rule in Feliciano v. Commission on Audit11 in this wise:

    We begin by explaining the general framework under the fundamental law. The Constitution recognizes two classes of corporations. The first refers to private corporations created under a general law. The second refers to government-owned or controlled corporations created by special charters. Section 16, Article XII of the Constitution provides:

    Section 16. The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations. Government-owned or controlled corporations may be created or established by special charters in the interest of the common good and subject to the test of economic viability.

    The Constitution emphatically prohibits the creation of private corporations except by a general law applicable to citizens. The purpose of this constitutional provision is to ban private corporations created by special charters, which historically gave certain individuals, families or groups special privileges denied to other citizens.

    In short, Congress cannot enact a law creating a private corporation with a special charter. Such legislation would be unconstitutional. Private corporations may exist only under a general law. If the corporation is private, it must necessarily exist under a general law. Stated differently, only corporations created under a general law can qualify as private corporations. Under existing laws, that general law is the Corporation Code, except that the Cooperative Code governs the incorporation of cooperatives.

    The Constitution authorizes Congress to create government-owned or controlled corporations through special charters. Since private corporations cannot have special charters, it follows that Congress can create corporations with special charters only if such corporations are government-owned or controlled.12

    Reason dictates that since no private corporation can have a special charter, it follows that Congress can create corporations with special charters only if such corporations are government-owned or controlled.13 To hold otherwise would run directly against our fundamental law or, worse, authorize implied amendment to it, which this Court cannot allow.

    The PNRC was incorporated under R.A. No 95, a special law. Following the logic in Feliciano, it cannot be anything but a GOCC.

    R.A. No. 95 has undergone amendment through the years.14 Did the amendment of the PNRC Charter have the effect of transforming it into a private corporation?cralawred

    In Camporedondo v. National Labor Relations Commission,15 we answered this in the negative. The Court's ruling in that case, reiterated in Baluyot v. Holganza,16 is direct, definite and clear, viz:

    Resolving the issue set out in the opening paragraph of this opinion, we rule that the Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC) is a government owned and controlled corporation, with an original charter under Republic Act No. 95, as amended. The test to determine whether a corporation is government owned or controlled, or private in nature is simple. Is it created by its own charter for the exercise of a public function, or by incorporation under the general corporation law? Those with special charters are government corporations subject to its provisions, and its employees are under the jurisdiction of the Civil Service Commission, and are compulsory members of the Government Service Insurance System. The PNRC was not "impliedly converted into a private corporation" simply because its charter was amended to vest in it the authority to secure loans, be exempted from payment of all duties, taxes, fees and other charges of all kinds on all importations and purchases for its exclusive use, on donations for its disaster relief work and other services and in its benefits and fund raising drives and be allotted one lottery draw a year by the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office for the support of its disaster relief operation in addition to its existing lottery draws for blood programs.17

    In an effort to avoid the inescapable command of Camporendondo, the ponencia asserts that the decision has failed to consider the definition of a GOCC under Section 2 (13) of the Introductory Provisions of Executive Order No. 292 (Administrative Code of 1987), which provides:

    SEC. 2. General Terms Defined. - x x x

    (13) Government-owned or controlled corporation refers to any agency organized as a stock or non-stock corporation, vested with functions relating to public needs whether governmental or proprietary in nature, and owned by the Government directly or through its instrumentalities either wholly, or, where applicable as in the case of stock corporations, to the extent of at least fifty-one (51) per cent of its capital stock: Provided, That government-owned or controlled corporations may be further categorized by the Department of the Budget, the Civil Service Commission, and the Commission on Audit for purposes of the exercise and discharge of their respective powers, functions and responsibilities with respect to such corporations.18

    The ponencia then argues that, based on the criterion in the cited provision, PNRC is not owned or controlled by the government and, thus, is not a GOCC.

    I respectfully differ. The quoted Administrative Code provision does not pronounce a definition of a GOCC that strays from Section 16, Article XII of the Constitution. As explained in Philippine National Construction Corporation v. Pabion, et al.,19 it merely declares that a GOCC may either be a stock or non-stock corporation, or that it "may be further categorized,"20 suggesting that the definition provided in the Administrative Code is broad enough to admit of other distinctions as to the kinds of GOCCs.21

    Rather, crucial in this definition is the reference to the corporation being "vested with functions relating to public needs whether governmental or proprietary." When we relate this to the PNRC Charter, as amended, we note that Section 1 of the charter starts with the phrase, "(T)here is hereby created in the Republic of the Philippines a body corporate and politic to be the voluntary organization officially designated to assist the Republic of the Philippines in discharging the obligations set forth in the Geneva Conventions x x x".22 It is beyond cavil that the obligations of the Republic of the Philippines set forth in the Geneva Conventions are public or governmental in character. If the PNRC is "officially designated to assist the Republic," then the PNRC is, perforce, engaged in the performance of the government's public functions.

    PNRC is, at the very least,
    a government instrumentality

    Further, applying the definition of terms used in the Administrative Code of 1987, as Justice Carpio urges this Court to do, will lead to the inescapable conclusion that PNRC is an instrumentality of the government. Section 2(10) of the said code defines a government instrumentality as:

    (10) Instrumentality refers to any agency of the National Government not integrated within the department framework, vested with special functions or jurisdiction by law, endowed with some if not all corporate powers, administering special funds, and enjoying operational autonomy, usually through a charter. This term includes regulatory agencies, chartered institutions and government-owned or controlled corporations.23

    The PNRC is vested with the special function of assisting the Republic of the Philippines in discharging its obligations under the Geneva Conventions. It is endowed with corporate powers. It administers special funds'the contributions of its members, the aid given by the government, the support extended to it by the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office (PCSO) in terms of allotment of lottery draws.24 It enjoys operational autonomy, as emphasized by Justice Carpio himself. And all these attributes exist by virtue of its charter.

    Significantly, in the United States, the ANRC, the precursor of the PNRC and likewise a member of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies,25 is considered as a federal instrumentality. Addressing the issue of whether the ANRC was an entity exempt from paying unemployment compensation tax, the US Supreme Court, in Department of Employment v. United States,26 characterized the Red Cross as an instrumentality of the federal government not covered by the enforcement of the tax statute and entitled to a refund of taxes paid'

    On the merits, we hold that the Red Cross is an instrumentality of the United States for purposes of immunity from state taxation levied on its operations, and that this immunity has not been waived by congressional enactment. Although there is no simple test for ascertaining whether an institution is so closely related to governmental activity as to become a tax-immune instrumentality, the Red Cross is clearly such an instrumentality. See generally, Sturges, The Legal Status of the Red Cross, 56 Mich.L.Rev. 1 (1957). Congress chartered the present Red Cross in 1905, subjecting it to governmental supervision and to a regular financial audit by the Defense, then War, Department. 33 Stat. 599, as amended, 36 U.S.C. s 1 et seq. Its principal officer is appointed by the President, who also appoints seven (all government officers) of the remaining 49 Governors. 33 Stat. 601, as amended, 36 U.S.C. s 5 . By statute and Executive Order there devolved upon the Red Cross the right and the obligation to meet this Nation's commitments under various Geneva Conventions, to perform a wide variety of functions indispensable to the workings of our Armed Forces around the globe, and to assist the Federal Government in providing disaster assistance to the States in time of need. Although its operations are financed primarily from voluntary private contributions, the Red Cross does receive substantial material assistance from the Federal Government. And time and time again, both the President and the Congress have recognized and acted in reliance upon the Red Cross' status virtually as an arm of the Government. In those respects in which the Red Cross differs from the usual government agency-e.g., in that its employees are not employees of the United States, and that government officials do not direct its everyday affairs-the Red Cross is like other institutions-e.g., national banks-whose status as tax-immune instrumentalities of the United States is beyond dispute.27

    The same conclusion was reached in R.A. Barton v. American Red Cross.28 In that case, a transfusion recipient and her family brought action against American Red Cross and its state medical director under Alabama Medical Liability Act as well as Alabama tort law for failing to properly test blood sample and failing to timely notify recipient that donor had tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The US District Court concluded that the Red Cross was a federal instrumentality and was so intertwined with and was essential to the operation of the federal government, both internationally and domestically;29 thus, its personnel were exempt from tort liability if the conduct complained of were within the scope of official duties and were discretionary in nature.30 The US Court of Appeals later affirmed the decision, and the US Supreme Court denied certiorari and rehearing on the case.31

    Interestingly, while the United States considers the ANRC as its arm and the US courts uphold its status as a federal instrumentality, ANRC remains an independent, volunteer-led organization that works closely with the ICRC on matters of international conflict and social, political, and military unrest. There is, therefore, no sufficient basis for Justice Carpio to assume that if this Court will consider PNRC as a GOCC, then "it cannot merit the trust of all and cannot effectively carry out its mission as a National Red Cross Society."

    Let it be stressed that, in much the same way as the ANRC, the PNRC has been chartered and incorporated by the Philippine Government to aid it in the fulfillment of its obligations under the Geneva Convention. The President of the Republic appoints six of the 36 PNRC governors. Though it depends primarily on voluntary contributions for its funding, PNRC receives financial assistance not only from the National Government and the PCSO but also through the local government units. PNRC further submits to the President an annual report containing its activities and showing its financial condition, as well as the receipts and disbursements. PNRC has further been recognized by the Philippine Government to be an essential component in its international and domestic operation. There is no doubt therefore that PNRC is a GOCC or, if not, at least a government instrumentality.

    The fact that the Philippine or the American National Red Cross is a governmental instrumentality does not affect its autonomy and operation in conformity with the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross. The PNRC, like the ANRC, remains autonomous, neutral and independent from the Government, and vice versa, consonant with the principles laid down in the Geneva Convention.

    A similar standing obtains in the case of the Commission on Human Rights (CHR). While it is a governmental office, it is independent. Separatists and insurgents do not consider the CHR, or the PNRC in this case, as the enemy, but rather as the entity to turn to in the event of injury to their constitutional rights, for the CHR, or to their physical being, for the PNRC.

    The PNRC Charter does not violate
    the constitutional proscription
    against the creation of private
    corporations by special law

    Considering that the PNRC is not a private corporation, but a GOCC or a government instrumentality, then its charter does not violate the constitutional provision that Congress cannot, except by a general law, provide for the formation, organization or regulation of private corporations, unless such corporations are owned or controlled by the Government.32 We have already settled this issue in Camporedondo and in Baluyot. Let it be emphasized that, in those cases, this Court has found nothing wrong with the PNRC Charter. We have simply applied the Constitution, and in Feliciano, this Court has explained the meaning of the constitutional provision.

    I respectfully submit that we are not prepared to reverse the ruling of this Court in the said cases. To rule otherwise will create an unsettling ripple effect in numerous decisions of this Court, including those dealing with the jurisdiction of the Civil Service Commission (CSC) and the authority of the Commission on Audit (COA), among others.

    Furthermore, to subscribe to the proposition that Section 1 of the PNRC Charter, which deals with the creation and incorporation of the organization, is invalid for being violative of the aforesaid constitutional proscription, but the rest of the provisions in the PNRC Charter remains valid, is to reach an absurd situation in which obligations are imposed on and a framework for its operation is laid down for a legally non-existing entity. If Section 1 of the PNRC Charter were impulsively invalidated, what will remain are the following provisions, which will have no specific frame of reference─

    SECTION 2. The name of this corporation shall be "The Philippine National Red Cross" and by that name shall have perpetual succession with the power to sue and be sued; to own and hold such real and personal estate as shall be deemed advisable and to accept bequests, donations and contributions of property of all classes for the purpose of this Corporation hereinafter set forth; to adopt a seal and to alter and destroy the same at pleasure; and to have the right to adopt and to use, in carrying out its purposes hereinafter designated, as an emblem and badge, a red Greek cross on a white ground, the same as has been described in the Geneva Conventions, and adopted by the several nations ratifying or adhering thereto; to ordain and establish by-laws and regulations not inconsistent with the laws of the Republic of the Philippines, and generally to do all such acts and things as may be necessary to carry into effect the provisions of this Act and promote the purposes of said organization; and the corporation hereby created is designated as the organization which is authorized to act in matters of relief under said Convention. In accordance with the Geneva Conventions, the issuance of the distinctive Red Cross emblem to medical units and establishments, personnel and materials neutralized in time of war shall be left to the military authorities. The red Greek cross on a white ground, as has been described by the Geneva Conventions is not, and shall not be construed as a religious symbol, and shall have equal efficacy and applicability to persons of all faiths, creeds and beliefs. The operational jurisdiction of the Philippine National Red Cross shall be over the entire territory of the Philippines.

    SECTION 3. That the purposes of this Corporation shall be as follows:

    A. To provide volunteer aid to the sick and wounded of armed forces in time of war, in accordance with the spirit of and under the conditions prescribed by the Geneva Conventions to which the Republic of the Philippines proclaimed its adherence;

    b. For the purposes mentioned in the preceding sub-section, to perform all duties devolving upon the Corporation as a result of the adherence of the Republic of the Philippines to the said Convention;

    c. To act in matters of voluntary relief and in accordance with the authorities of the armed forces as a medium of communication between people of the Republic of the Philippines and their Armed Forces, in time of peace and in time of war, and to act in such matters between similar national societies of other governments and the Governments and people and the Armed Forces of the Republic of the Philippines;

    d. To establish and maintain a system of national and international relief in time of peace and in time of war and apply the same in meeting and emergency needs caused by typhoons, flood, fires, earthquakes, and other natural disasters and to devise and carry on measures for minimizing the suffering caused by such disasters;

    e. To devise and promote such other services in time of peace and in time of war as may be found desirable in improving the health, safety and welfare of the Filipino people;

    f. To devise such means as to make every citizen and/or resident of the Philippines a member of the Red Cross.

    SECTION 4. In furtherance of the purposes mentioned in the preceding sub-paragraphs, the Philippine National Red Cross shall:

    A. Be authorized to secure loans from any financial institution which shall not exceed its budget of the previous year.

    b. Be exempt from payment of all duties, taxes, fees, and other charges of all kinds on all importations and purchases for its exclusive use, on donations for its disaster relief work and other Red Cross services, and in its benefits and fund raising drives all provisions of law to the contrary notwithstanding.

    c. Be allotted by the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office one lottery draw yearly for the support of its disaster relief operations in addition to its existing lottery draws for the Blood Program.

    SECTION 5. Membership in the Philippine National Red Cross shall be open to entire population in the Philippines regardless of citizenship. Any contribution to the Philippine National Red Cross Annual Fund Campaign shall entitle the contributor to membership for one year and said contribution shall be deductible in full for taxation purposes.

    SECTION 6. The governing powers and authority shall be vested in a Board of Governors composed of thirty members, six of whom shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines, eighteen shall be elected by chapter delegates in biennial conventions and the remaining six shall be elected by the twenty-four members of the Board already chosen. At least one but not more than three of the Presidential appointees shall be chosen from the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

    A. The term of office of all members of the board of Governors shall be four years. Any member of the Board of Governor who has served two consecutive full terms of four years each shall be ineligible for membership on the Board for at least two years; any term served to cover unexpired terms of office of any governor will not be considered in this prohibition in serving two consecutive full terms, and provided, however, that terms served for more than two years shall be considered a full term.

    b. Vacancies in the Board of Governors caused by death or resignation shall be filled by election by the Board of Governors at its next meeting, except that vacancies among the Presidential appointees shall be filled by the President.

    SECTION 7. The President of the Philippines shall be the Honorary President of the Philippine National Red Cross. The officers shall consist of a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman, a Secretary, a Treasurer, a Counselor, an Assistant Secretary and an Assistant Treasurer, all of whom shall be elected by the Board of Governors from among its membership for a term of two years and may be re-elected. The election of officers shall take place within sixty days after all the members of the Board of Governors have been chosen and have qualified.

    SECTION 8. The Biennial meeting of chapter delegates shall be held on such date and such place as may be specified by the Board of Governors to elect members of the Board of Governors and advice the Board of Governors on the activities of the Philippine National Red Cross; Provided, however that during periods of great emergency, the Board of Governors in its discretion may determine that the best interest of the corporation shall be served by postponing such biennial meeting.

    SECTION 9. The power to ordain, adopt and amend by-laws and regulations shall be vested in the Board of Governors.

    SECTION 10. The members of the Board of Governors, as well as the officers of the corporation, shall serve without compensation. The compensation of the paid staff of the corporation shall be determined by the Board of Governors upon the recommendation of the Secretary General.

    SECTION 11. As a national voluntary organization, the Philippine National Red Cross shall be financed primarily by contributions obtained through solicitation campaigns throughout the year which shall be organized by the Board of Governors and conducted by the Chapters in their respective jurisdictions. These fund raising campaigns shall be conducted independently of other fund drives and service needs.

    SECTION 12. The Board of Governors shall promulgate rules and regulations for the organization of local units of the Philippine National Red Cross to be known as Chapters. Said rules and regulations shall fix the relationship of the Chapters to the Corporation, define their territorial jurisdictions, and determine the number of delegates for each chapter based on population, fund campaign potentials and service needs.

    SECTION 13. The Corporation shall, at the end of every calendar year submit to the President of the Philippines an annual report containing the activities of the Corporation showing its financial condition, the receipts and disbursements.

    SECTION 14. It shall be unlawful for any person to solicit, collect or receive money, materials, or property of any kind by falsely representing or pretending himself to be a member, agent or representative of the Philippine National Red Cross.

    SECTION 15. The use of the name Red Cross is reserved exclusively to the Philippine National Red Cross and the use of the emblem of the red Greek cross on a white ground is reserved exclusively to the Philippine National Red Cross, medical services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and such other medical facilities or other institutions as may be authorized by the Philippine National Red Cross as provided under Article 44 of the Geneva Conventions. It shall be unlawful for any other person or entity to use the words Red Cross or Geneva Cross or to use the emblem of the red Greek cross on a white ground or any designation, sign, or insignia constituting an imitation thereof for any purpose whatsoever.

    SECTION 16. As used in this Decree, the term person shall include any legal person, group, or legal entity whatsoever nature, and any person violating any section of this Article shall, upon conviction therefore be liable to a find of not less than one thousand pesos or imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or both, at the discretion of the court, for each and every offense. In case the violation is committed by a corporation or association, the penalty shall devolve upon the president, director or any other officer responsible for such violation.

    SECTION 17. All acts or parts of acts which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Decree are hereby repealed.

    Sections 2 to 17 of R.A. No. 95, as amended, are not separable from Section 1, the provision creating and incorporating the PNRC, and cannot, by themselves, stand independently as law. The PNRC Charter obviously does not contain a separability clause.

    The constitutionality of
    a law is presumed

    Two other important points militate against the declaration of Section 1 of the PNRC Charter as invalid and unconstitutional, namely: (1) respondent does not question the constitutionality of the said provision; and (2) every law enjoys the presumption of constitutionality.

    Settled is the doctrine that all reasonable doubts should be resolved in favor of the constitutionality of a statute.33 The presumption is that the legislature intended to enact a valid, sensible and just law and one which operates no further than may be necessary to effectuate the specific purpose thereof.34 Justice Carpio, in Kapisanan ng mga Kawani ng Energy Regulatory Board v. Barin,35 even echoes the principle that "to justify the nullification of a law, there must be a clear and unequivocal breach of the Constitution."

    Here, as in Camporedondo and Baluyot, there is no clear showing that the PNRC Charter runs counter to the Constitution. And, again in the same tone as in Montesclaros v. Commission on Elections, "[the parties] are not even assailing the constitutionality of [the PNRC Charter]." A becoming courtesy to a co-equal branch should thus impel this Court to refrain from unceremoniously invalidating a legislative act.

    Deleterious effects will result
    if PNRC is declared a private
    corporation, among which are
    its consequent destruction as
    an institution and the Republic's
    shirking its obligation under
    the Geneva Convention

    The hypothesis that PNRC is a private corporation has far-reaching implications. As mentioned earlier, it will be a reversal of the doctrines laid down in Camporedondo and Baluyot, and it will have an unsettling ripple effect on other numerous decisions of the Court, including those dealing with the jurisdiction of the CSC and the authority of the COA.

    Not only that. If PNRC is considered as a private corporation, then, this will lead to its ultimate demise as an institution. Its employees will no longer be covered by the Government Service Insurance System. It can no longer be extended tax exemptions and official immunity and it cannot anymore be given support, financial or otherwise, by the National Government, the local government units and the PCSO; because these will violate not only the equal protection clause in the Constitution, but also penal statutes.

    And if PNRC is consequently obliterated, the Republic will be shirking its responsibilities and obligations under the Geneva Convention.

    This Court then has to be very careful in the resolution of this case and in making a declaration that will have unintended yet deleterious consequences. The Court must not arbitrarily declare a law unconstitutional just to save a single individual from the unavoidable consequences of his transgression of the Constitution, even if it be unintentional and done in good faith.

    The respondent holds two
    incompatible offices
    in violation of the Constitution

    Section 13, Article VI of the Constitution explicitly provides that "no Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the government, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including [GOCCs] or their subsidiaries, during his term without forfeiting his seat."36 In Adaza v. Pacana, Jr.,37 the Court, construing a parallel provision in the 1973 Constitution, has ruled that -

    The language used in the above-cited section is plain, certain and free from ambiguity. The only exceptions mentioned therein are the offices of prime minister and cabinet member. The wisdom or expediency of the said provision is a matter which is not within the province of the Court to determine.

    A public office is a public trust. It is created for the interest and the benefit of the people. As such, a holder thereof "is subject to such regulations and conditions as the law may impose" and "he cannot complain of any restrictions which public policy may dictate on his holding of more than one office." It is therefore of no avail to petitioner that the system of government in other states allows a local elective official to act as an elected member of the parliament at the same time. The dictate of the people in whom legal sovereignty lies is explicit. It provides no exceptions save the two offices specifically cited in the above-quoted constitutional provision. Thus, while it may be said that within the purely parliamentary system of government no incompatibility exists in the nature of the two offices under consideration, as incompatibility is understood in common law, the incompatibility herein present is one created by no less than the constitution itself. In the case at bar, there is no question that petitioner has taken his oath of office as an elected Mambabatas Pambansa and has been discharging his duties as such. In the light of the oft-mentioned constitutional provision, this fact operated to vacate his former post and he cannot now continue to occupy the same, nor attempt to discharge its functions.38

    There is no doubt that the language in Section 13, Article VI is unambiguous; it requires no in-depth construction. However, as the constitutional provision is worded at present, the then recognized exception adverted to in Adaza, i.e., offices of prime minister and cabinet member, no longer holds true given the reversion to the presidential system and a bicameral Congress in the 1987 Constitution. There remains, however, a single exception to the rule. Civil Liberties Union v. Executive Secretary,39 reiterated in the fairly recent Public Interest Center, Inc. v. Elma,40 recognizes that a position held in an ex officio capacity does not violate the constitutional proscription on the holding of multiple offices. Interpreting the equivalent section in Article VII on the Executive Department,41 the Court has decreed in Civil Liberties that -

    The prohibition against holding dual or multiple offices or employment under Section 13, Article VII of the Constitution must not, however, be construed as applying to posts occupied by the Executive officials specified therein without additional compensation in an ex officio capacity as provided by law and as required by the primary functions of said officials' office. The reason is that these posts do not comprise "any other office" within the contemplation of the constitutional prohibition but are properly an imposition of additional duties and functions on said officials. x x x

    x x x

    x x x x The term ex officio means "from office; by virtue of office." It refers to an "authority derived from official character merely, not expressly conferred upon the individual character, but rather annexed to the official position." Ex officio likewise denotes an "act done in an official character, or as a consequence of office, and without any other appointment or authority other than that conferred by the office." An ex officio member of a board is one who is a member by virtue of his title to a certain office, and without further warrant or appointment. x x x

    x x x

    The ex officio position being actually and in legal contemplation part of the principal office, it follows that the official concerned has no right to receive additional compensation for his services in the said position. The reason is that these services are already paid for and covered by the compensation attached to his principal office. x x x42

    In the instant case, therefore, we must decide whether the respondent holds the chairmanship of PNRC in an ex officio capacity. Presidential Decree (P.D.) No. 1264, amending R.A. No. 95, provides for the composition of the governing authority of the PNRC and the manner of their appointment or election, thus:

    Section 6. The governing powers and authority shall be vested in a Board of Governors composed of thirty members, six of whom shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines, eighteen shall be elected by chapter delegates in biennial conventions and the remaining six shall be elected by the twenty-four members of the Board already chosen. At least one but not more than three of the Presidential appointees shall be chosen from the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

    A. The term of office of all members of the board of Governors shall be four years. Any member of the Board of Governor who has served two consecutive full terms of four years each shall be ineligible for membership on the Board for at least two years; any term served to cover unexpired terms of office of any governor will not be considered in this prohibition in serving two consecutive full terms, and provided, however, that terms served for more than two years shall be considered a full term.

    b. Vacancies in the Board of Governors caused by death or resignation shall be filled by election by the Board of Governors at its next meeting, except that vacancies among the Presidential appointees shall be filled by the President.

    Section 7. The President of the Philippines shall be the Honorary President of the Philippine National Red Cross. The officers shall consist of a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman, a Secretary, a Treasurer, a Counselor, an Assistant Secretary and an Assistant Treasurer, all of whom shall be elected by the Board of Governors from among its membership for a term of two years and may be re-elected. The election of officers shall take place within sixty days after all the members of the Board of Governors have been chosen and have qualified.

    Nowhere does it say in the law that a member of the Senate can sit in an ex officio capacity as chairman of the PNRC Board of Governors. Chairmanship of the PNRC Board is neither an extension of the legislative position nor is it in aid of legislative duties.43 Likewise, the position is neither derived from one being a member of the Senate nor is it annexed to the Senatorial position. Stated differently, the PNRC chairmanship does not flow from one's election as Senator of the Republic. Applying Civil Liberties, we can then conclude that the chairmanship of the PNRC Board is not held in an ex officio capacity by a member of Congress.

    The fact that the PNRC Chairman of the Board is not appointed by the President44 and the fact that the former does not receive any compensation45 do not at all give the said position an ex officio character such that the occupant thereof becomes exempt from the constitutional proscription on the holding of multiple offices. As held in Public Interest Center, the absence of additional compensation being received by virtue of the second post is not enough, what matters is that the second post is held by virtue of the functions of the first office and is exercised in an ex officio capacity.46 Hence, Senator Gordon, in assuming the chairmanship of the PNRC Board of Governors while being a member of the Senate, is clearly violating Section 13, Article VI of the Constitution. While we can only hypothesize on the extent of the incompatibility between the two offices'as stated in petitioners' memorandum, Senator Gordon's holding of both offices may result in a divided focus of his legislative functions, and in a conflict of interest as when a possible amendment of the PNRC Charter is lobbied in Congress or when the PNRC and its officials become subjects of legislative inquiries.47 Let it be stressed that, as in Adaza, the incompatibility herein present is one created by no less than the Constitution itself.48

    I hasten to add that Senator Gordon's chairmanship of the PNRC Board cannot be likened to the membership of several legislators in the Legislative-Executive Development Advisory Council, in the Council of State, in the Board of Regents of state universities, and in the Judiciary, Executive and Legislative Advisory and Consultative Council, because, in these bodies, the membership of the legislators is held in an ex officio capacity or as an extension of their legislative functions.49

    IN VIEW OF THE FOREGOING, I vote to GRANT the petition.

    ANTONIO EDUARDO B. NACHURA

    Endnotes:


    1 Rollo, pp. 3-5.

    2 See Del Rosario v. Montaña, G.R. No. 134433, May 28, 2004, 430 SCRA 109, 116; Del Mar v. Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corp., 400 Phil. 307, 326-327; Sen. Defensor-Santiago v. Guingona, Jr., 359 Phil. 276, 295-296 (1998).

    3 G.R. No. 170338, December 23, 2008.

    4 G.R. No. 168338, February 15, 2008, 545 SCRA 441.

    5 Id.

    6 Garcillano v. the House of Representatives Committees on Public Information, Public Order and Safety, National Defense and Security, Information and Communications Technology, and Suffrage and Electoral Reforms, supra note 3.

    7 <http://www.redcross.org.ph/Site/PNRC/History.aspx> (visited July 9, 2009).

    8 <http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/INTRO/120?OpenDocument > (visited July 9, 2009).

    9 Supra note 7.

    10 Entitled "An Act To Incorporate the Philippine National Red Cross."

    11 464 Phil. 439 (2004).

    12 Id. at 454-455; citations omitted and emphasis supplied.

    13 Id. at 455.

    14 The amendatory laws are Republic Act No. 855 (January 11, 1953), Republic Act No. 6373 (August 16, 1971) and Presidential Decree No. 1264 (December 15, 1977).

    15 370 Phil. 901, 906 (1999).

    16 382 Phil. 131 (2000)

    17 Id. at 136-137.

    18 Emphasis supplied.

    19 377 Phil. 1019 (1999).

    20 See for instance Proclamation No. 50, which categorized GOCCs into parent and subsidiary corporations, cited in Philippine National Construction Corporation v. Pabion, et al., supra.

    21 See also the definition of a GOCC in Section 2(a) of Administrative Order No. 59 (December 5, 1988), which provides:

    "x x x

    (a) Government-owned and/or controlled corporation, hereinafter referred to as GOCC or government corporation, is a corporation which is created by special law or organized under the Corporation Code in which the Government, directly or indirectly, has ownership of the majority of the capital or has voting control; Provided that an acquired asset corporation as defined in the next paragraph shall not be considered as GOCC or government corporation."

    22 Underscoring supplied.

    23 Emphasis supplied.

    24 See Section 4(c) of R.A. No. 95, as amended.

    25 <http://www.redcross.org/portal/site/en/menuitem.86f46a12f382290517a8f210b80f78a0/?vgnextoi d=271a2aebdaadb110VgnVCM10000089f0870aRCRD > (visited July 9, 2009).

    26 385 U.S. 355, 358-360; 87 S.Ct. 464, 467 (1966).

    27 Id.

    28 829 F.Supp. 1290, 1311 (1993)

    29 826 F.Supp. 412, 413-414 (1993).

    30 Supre note 27.

    31 43 F.3d 678 91994); 516 U.S. 822 (1995); 516 U.S. 1002, 116 S.Ct. 550 (1995).

    32 Section 16, Article XII, Philippine Constitution.

    33 Beltran v. Secretary of Health, G.R. NOS. 133640, 133661 and 139147, November 25, 2005, 476 SCRA 168, 199.

    34 Perez v. People, G.R. No. 164763, February 12, 2008, 544 SCRA 532, 565.

    35 G.R. No. 150974, June 29, 2007, 526 SCRA 1, 8.

    36 The full text of the provision reads:

    "Section 13. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the government, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries, during his term without forfeiting his seat. Neither shall he be appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for which he was elected."

    37 No. L-68159, March 18, 1985, 135 SCRA 431.

    38 Id. at 434-435; emphasis supplied.

    39 G.R. No. 83896, February 22, 1991, 194 SCRA 317.

    40 G.R. No. 138965, June 30, 2006, 494 SCRA 53, 63-64.

    41 Section 13, Article VII of the Constitution provides in full:

    "Section 13. The President, Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, and their deputies or assistants shall not, unless otherwise provided in this Constitution, hold any other office or employment during their tenure. They shall not, during said tenure, directly or indirectly, practice any other profession, participate in any business, or be financially interested in any contract with, or in any franchise, or special privilege granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. They shall strictly avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office.

    "The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree of the President shall not during his tenure be appointed as Members of the Constitutional Commissions, or the Office of the Ombudsman, or as Secretaries, Undersecretaries, chairmen or head of bureaus or offices, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries."

    42 Civil Liberties Union v. Executive Secretary, supra note 5, at 331-335; emphasis supplied.

    43 See Cruz, Philippine Political Law, 1998 ed., p. 129.

    44 See Section 7 of P.D. No. 1264.

    45 Section 10 of P.D. No. 1264 provides:

    "Section 10. The members of the Board of Governors, as well as the officers of the corporation, shall serve without compensation. The compensation of the paid staff of the corporation shall be determined by the Board of Governors upon the recommendation of the Secretary General."

    46 Public Interest Center v. Elma, supra note 6, at 63.

    47 Rollo, p. 28.

    48 Adaza v. Pacana, Jr., supra note 3.

    49 See R.A. No. 7640, Executive Order (E.O.) No. 305, Series of 1987; R.A. No. 8292, R.A. No. 9500, and the JELAC Memorandum of Agreement

    G.R. No. 175352 - Dante Liban, et al. v. Richard J. Gordon


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