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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
September-2009 Jurisprudence                 

  • A.C. No. 6672 - Pedro L. Linsangan v. Atty. Nicodemes Tolentino

  • A.C. No. 5955 - John Christen S. Hegna v. Atty. Goering G.C. Paderanga

  • A.C. No. 7297 - Imdelda Bides-Ulaso v. Atty. Edita Noe-Lacsamana

  • A.C. No. 7435 - Rey C. Sarmiento, et al. v. Atty. Edelson G. Oliva

  • A.C. No. 7547 - Gregory U. chan v. NLRC Commissioner Romeo L. Go, et al.

  • A.C. No. 7910 - Wen Ming W. Chen a.k.a. Domingo Tan v. Atty. F.D. Nicolas B. Pichay

  • A.M. No. 01-1-04-SC-PHILJA - Re: Further clarifying and strengthening the organization strcture and administrative set-up of the Philippine Judicial Academy

  • A.M. No. 06-3-07-SC - Request for the approval of the revised qualification standard for the chief of MISO

  • A.M. No. 2009-04-SC - Complaint of Atty. Wilhelmina D. Geronga againts Mr. Ross C. Romero, driver, shuttle bus no. 5 for reckless driving

  • A.M. No. CTA-05-2 - Office of the Court Administrator v. Concepcion G. Espineda, etc.

  • A.M. No. MTJ-06-1623 Formerly OCA IPI No. 04-1635-MTJ, A.M. NO. MTJ-06-1624 Formerly OCA IPI No. 04-1636-MTJ, A.M. NO. MTJ-06-1625 Formerly OCA IPI No. 04-1630-MTJ, A.M. NO. MTJ-06-1627 Formerly OCA IPI No. 04-1661-MTJ, A.M. NO. P-09-2693 Formerly OCA IPI

  • A.M. No. P-05-2046 Formerly No. 05-6-159-MCTC - Office of the Court Administrator v. Clerk of Court Fe P. Ganzan, MCTC, Jasaan, Misamis Oriental

  • A.M. No. P-06-2264 Formerly OCA I.P.I Nos. 05-2136-P and 05-2137-P - Atty. Lelu P. Contreras v. Teresita O. Monge, Clerk IV, Rigional Trial Court - Office of the Clerk of Court, Iriga City

  • A.M. No. P-07-2332 Formerly OCA I.P.I No. 07-2511-P - Dr. Salome U. Jorge v. Carlos P. Diaz, Deputy Sheriff, RTC, Branch 20, Tacurong, Sultan Kudarat

  • A.M. No. P-08-2433 Formerly OCA IPI No. 07-2667-P - Judge Jenny Lind Aldecia-Delorino v. Marilyn De Castro Remigio-Versosa, Clerk III, Regional Trial Court, Branch 137, Makati City

  • A.M. No. P-08-2570 Formerly A.M. OCA IPI No. 07-2547-P - Leticia Sales v. Arnel Jose A. Rubio, Sheriff IV, RTC, OCC, Naga City

  • A.M. No. P-09-2685 OCA-IPI No. 08-2839-P - P/Supt. Rene Macaling Orbe v. Marcos U. Digandang, Process Server, Regional Trial Court, Branch 14, Cotabato City

  • A.M. No. RTJ-01-1650 Formerly OCA IPI No. 01-1195-RTJ - Margie Corpus Macias v. Mariano v. Mariano Joaquin S. Macias, Presiding Judge, Branh 28, Regional Trial Court, Liloy, Zamboanga del Norte

  • A.M. No. RTJ-07-2089 Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 07-2659-RTJ and A.M. NO. RTJ-0921-99 Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 07-2698-RTJ- Land Bank of the Philippines v. Judge Ernesto P. Pagayatan

  • G.R. No. 132826 - Rolando Saa v. Integrated Bar of the Philippines, Commissoion on Bar Discipline, Board of Governors, Pasig City and Atty. Freddie A. Venida

  • G.R. NOS. 140743 & 140745 and G.R. NOS. 141451-52 - City Government of Tagaytay v. Hon. Eleuterio F. Guerrero, etc. et al.

  • G.R. No. 146534 - Spouses Hu Chuan Hai and Leonica Lim Hu v. Spouses Renato Unico and Maria Aurora J. Unico

  • G.R. NOS. 147026-27 - Carolina R. Javier v. Sandiganbayan, et al.

  • G.R. No. 148444 - Associated Bank (now United Overseas Bank [Phils.]) v. Spouses Rafael and Monaliza Pronstroller/Spouses Eduardo and Ma. Pilar Vaca (Intervenors)

  • G.R. No. 149588 - Francisco R. Llamas, et al. v. The Honorable Court of Appeals, et al.

  • G.R. No. 150664 - Vicente Dacanay, in his capacity as administrator of the Testate Estate of Tereso D. Fernandez v. Hon. Raphael Prastora Sr., etc., et al.

  • G.R. No. 151969 - Valle Verde Country Club, Inc., et al. v. Victor Africa

  • G.R. No. 152101 - Emcor, Incorporated v. Ma. Lourdes D. Sienes

  • G.R. No. 152614 - Salvador A. Fernandez v. Cristina D. Amagna

  • G.R. No. 154720 - Juan Balbuena and Teodulfo Retuya v. Leona Aparicio Sabay, et al.

  • G.R. No. 156164 - Sps. Leonardo and Milagros Chua v. Hon. Jacinto G. Ang, et al.

  • G.R. No. 157901 - Orix Metro Leasing and Finance Corporation v. M/V "PILAR-I" and Spouses Ernesto Dy and Lourdes Dy

  • G.R. No. 157952 - Jowett K. Golango v. Jone B. Fung

  • G.R. No. 158630 and G.R. No. 162047 - Joyce Y. Lim, represented by her attorney-in-fact Bernardo M. Nicolas

  • G.R. No. 159116 - Sps. Nestor and Felicidad Dadizon v. Hon. Court of Appeals and Sps. Dominador and Elsa Mocorro

  • G.R. No. 159710 - Carmen A. Blas v. Spouses Eduardo and Salud Galapon

  • G.R. No. 161902 - Edgar Mercado v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 162104 - R Transport Corporation v. Eduardo Pante

  • G.R. No. 163270 - Eduardo M. Tomada, Sr. v. RFM Corporation-Bakery Flour Division, et al.

  • G.R. No. 164104 - Philippine National Bank v. Gregorio B. Maraya, Jr. and Wenefrida Maraya

  • G.R. No. 164205 - Oldarico S. Trave o, et al. v. Bobongon Banana Growers Multi-Purpose Cooperative, et al.

  • G.R. No. 164435 - Victoria S. Jarillo v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 164549 - Philippine National Bank v. Spouses Agustin and Pilar Rocamora

  • G.R. No. 164815 - Sr. Inspector Jerry Valeroso v. Court of Appeals and People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 165141 - Peregina Mistica v. Republic of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 166516 - Emma Ver Reyes and Ramon Reyes v. The Register of Deeds of Cavite, et al.

  • G.R. No. 166857 - D.M. Wenceslao & Associates, inc. v. Freyssinet Philippines, Inc.

  • G.R. No. 167330 - Philippine Health Providers, Inc. v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue

  • G.R. No. 167569, G.R. No. 167570 & G.R. No. 171946 - Carlos T. Go., Sr., v. Luis T. Ramos

  • G.R. No. 167955 Formerly G.R. No. 151275 - People of the Philippines v. Armando Padilla y Nicolas

  • G.R. No. 167995 - Julita V. Imuan, et al. v. Juanito Cereno, et al.

  • G.R. No. 168151 - Regional Container Lines (RCL) of Singapore and Shipping Agency v. The Netherlands Insurance Co. (Philippines) Inc.

  • G.R. No. 168446 Formerly G.R. NOS. 144174-75 - People of the Philippines v. Ernesto Cruz, Jr. y Concepcion, et al.

  • G.R. No. 168927 - Arsenio F. Quevedo, et al. v. Benguet Electric Cooperative Incorporated, et al.

  • G.R. No. 169228 - The Alexandra Condominium Corporation v. Laguna Lake Development Authority

  • G.R. No. 169364 - People of the Philippines v. Evangeline Siton y sacil, et al.

  • G.R. No. 169641 - People of the Philippines v. Richard O. Sarcia

  • G.R. No. 169889 - Spouses Simon Yap and Milagros Guevarra v. First e-Bank, Inc.

  • G.R. No. 169919 - B.D. Long Span Builders, Inc. v. R.S. Ampeloquio Realty Development Inc.

  • G.R. No. 169940 - Univeristy of Santo Tomas v. Samahang Manggagawa ng UST (SM-UST)

  • G.R. No. 170072 - Joaquin P. Obieta v. Edward Cheok

  • G.R. No. 170342 - Allan Dizon v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 170482 - Manila Electric Company v. Aguida Vda. De Santiago

  • G.R. No. 171018 - People of the Philippines v. Elly Naelga

  • G.R. No. 171260 - Amparo Robles Cabreza v. Ceferino S. Cabreza Jr., et al.

  • G.R .No. 171491 - Dr. Castor C. De Jesus v. Rafel D. Guerrero III, Cesario R. Pagdilao and Fortuna B. Aquino

  • G.R. No. 171681 - Kei Marie and Bianca Angelica both surnamed Abrera, minors, represented by their parents Evelyn C. Abrera, et al. v. Hon. Romeo F. Barza, in his capacity as Presiding Judge of Regional Trial Court, Branch 61, Makati City and College Assu

  • G.R. No. 171984 - Bandila Maritime Services, Inc. and/or Tokomaru Kaiun Co., Ltd. v. Rolando Dubduban

  • G.R. No. 172217 - Spouses Lydia Flores-Cruz, et al. v. Spouses Leonardo and Iluminada Goli-Cruz, et al.

  • G.R. No. 172447 & G.R. No. 179404 - Iglesia Evangelisca Metodista En Las Islas Filipinas (IEMELIF), Inc. v. Nataniel B. Juane/Nataniel B. Juane v. Iglesia Evangelisca Metodista En Las Islas Filipinas (IEMELIF), Inc.

  • G.R. No. 174116 - Eastern Shipping Lines, Inc. v. Prudential Guarantee and Assurance, Inc.

  • G.R. No. 175064 - Province of Camarines Sur, represented by Governor Luis Raymund F. Villafuerte, Jr. v. Hon. Court of Appeals and City of Naga, represented by Mayor Jesse M. Robredo

  • G.R. No. 175172 - Cresencia Achevara, Alfredo Achevara and Benigno Valdez v. Elvira Ramos, John Arnel Ramos and Kristine Camille Ramos

  • G.R. No. 175528 - PO3 Benito Sombilon, Jr. v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 175490 - Ileana Dr. Macalino v. Bank of the Philippines Islands

  • G.R. No. 176014 - Alice Vitangcol and Norberto Vitangcol v. New Vista Properties, Inc., et al.

  • G.R. No. 176040 - Casa Cebuana Incoporada, et al. v. Ireneo P. Leuterio

  • G.R. No. 176364 - Juanito R. Rimando v. Commission on Elections and Norma O. Magno

  • G.R. No. 176546 - Felicitas P. Ong v. The People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 176700 - Romero Montederamos v. Tri-Union International Corporation

  • G.R. No. 177056 - The Office of the Solicitor General v. Ayala Land Incorporated, et al.

  • G.R. No. 177066 - Joselito Musni Puno (as heir of the late Carlos Puno) v. Puno Enterprises, Inc., represented by Jesusa Puno

  • G.R. No. 177456 - Bank of the Philippine Isalands v. Domingo R. Dando

  • G.R. No. 177531 - Civil Service Commission v. Fatima A. Macud

  • G.R. No. 177705 - Kimberly-Clark Philippines, Inc. v. Nora Dimayuga, et al.

  • G.R. No. 177753 - People of the Philippines v. Benjamin Ocampo

  • G.R. No. 177836 - Edwino A. Torres (deceased), represented and substitute by Alfonso P. Torres III, et al.

  • G.R. NOS. 177857-58, G.R. NO. 178193 and G.R. NO. 180705 - Philippine Coconut Producers Federation, Inc. (COCOFED), Manuel V. Del Rosario, Domingo P. Espina, et al. v. Republic of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 178034, G.R. No. 178117 and G.R. NOS. 186984-85 - Andrew Jame Mcburne v. Eulalio Ganzon, et al.

  • G.R. No. 178485 - People of the Philippines v. Mariano Sapigao, Jr.

  • G.R. No. 178529 - Equitable PCI Bank, Inc (now known as Banco De Oro-EPCI, Inc.) v. Heirs of Antonio C. Tiu, et al.

  • G.R. No. 178543 - People of the Philippines v. Aristo Villanueva

  • G.R. No. 178933 - Recardo S. Silverio, Jr. v. Court of Appeals and Nelia S. Silverio-Dee

  • G.R. No. 179103 and G.R. NO. 180209 - National Power Corporation v. Premier Shipping Lines, Inc.

  • G.R. No. 179213 - People of the Philippines v. Nicolas Gutierrez y Licunan

  • G.R. No. 179313 - Makil U. Pundaodaya v. Commission on Elections, et al.

  • G.R. No. 179319 - Eugene C. Firaza v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 179475 - People of the Philippines v. Daniel Sibunga y Agtoca

  • G.R. No. 179502 - Progressive Trade & Service Enterprises v. Maria Milagrosa Antonio

  • G.R. No. 179583 - Jimmy L. Barnes a.k.a. James Barnes v. Teresita C. Reyes, et al.

  • G.R. No. 179799 - Zenaida R. Gregorio v. Court of Appeals, et al.

  • G.R. No. 179862 - Land Bank of the Philippines v. Heirs of Asuncion Anonuevo Vda. Santos, et al.

  • G.R. No. 179944 - People of the Philippines v. Antonio Ortiz, et al.

  • G.R. No. 179985 - Pdilon L. Martinez v. B&B Fish Broker and/or Norberto M. Lucinario

  • G.R. No. 180274 - Virgilio C. Crystal and Glynna F. Cystal v. Bank of the Philippines Islands

  • G.R. No. 180453 - Republic of the Philippines v. Dante C. Abril, represented by his Attorney-in-fact, Manuel C. Blaco, Jr.

  • G.R. No. 180478-79 - The Heritage Hotel of Manila v. National Labor Relations Commission, Rufino C. Ra on II, and Ismael C. Villa

  • G.R. No. 180508 - People of the Philippines v. Antonio v. Antonio Ramos y Viray

  • G.R. No. 180693 - Bonifacio Dolera y Tejada v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 180863 - Angelita Valdez v. Republic of the Philippines

  • G.R. NOS. 180880-81 and G.R. NOS. 180896-97 - Keppel Cebu Shipyard, Inc. v. Pioneer Insurance and Surety Corporation

  • G.R. No. 180888 - Rolando Placido and Edgardo Caragay v. National Labor Relations Commission and Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, Incorporated

  • G.R. No. 180992 - Elmer Diamante y Sioson, et al. v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 181081 - People of the Philippines v. Roldan Arcosiba alias "Entoy"

  • G.R. No. 181300 - Malayan Insurance Co., Inc. v. Jardine Davies Transport Services, Inc. and Asian Terminals, Inc.

  • G.R. No. 181303 - Carmen Danao Malana, et al. v. Benigno Tappa, et al.

  • G.R. No. 181503 - Bio Quest Marketing Inc. and/or Jose L. Co v. Edmund Rey

  • G.R. No. 181613 - Rosalinda A. Penera v. Commission on Elections and Edgar T. Andanar

  • G.R. No. 181629 - People of the Philippines v. Elizardo Cabiles alias "SARDO"

  • G.R. NOS. 181999 & G.R. No. 182001-04 and G.R. NOS. 182020-24 - Ofelia Caunan v. People of the Philippines, et al.

  • G.R. No. 182185 - Joaquin Ga, Jr., et al. v. Spouses Antonio Tabungan, et al.

  • G.R. No. 182320 - Tacloban Far East Marketing Corporation, et al. v. The Court of Appeals, et al.

  • G.R. No. 183088 - People of the Philippines v. Donato Capco y Sabadlab

  • G.R. No. 183141 - Edgardo H. Catindig v. People of the Philippines, et al.

  • G.R. No. 183142 - Rosita A. Montanez v. Provincial Agrarian Reform Adjudicator (PARAD), et al.

  • G.R. No. 183387 - Simeon M. Valdez v. Financiera Manila Inc.

  • G.R. No. 183457 - People of the Philippines v. Roel Arbalate, et al.

  • G.R. No. 183546 - Wilson A. Go v. Harry A. Go

  • G.R. No. 183646 - Great Southern Maritime Services Corp., et al. v. Leonila Surigao, et al.

  • G.R. No. 183656 - Gilbert Zalameda v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 183802 - Alexander Tam Wong v. Catherine Factor-Koyoma

  • G.R. No. 183965 - Joanie Surposa Uy v. Jose Ngo Chua

  • G.R. No. 184037 - Antonio Lopez y Dela Cruz v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. No. 184225 - Spouses Rogelio F. Lopez and Teotima G. Lopez v. Samuel R. Espinosa and Angelita S. Espinosa

  • G.R. No. 184252 - China Banking Corporation v. Sps. Wenceslao & Marcelina Martir

  • G.R. No. 184268 - Ernesto Batalla v. Commission on Elections and teodoro Bataller

  • G.R. No. 184285 - Rodolfo "Rudy" Canlas, et al. v. Iluminada Tubil

  • G.R. No. 184735 - Miriam B. Elleccion vda. De Lecciones v. National Labor Relations Commission, et al.

  • G.R. No. 184958 - People of the Philippines v. Anthony C. Domingo and Gerry Domingo

  • G.R. No. 185001 - Ronnie H. Lumayna, et al. v. Commission on Audit

  • G.R. No. 185203 - People of the Philippines v. Domingo Araojo

  • G.R. No. 186138 - People of the Philippines v. Loreto Daria y Cruz

  • G.R. No. 186497 - People of the Philippines v. Hasanaddin Guira y Bansil

  • G.R. No. 187043 - People of the Philippines v. Lorenzo Oliva y Rosela

  • G.R. No. 187156 - People of the Philippines v. Melody Gutierrez y Lauriada

  • G.R. No. 187503 - People of the Philippines v. Tecson Lim y Chua and Maximo Flores y Viterbo

  • G.R. No. 188456 - Harry L. Roque, et al. v. Commission on Election, et al.

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    G.R. No. 180508 - People of the Philippines v. Antonio v. Antonio Ramos y Viray

      G.R. No. 180508 - People of the Philippines v. Antonio v. Antonio Ramos y Viray

    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    SECOND DIVISION

    [G.R. NO. 180508 : September 4, 2009]

    PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Appellee, v. ANTONIO RAMOS Y VIRAY, Appellant.

    D E C I S I O N

    CARPIO MORALES, J.:

    Assailed by way of appeal is the August 7, 2007 Decision1 of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. CR.-H.C. No. 02241 which affirmed the March 24, 2006 Decision of Branch 135 of the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Makati City in Criminal Case Nos. 05-1712 to 05-1713 convicting Antonio Ramos y Viray alias Dinol (appellant) for violating Sections 5 and 11, Article II of Republic Act (R.A.) No. 9165 (the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002) - selling 0.01 gram and possessing 0.05 gram of shabu, respectively.

    The inculpatory portions of the two separate Informations both dated September 14, 2005 indicting appellant read:

    Crim. Case No. 051712

    That on or about the 13th day of September 2005, in the City of Makati Philippines and a place within the jurisdiction of this Honorable Court, the above-named accused, not being lawfully authorized to possess any dangerous drug and without the corresponding license or prescription did then and there willfully, unlawfully and feloniously sell, distribute and transport zero point zero one (0.01) gram of Methylamphetamine Hydrochloride which is a dangerous drug in consideration of the amount of two hundred (Php 200.00) pesos.2 (Underscoring supplied)cralawlibrary

    Crim. Case No. 051713

    That on or about the 13th day of September 2005, in the City of Makati Philippines, a place within the jurisdiction of this Honorable Court, the above-named accused, not being lawfully authorized to possess any dangerous drug and without the corresponding license or prescription, did then and there willfully, unlawfully and feloniously have in his possession ZERO POINT ZERO FIVE (0.05) grams of Methylamphetamine Hydrochloride which is a dangerous drug.3 (Underscoring supplied)cralawlibrary

    At the pre-trial conference, the defense admitted, among other things, the execution and authenticity of the Physical Science Reports, thus dispensing with the testimony of the Forensic Chemist.4

    Based on the documentary evidence and collective testimonies of its two witnesses, Noel Pulido (Pulido),5 an operative of the Makati Anti Drug Abuse Council (MADAC), and PO2 Ronnie Aseboque (PO2 Aseboque),6 a member of the Makati City Police Station Anti-Illegal Drugs Special Operations Task Force (SAID-SOTF), the prosecution established the following version:

    On September 10, 2005, Pulido, together with other operatives of the MADAC, conducted a surveillance operation on the activities of appellant whose name appeared in the Drug Watch List of Barangay Pitogo, Makati City where he was observed to be selling shabu to tricycle drivers at the tricycle terminal along Pitogo St., Guadalupe Nuevo, Makati City.

    The positive result of surveillance operation led the Makati City Police SAID-SOTF to form a buy-bust team which PO3 Esterio Ruiz (PO3 Ruiz) headed, with Pulido and PO2 Aseboque as members. PO2 Aseboque, who was designated as the poseur-buyer, was given a one hundred peso bill bearing Serial No. EF951982, and two fifty peso bills bearing Serial Nos. GT851008 and FQ688087. The bills were pre-marked with PO2 Aseboque's initials "REA" on the lower left hand corner thereof. It was agreed that PO2 Aseboque's removal of a towel which was to be draped over his shoulder would signal that the buy-bust transaction was consummated.

    The buy-bust team coordinated with the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) which gave it operation Control Number NOC 1309-05-13.7

    At around 6:35 p.m. of September 13, 2005, the buy-bust team, together with its "asset," repaired to a billiard hall along Camino de la Fe St., Barangay Guadalupe Nuevo where Pulido positioned himself across the street as the other members of the team positioned themselves nearby.

    As the "asset" spotted appellant who was standing in front of the billiard hall, he, together with PO2 Aseboque, approached him and introduced PO2 Aseboque as a buyer. Appellant thereupon asked how much to which he (PO2 Aseboque) replied "Dalawang daan lang pare."

    Appellant at once brought out a small yellow-colored tin case from which he took out one small heat-sealed transparent plastic sachet containing a white crystalline substance which he handed to PO2 Aseboque who in turn handed him the marked one hundred and two fifty peso bills. At that instant, PO2 Aseboque executed the pre-arranged signal, drawing the other team members to rush to the scene.

    PO2 Aseboque then handcuffed appellant as he introduced himself as a police officer, and recovered from his right front pocket8 the yellow tin case which yielded two other plastic sachets also containing white crystalline substances. In the presence of appellant, he marked his initials "REA" on the plastic sachet subject of the sale, "REA 1" and "REA 2" on the two sachets retrieved from the tin case, and "REA 3" on the small yellow tin case.

    With the seized items, appellant was brought for investigation to the Makati City Police SAID-SOTF where P/Supt. Marietto Valerio prepared a memorandum dated September 13, 20059 addressed to the Chief of the Chemistry Section of the Philippine National Police (PNP) Crime Laboratory in Makati City requesting for a laboratory examination of the substances contained in the three plastic sachets to determine the presence of shabu. Pulido and PO2 Aseboque later executed a Joint Affidavit of Arrest10 dated September 14, 2005 recounting the details of the buy-bust operation leading to appellant's arrest.

    Upon receipt of the three sachets and tin case on September 13, 2005 at 7:35 p.m., Police Senior Inspector Sharon Lontoc Fabros, Forensic Chemical Officer of the Southern Police District Crime Laboratory Office conducted a laboratory examination thereof which disclosed the following findings, as recorded in Physical Science Report No. D-219-05S.11

    SPECIMEN SUBMITTED:

    A - One (1) small tin case with markings "REA 3" having three (3) heat-sealed transparent plastic sachets, containing white crystalline substance with the following markings and recorded net weights:

    A-1 ("REA") = 0.01 gram

    A-2 ("REA-1") = 0.03 gram

    A-3 ("REA-2") = 0.02 gram

    x x x

    F I N D I N G S:

    Qualitative examination conducted on the above-stated specimens A-1 through A-3 gave POSITIVE result to tests for the presence of Methylamphetamine hydrochloride, a dangerous drug. x x x

    C O N C L U S I O N:

    Specimens A-1 through A-3 contain Methylamphetamine hydrochloride, a dangerous drug. (Underlining supplied)

    Denying the accusation, appellant12 gave the following version:

    At around 6:45 p.m. of September 13, 2005, while he was walking along Camino Dela Fe Street, Guadalupe Nuevo heading towards his mother's house, he was suddenly grabbed from behind by five unidentified persons who poked a gun at him. Upon inquiring what his violation was, he was told that they were looking for someone named "Danny." He denied knowing any such individual, however. He was then handcuffed, forced into a Revo vehicle parked nearby, and brought to the police station.

    At the police station, someone took out a small plastic sachet and a yellow tin can from a drawer, as another said "Sige tuluyan niyo na siya, ito na ebidensiya natin."

    In fine, appellant denied the accusation and claimed that the evidence against him was "planted."

    Cherry Clasara,13 a friend of appellant's sister, corroborated appellant's account of the circumstances under which he was accosted.

    By Decision14 of March 24, 2006, the trial court found appellant guilty of both illegal sale and illegal possession of Methylamphetamine Hydrochloride or shabu, disposing as follows:

    WHEREFORE, it appearing that the guilt of the accused ANTONIO RAMOS Y VIRAY was proven beyond reasonable doubt for violation of Sections 5 and 11, Article II of R.A. 9165, as principal, with no mitigating or aggravating circumstances, accused is hereby sentenced:

    1. In Criminal Case No. 05-1712, to suffer life imprisonment, and to pay a fine of Five Hundred Thousand Pesos [P500,000.00];

    2. In Criminal Case No. 05-1713, to suffer imprisonment for an indeterminate term of twelve [12] years and one [1] day, as minimum, to fourteen [14] years and eight [8] months, as maximum, and to pay a fine of Three Hundred Thousand Pesos [P300,000.00]; andcralawlibrary

    3. To pay the costs.

    Let the zero point zero one [0.01] gram, and the total of zero point zero five [0.05] gram of Methylamphetamine Hydrochloride be turned over to the PDEA for proper disposition.

    SO ORDERED.15 (Underscoring supplied)cralawlibrary

    On appeal, the Court of Appeals, by Decision of August 7, 2007, affirmed the trial court's decision, it holding that, contrary to appellant's claim, the policemen had duly complied with the procedure laid down in Section 21 (1), Article II of R.A. No. 9165 as evidenced by the testimony of PO2 Aseboque that an inventory of the seized items had been conducted; and that the failure of the law enforcers to strictly comply with the said provision, not being fatal, did not render appellant's arrest illegal nor the evidence against him inadmissible.16

    In brushing aside his defense of frame-up, the appellate court noted that appellant failed to adduce evidence on the possible motive of the police officers to falsely charge him.

    Hence, the present appeal.

    The appeal is impressed with merit.

    While the trial court's findings of fact are entitled to great weight and are not generally disturbed on appeal, especially where the appellate court is in complete accord therewith as in the present case, where facts of weight and substance have been overlooked, misapprehended or misapplied, such findings may be disturbed.17

    On the issue of whether the law enforcement officers had observed the procedure laid down in Section 21 (1), Article II of R.A. No. 9165 - a requirement essential to preserving the integrity of the corpus delicti in these cases, the Court rules in the negative. On that score alone, appellant's acquittal is in order.

    A buy-bust operation is a form of entrapment employed by peace officers to apprehend prohibited drug law violators in the act of committing a drug-related offense. Because of the built-in dangers of abuse that the operation entails, it is governed by specific procedures on the seizure and custody of drugs, separately from the general law procedures geared to ensure that the rights of people under criminal investigation and of the accused facing a criminal charge are safeguarded.18 People v. Tan19 mirrors these dangers and thus exhorts courts to be extra vigilant in trying drug cases:

    [B]y the very nature of anti-narcotic operations, the need for entrapment procedures, the use of shady characters as informants, the ease with which sticks of marijuana or grams of heroin can be planted in the pockets or hands of unsuspecting provincial hicks, and the secrecy that inevitably shrouds all drug deals, the possibility of abuse is great. Thus, the courts have been exhorted to be extra vigilant in trying drug cases lest an innocent person is made to suffer the unusually severe penalties for drug offenses. (Underscoring supplied)cralawlibrary

    The records indicate that the buy-bust team did not follow the outlined procedure on the inventory and photographing of the seized drugs, despite its mandatory character as indicated by the use of the word "shall." This is patent from PO2 Aseboque's testimony on cross-examination by the defense, viz:

    ATTY. RONALD TAN:

    Q: What did you do when you recovered those items, what did you do to those items?cralawred

    PO2 RONNIE ASEBOQUE:

    A: I put markings on those items on top of the hood of the Revo, sir.

    Q: Did you make an inventory of those items that were recovered?cralawred

    A: Our team leader made the inventory of the items that were recovered sir.

    Q: Did your team leader make an inventory report for those items recovered?cralawred

    A: I do not know if he was able to make an inventory report.

    Q: You are aware of the provision of RA 9165, am I correct?cralawred

    A: Yes, sir.

    Q: Are you aware that there is a particular provision that after a buy-bust operation and you were able to recover illegal drugs from that person subject of your buy-bust, you are mandated to take photographs of those items that you took in the presence of the barangay official and presence of the accused?cralawred

    A: Yes, sir.

    Q: Did you do that, did you comply with that requirement in these cases?cralawred

    A: We have the camera but I do not know if they were able to comply with that, sir.

    Q: You have no knowledge?cralawred

    A: I have no knowledge, sir.20 (Emphasis and underscoring supplied)cralawlibrary

    Parenthetically, the prosecution did not present team leader PO3 Ruiz to enlighten whether he accomplished an inventory report of the seized items. And it bears noting that PO2 Aseboque did not even know if a photograph of the items allegedly seized was taken.

    Appellant's contention that the apprehending policemen were remiss in complying with the statutory requirements is thus well-taken.ςηαñrοblεš νιr†υαl lαω lιbrαrÿ

    The Court is of course mindful of its pronouncement in People v. Pringas21 that:

    Non-compliance by the apprehending/buy-bust team with Section 21 is not fatal as long as there is justifiable ground therefor, and as long as the integrity and the evidentiary value of the confiscated/seized items, are properly preserved by the apprehending officer/team. Its non-compliance will not render an accused's arrest illegal or the items seized/confiscated from him inadmissible. What is of utmost importance is the preservation of the integrity and the evidentiary value of the seized items, as the same would be utilized in the determination of the guilt or innocence of the accused. (Citation omitted, underscoring and emphasis supplied)

    As earlier discussed, however, the prosecution had not substantiated PO2 Aseboque's claim that team leader PO3 Ruiz had made an inventory of the seized items, as he in fact, confessed not knowing whether said team leader had made an investigation report.

    In fine, the failure of the police officers to comply with the procedure in the custody of seized drugs puts to doubt their origins,22 and negates any presumption of regularity accorded to acts undertaken by police officers in the pursuit of their official duties.23 Appellant's acquittal is thus in order.

    WHEREFORE, the assailed decision of the Court of Appeals is REVERSED and SET ASIDE. For failure of the prosecution to prove his guilt beyond reasonable doubt, appellant, Antonio Ramos y Viray, is ACQUITTED of the crimes charged.

    Let a copy of this Decision be furnished the Director of the Bureau of Corrections, Muntinlupa City who is ORDERED to cause the immediate release of appellant, unless he is being lawfully held for another cause, and to inform this Court of action taken thereon within ten (10) days from notice.

    SO ORDERED.

    LUCAS P. BERSAMIN*
    Associate Justice

    Endnotes:


    * Additional member vice Justice Mariano C. Del Castillo, who took no part due to prior participation in the Court of Appeals.

    1 Penned by Associate Justice Romeo F. Barza, with the concurrence of Associate Justices Mariano C. Del Castillo (now an Associate Justice of this Court) and Arcangelita M. Romilla-Lontok; CA rollo, pp. 66-76.

    2 Records, p. 2.

    3 Id. at 4.

    4 Vide Pre-Trial Order, id. at 36.

    5 TSN. November 7, 2005, pp. 3-16.

    6 TSN, February 1, 2006, pp. 2-21.

    7 Vide Certificate of Coordination, Exhibit "E," records, p. 76.

    8 The records do not specify whether the pocket was a shirt or pant pocket.

    9 Exhibits "B," records, p. 71.

    10 Exhibits "A" to "A-1," id. at 69-70.

    11 Exhibit "C," id. at 73.

    12 TSN, February 3, 2006, pp. 6-19.

    13 TSN, March 1, 2006, pp. 2-11.

    14 Rendered by Judge Francisco B. Ibay; records, pp. 89-93.

    15 Id. at 93.

    16 Id. at 72-73.

    17 Malillin v. People, G.R. No. 172953, April 30, 2008, 553 SCRA 619, 631.

    18 People v. Sanchez, G.R. No. 175832, October 15, 2008, 569 SCRA 194, 208.

    19 401 Phil. 259, 273 (2000), citing People v. Gireng, 311 Phil. 12 (1995) and People v. Pagaura, 334 Phil. 683 (1997).

    20 TSN, February 1, 2006, pp. 21-22.

    21 G.R. No. 175928, August 31, 2007, 531 SCRA 828, 842-843 citing People v. Sta. Maria, G.R. No. 171019, February 23, 2007, 516 SCRA 621.

    22 Vide People v. Orteza, G.R. No. 173051, July 31, 2007, 528 SCRA 750, 758.

    23 Vide People v. Santos, Jr., G.R. No. 175593, October 17, 2007, 536 SCRA 489, 505.

    G.R. No. 180508 - People of the Philippines v. Antonio v. Antonio Ramos y Viray


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