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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
December-2014 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. 193670, December 03, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. VENERANDO DELA CRUZ Y SEBASTIAN, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 205136, December 02, 2014 - OLIVIA DA SILVA CERAFICA, Petitioner, v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 8103, December 03, 2014 - ATTY. AURELIO C. ANGELES, JR., PROVINCIAL LEGAL OFFICER, BATAAN CAPITOL, BALANGA CITY, BATAAN, Complainant, v. ATTY. RENATO C. BAGAY, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 193385, December 01, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. DATS GANDAWALI Y GAPAS AND NOL PAGALAD Y ANAS, Accused-Appellants.

  • A.M. No. P-13-3163 [Formerly OCA IPI No. 12-3861-P], December 01, 2014 - MARCIDITO A. MIRANDA, Complainant, v. ERNESTO G. RAYMUNDO, JR., SHERIFF III, METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 74, TAGUIG CITY, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 7687, December 03, 2014 - RAUL C. LANUZA AND REYNALDO C. RASING, Complainants, v. ATTYS. FRANKIE O. MAGSALIN III AND PABLO R. CRUZ, Respondents.; A.C. No. 7688 - RAUL C. LANUZA AND REYNALDO C. RASING, Complainants, v. ATTYS. FRANKIE O. MAGSALIN III, PETER ANDREW S. GO AND PABLO R. CRUZ, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 179597, December 03, 2014 - IGLESIA FILIPINA INDEPENDIENTE, Petitioner, v. HEIRS OF BERNARDINO TAEZA, Respondents.

  • A.M. No. P-11-2917, December 02, 2014 - MARIVIC C. VITOR, Complainant, v. CAROLINE GRACE ZAFRA, COURT STENOGRAPHER II, METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 71, PASIG CITY, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 183161, December 03, 2014 - OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN, Petitioner, v. AMALIO A. MALLARI, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 199886, December 03, 2014 - CAGAYAN II ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE, INC., REPRESENTED BY ITS MANAGER AND CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER, GABRIEL A. TORDESILLAS, Petitioner, v. ALLAN RAPANAN AND MARY GINE TANGONAN, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 206162, December 10, 2014 - ALEX M. VALENCERINA, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 192232, December 10, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JOSE ESTALIN PRODENCIADO, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 190349, December 10, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. FRANCASIO DELFIN, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 211465, December 03, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. SHIRLEY A. CASIO, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 208462, December 10, 2014 - SPOUSES CARLOS J. SUNTAY AND ROSARIO R. SUNTAY, Petitioners, v. KEYSER MERCANTILE, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 193108, December 10, 2014 - MARILYN VICTORIO-AQUINO, Petitioner, v. PACIFIC PLANS, INC. AND MAMERTO A. MARCELO, JR. (COURT-APPOINTED REHABILITATION RECEIVER OF PACIFIC PLANS, INC.), Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 193100, December 10, 2014 - SAMAR-I ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE, Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 209219, December 02, 2014 - BASES CONVERSION AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (BCDA), Petitioner, v. COMMISSION ON AUDIT CHAIRPERSON MA. GRACIA M. PULIDO-TAN, COMMISSIONER HEIDI L. MENDOZA AND COMMISSIONER ROWENA V. GUANZON, THE COMMISSIONERS, COMMISSION ON AUDIT, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 211703, December 10, 2014 - EDELBERT C. UYBOCO, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 10579, December 10, 2014 - ERLINDA FOSTER, Complainant, v. ATTY. JAIME V. AGTANG, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 10548, December 10, 2014 - CAROLINE CASTAÑEDA JIMENEZ, Complainant, v. ATTY. EDGAR B. FRANCISCO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 207682, December 10, 2014 - CONRADO B. NICART, JR., AS PROVINCIAL GOVERNOR OF LGU-EASTERN SAMAR, Petitioner, v. MA. JOSEFINA C. TITONG AND JOSELITO M. ABRUGAR, SR., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 191694, December 03, 2014 - NARCISO ZAPANTA, EDILBERTO CAPULONG AND CLARITA CAPULONG, Petitioners, v. CO KING KI AS REPRESENTED BY HIS ATTORNEY-IN-FACT WILLIAM CO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 156577, December 03, 2014 - ALEJANDRO C. RIVERA, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.; G.R. NO. 156587 - ALFREDO Y. PEREZ, JR., Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.; G.R. NO. 156749 - LUIS D. MONTERO, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 203022, December 03, 2014 - ANTONIO MARTINEZ, Petitioner, v. HON. RONALDO B. MARTIN, PRESIDING JUDGE AND ROLANDO PALMARES, DEPUTY SHERIFF, BOTH OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT OF ANTIPOLO CITY, BRANCH 73, AND NATALIA REALTY, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 204745, December 08, 2014 - MINDANAO II GEOTHERMAL PARTNERSHIP, Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 208261, December 08, 2014 - PHILIPPINE AMUSEMENT AND GAMING CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. LORENIA P. DE GUZMAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 210148, December 08, 2014 - ANTONIO L. DALURAYA, Petitioner, v. MARLA OLIVA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 194077, December 03, 2014 - FLORENTINO W. LEONG AND ELENA LEONG, ET AL., Petitioners, v. EDNA C. SEE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 170046, December 10, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. MAXIMO A. BORJE, JR., BURT B. FAVORITO, FLORENDO B. ARIAS, ERDITO Q. QUARTO, AGERICO C. PALAYPAY, NAPOLEON S. ANAS, DANILO C. PLANTA, LUISITO S. DELA ROSA, ROGELIO L. BERAY, NORMA A. VILLARMINO, RICARDO M. JUAN, JR., NELSON UMALI, MARIA LUISA T. CRUZ, MELISSA T. ESPINA, VIOLETA R. TADEO, JESSICA J. CATIBAYAN, VIOLETA C. AMAR, RONALDO G. SIMBAHAN, FELIPE A. SAN JOSE, ROLANDO C. CASTILLO, CONCHITA N. DELA CRUZ, JANETTE A. BUGAYONG, JESUS D. CAPUZ, RODELIA R. UY, ROMEO C. FULLIDO, NONETTE H. FULLIDO, VICTORIA M. GO, CARMELITO V. EDEM, AUGUSTO C. CAPUZ,+ VICENTE SANTOS, JR., JOHN DOES AND JANE DOES, AND THE SANDIGANBAYAN (SECOND DIVISION), Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 193707, December 10, 2014 - NORMA A. DEL SOCORRO, FOR AND IN BEHALF OF HER MINOR CHILD RODERIGO NORJO VAN WILSEM, Petitioner, v. ERNST JOHAN BRINKMAN VAN WILSEM, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 206768, December 03, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. LEONARDO CASTRODES, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 185590, December 03, 2014 - METROPOLITAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY, Petitioner, v. LEY CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AND SPOUSES MANUEL LEY AND JANET LEY, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 174996, December 03, 2014 - BRO. BERNARD OCA, FSC, BRO. DENNIS MAGBANUA, FSC, MRS. CIRILA MOJICA, MRS. JOSEFINA PASCUAL AND ST. FRANCIS SCHOOL OF GENERAL TRIAS, CAVITE, INC., Petitioner, v. LAURITA CUSTODIO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 180364, December 03, 2014 - TZE SUN WONG, Petitioner, v. KENNY WONG, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 187589, December 03, 2014 - COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Petitioner, v. THE STANLEY WORKS SALES (PHILS.), INCORPORATED, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 209386, December 08, 2014 - MEL CARPIZO CANDELARIA, Petitioner, v. THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 206661, December 10, 2014 - HON. ORLANDO C. CASIMIRO, IN HIS CAPACITY AS ACTING OMBUDSMAN, OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN; HON. ROGELIO L. SINGSON, IN HIS CAPACITY AS DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS SECRETARY, Petitioner, v. JOSEFINO N. RIGOR, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 201781, December 10, 2014 - ANNIE GERONIMO, SUSAN GERONIMO AND SILVERLAND ALLIANCE CHRISTIAN CHURCH*, Petitioners, v. SPS. ESTELA C. CALDERON AND RODOLFO T. CALDERON, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 212388, December 10, 2014 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. HEIRS OF SPOUSES DONATO SANCHEZ AND JUANA MENESES, REPRESENTED BY RODOLFO S. AGUINALDO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 195390, December 10, 2014 - GOV. LUIS RAYMUND F. VILLAFUERTE, JR., AND THE PROVINCE OF CAMARINES SUR, Petitioners, v. HON. JESSE M. ROBREDO, IN HIS CAPACITY AS SECRETARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 208890, December 08, 2014 - JOEL N. MONTALLANA, Petitioner, v. LA CONSOLACION COLLEGE MANILA, SR. IMELDA A. MORA, AND ALBERT D. MANALILI,* Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 151258, December 01, 2014 - ARTEMIO VILLAREAL, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.; G.R. No. 154954 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS, ANTONIO MARIANO ALMEDA, DALMACIO LIM, JR., JUNEL ANTHONY AMA, ERNESTO JOSE MONTECILLO, VINCENT TECSON, ANTONIO GENERAL, SANTIAGO RANADA III, NELSON VICTORINO, JAIME MARIA FLORES II, ZOSIMO MENDOZA, MICHAEL MUSNGI, VICENTE VERDADERO, ETIENNE GUERRERO, JUDE FERNANDEZ, AMANTE PURISIMA II, EULOGIO SABBAN, PERCIVAL D. BRIGOLA, PAUL ANGELO SANTOS, JONAS KARL B. PEREZ, RENATO BANTUG, JR., ADEL ABAS, JOSEPH LLEDO, AND RONAN DE GUZMAN, Respondents.; G.R. No. 155101 - FIDELITO DIZON, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondents.; G.R. Nos. 178057 & 178080 - GERARDA H. VILLA, Petitioner, v. MANUEL LORENZO ESCALONA II, MARCUS JOEL CAPELLAN RAMOS, CRISANTO CRUZ SARUCA, JR., AND ANSELMO ADRIANO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 198928, December 18, 2014 - CBK POWER COMPANY LIMITED, Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 203760, December 03, 2014 - HOMER C. JAVIER, REPRESENTED BY HIS MOTHER AND NATURAL GUARDIAN, SUSAN G. CANENCIA, Petitioner, v. SUSAN LUMONTAD, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 8085, December 01, 2014 - FELIPE LAYOS, Complainant, v. ATTY. MARLITO I. VILLANUEVA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 215427, December 10, 2014 - PHILIPPINE AMUSEMENT AND GAMING CORPORATION (PAGCOR), Petitioner, v. THE BUREAU OF INTERNAL REVENUE, REPRESENTED BY JOSE MARIO BUÑAG, IN HIS CAPACITY AS COMMISSIONER OF THE BUREAU OF INTERNAL REVENUE, AND JOHN DOE AND JANE DOE, WHO ARE PERSONS ACTING FOR, IN BEHALF OR UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF RESPONDENT, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 149638, December 10, 2014 - MONCAYO INTEGRATED SMALL-SCALE MINERS ASSOCIATION, INC. [MISSMA], Petitioner, v. SOUTHEAST MINDANAO GOLD MINING CORP., JB. MGT. MINING CORP., PICOP RESOURCES, INC., MT. DIWATA UPPER ULIP MANDAYA TRIBAL COUNCIL, INC. AND BALITE INTEGRATED SMALL-SCALE MINING CORP., (BISSMICO), Respondents.; G.R. NO. 149916 - HON. ANTONIO H. CERILLES, IN HIS CAPACITY AS SECRETARY OF DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES, Petitioner, v. SOUTHEAST MINDANAO GOLD MINING CORPORATION (SMGMC) AND BALITE INTEGRATED SMALL-SCALE MINING CORP., (BISSMICO), Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 120051, December 10, 2014 - CITY OF MANILA, HON. ALFREDO S. LIM, AS MAYOR OF THE CITY OF MANILA, AND ANTHONY Y. ACEVEDO, CITY TREASURER, Petitioners, v. HON. ANGEL VALERA COLET, AS PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT OF MANILA (BR. 43), AND MALAYSIAN AIRLINE SYSTEM, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 121613 - MAERSK-FILIPINAS, INC., AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES, LTD., FLAGSHIP TANKERS CORP., CORE INDO MARITIME CORP., AND CORE MARITIME CORP., Petitioners, v. CITY OF MANILA, MAYOR ALFREDO LIM, VICE MAYOR LITO ATIENZA,1] SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD AND CITY TREASURER ANTHONY ACEVEDO, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 121675 - EASTERN SHIPPING LINES, INC., Petitioner, v. CITY COUNCIL OF MANILA, THE MAYOR OF MANILA AND THE CITY OF MANILA, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 121704 - WILLIAM LINES, INC., NEGROS NAVIGATION CO., INC., LORENZO SHIPPING CORPORATION, CARLOS A. GOTHONG LINES, INC., ABOITIZ SHIPPING CORPORATION, ABOITIZ AIR TRANSPORT CORPORATION, ABOITIZ HAULERS, INC., AND SOLID SHIPPING LINES CORPORATION, Petitioners, v. REGIONAL TRIAL COURT OF MANILA, BRANCH 32, CITY OF MANILA, MAYOR ALFREDO LIM, VICE MAYOR LITO ATIENZA, SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD, AND CITY TREASURER ANTHONY ACEVEDO, Respondents.; G.R. NOS. 121720-28 - PNOC SHIPPING AND TRANSPORT CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. HON. JUAN T. NABONG, JR., PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT OF MANILA, BRANCH 32; THE CITY OF MANILA; MAYOR ALFREDO LIM; VICE MAYOR LITO ATIENZA; SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD, AND CITY TREASURER ANTHONY ACEVEDO, Respondents.; G.R. NOS. 121847-55 - MAERSK-FILIPINAS, INC., AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINES, SEA-LAND SERVICES, INC., OVERSEAS FREIGHTERS SHIPPING, INC., DONGNAMA SHIPPING CO., LTD., FLAGSHIP TANKERS, CORE INDO MARITIME CORP., CORE MARITIME CORP., AND EASTERN SHIPPING LINES, INC., Petitioners, v. CITY OF MANILA, HON. MAYOR ALFREDO S. LIM, HON. VICE MAYOR LITO ATIENZA, JR., SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD NG MAYNILA, AND CITY TREASURER ANTHONY Y. ACEBEDO AND THEIR AGENTS OR REPRESENTATIVES, AND HON. JUDGE JUAN C. NABONG, JR., BRANCH 32, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT OF MANILA, RESPONDENTS, WILLIAM LINES, INC., NEGROS NAVIGATION CO., INC., LORENZO SHIPPING CORPORATION, CARLOS A. GOTHONG LINES, INC., ABOITIZ SHIPPING CORPORATION, ABOITIZ AIR TRANSPORT CORPORATION, ABOITIZ HAULERS, INC., SOLID SHIPPING LINES CORPORATION AND PNOC SHIPPING & TRANSPORT CORPORATION, Intervenors.; G.R. NO. 122333 - COSCO CONTAINER LINES AND HEUNG-A SHIPPING CO., LTD., BOTH REPRESENTED BY THEIR RESIDENT AGENT, WALLEM PHILIPPINES SHIPPING, INC.; DSR SENATOR LINES, COMPANIA SUD AMERICANA DE VAPORES S.A., AND ARIMURA SANGYO COMPANY, LTD., ALL REPRESENTED BY THEIR RESIDENT AGENT, C.F. SHARP SHIPPING AGENCIES, INCORPORATED; PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL LINES (PTE) LTD. AND PACIFIC EAGLE LINES (PTE) LTD., BOTH REPRESENTED BY THEIR RESIDENT AGENT, TMS SHIP AGENCIES, INC.; COMPAGNIE MARITIME D’ AFFRETEMENT (CMA), REPRESENTED BY ITS RESIDENT AGENT, INCHCAPE SHIPPING SERVICES; EVERETT ORIENT LINES, INC., REPRESENTED BY ITS RESIDENT AGENT, EVERETT STEAMSHIP CORPORATION; YANGMING MARINE TRANSPORT CORP., REPRESENTED BY ITS RESIDENT AGENT, SKY INTERNATIONAL, INC.; NIPON YUSEN KAISHA, REPRESENTED BY ITS RESIDENT AGENT, FIL-JAPAN SHIPPING CORPORATION; HYUNDAI MERCHANT MARINE CO. LTD., REPRESENTED BY ITS RESIDENT AGENT, CITADEL LINES; MALAYSIAN INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING CORPORATION BERHAD, REPRESENTED BY ITS RESIDENT AGENT, ROYAL CARGO AGENCIES, INC.; BOLT ORIENT LINE, REPRESENTED BY ITS RESIDENT AGENT, FILSOV SHIPPING COMPANY, INC.; MITSUI-O.S.K. LINES, LTD., REPRESENTED BY ITS RESIDENT AGENT, MAGSAYSAY AGENCIES, INC.; PHILS., MICRONESIA & ORIENT NAVIGATION CO. (PMSO LINE), REPRESENTED BY ITS RESIDENT AGENT, VAN TRANSPORT COMPANY, INC.; LLOYD TRIESTINO DI NAVIGAZIONE S.P.A.N. AND COMPAGNIE GENERALE MARITIME, BOTH REPRESENTED BY THEIR RESIDENT AGENT, F.E. ZUELLIG (M), INC.; AND MADRIGAL-WAN HAI LINES, Petitioners, v. CITY OF MANILA, MAYOR ALFREDO LIM, VICE MAYOR LITO ATIENZA, SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD AND CITY TREASURER ANTHONY Y. ACEBEDO, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 122335 - SULPICIO LINES, INC., Petitioner, v. REGIONAL TRIAL COURT OF MANILA, BRANCH 32, CITY OF MANILA MAYOR ALFREDO LIM, VICE MAYOR LITO ATIENZA, SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD AND CITY TREASURER ANTHONY ACEVEDO, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 122349 - ASSOCIATION OF INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING LINES, INC., IN ITS OWN BEHALF AND IN REPRESENTATION OF ITS MEMBERS, Petitioner, v. CITY OF MANILA, MAYOR ALFREDO LIM, VICE MAYOR LITO ATIENZA, SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD AND CITY TREASURER ANTHONY ACEVEDO, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 124855 - DONGNAMA SHIPPING CO., LTD. AND KYOWA SHIPPING LTD. HEREIN REPRESENTED BY SKY INTERNATIONAL, INC., Petitioners, v. COURT OF APPEALS, CITY OF MANILA MAYOR ALFREDO LIM, VICE MAYOR LITO ATIENZA, CITY COUNCIL OF MANILA, AND CITY TREASURER ANTHONY ACEVEDO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 204944-45, December 03, 2014 - FUJI TELEVISION NETWORK, INC., Petitioner, v. ARLENE S. ESPIRITU, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 168612, December 10, 2014 - PHILIPPINE ELECTRIC CORPORATION (PHILEC), Petitioner, v. COURT OF APPEALS, NATIONAL CONCILIATION AND MEDIATION BOARD (NCMB), DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT, RAMON T. JIMENEZ, IN HIS CAPACITY AS VOLUNTARY ARBITRATOR, PHILEC WORKERS’ UNION (PWU), ELEODORO V. LIPIO, AND EMERLITO C. IGNACIO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 204926, December 03, 2014 - ANACLETO C. MANGASER, REPRESENTED BY HIS ATTORNEY-IN-FACT EUSTAQUIO DUGENIA, Petitioner, v. DIONISIO UGAY, Respondent.

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    G.R. No. 206768, December 03, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. LEONARDO CASTRODES, Accused-Appellant.

      G.R. No. 206768, December 03, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. LEONARDO CASTRODES, Accused-Appellant.

    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    FIRST DIVISION

    G.R. No. 206768, December 03, 2014

    PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. LEONARDO CASTRODES, Accused-Appellant.

    R E S O L U T I O N

    PEREZ, J.:

    There is no rule that rape is committed only in seclusion.1 A man’s carnality is not hindered by time or place—his prurient desire impels him to commit rape even in the most public of places.

    This is an appeal of the Decision2 of the Honorable Court of Appeals (CA) dated 31 May 2012 in CA-G.R. CEB-CR HC No. 00875, which affirmed the Decision3 of the Regional Trial Court (RTC) dated 26 July 2007, convicting accused-appellant Leonardo Castrodes alias “Adok” (Castrodes) for the crime of Rape (Crim. Case No. 00-731) in “People of the Philippines v. Leonardo Castrodes”.

    The Information

    That on or about the 17th day of April, (sic) 2000, in the municipality of San Miguel, province of Bohol, Philippines, and within the jurisdiction of this Honorable Court as a Family Court, the above-named accused with lewd designs and by means of force and intimidation, did then and there willfully, unlawfully and feloniously inserted his penis into the vagina of the victim, AAA,4 a 15 year old (sic) minor against her will and without her consent; to the damage and prejudice of the offended party.

    Acts committed contrary to the provision of Art. 335 of the Revised Penal Code as amended by Republic Act No. 7659.5

    We hereby adopt, by way of reference, the findings of facts of the appellate court, as integral part of this Resolution. The facts as presented by the CA are:

    The Facts According to the Prosecution

    At around ten o’clock in the morning of April 17, 2000, fifteen year (sic) old AAA was busy gathering firewood on (sic) the coconut plantation located just downhill from the house she shared with her aunt BBB and uncle CCC.

    Preoccupied with the chore at hand, she was surprised when her neighbor, accused-appellant Leonardo Castrodes suddenly appeared behind her and wrested from her the bolo she was then using to gather firewood.

    With the bolo in his hand, accused-appellant embraced and carried AAA to a spot underneath a coconut tree. Shocked, AAA could not do anything due to fear of being hacked by accused-appellant with the bolo.

    Accused-Appellant then started kissing AAA and caressing her breasts. Accused-Appellant then forced AAA to lie on the ground and then removed her shorts and panty. He also removed his own shorts and brief. With both of them naked waist down, accused-appellant Leonardo Castrodes then laid on top of AAA and attempted to insert his penis into her vagina.

    Feeling accused-appellant’s efforts penetrating her, AAA tried to evade from his advances by squirming underneath his hold. Yet, all her efforts were for naught, as she was not strong enough to free herself from him.

    When he finally was able to penetrate her, AAA felt pain and cried. After ravaging AAA, accused-appellant then stood up and put on his clothing. As he was towering over AAA, accused-appellant then threatened her that should she reveal to anyone what had happened, he will kill her and anyone she confided to.

    In her daze, AAA continued crying and slowly put on her clothes. She picked up the firewood she had previously gathered and returned home.

    AAA kept her silence about the ordeal she encountered with accused-appellant until the evening of April 26, 2000 when her uncle, [CCC], noticed her crying inside their house. Concerned as to what had happened to her, [CCC] asked AAA, why she was crying. AAA then told [CCC] what had transpired in the morning of April 17, 2000.

    The next day, BBB with AAA’s father reported the matter to the barangay officials in their village and had her examined by the Municipal Health Officer.

    Version of the Defense

    Accused-appellant Leonardo Castrodes for his part, however, interposes a different version of the story. To corroborate his defense, his first cousin, Jovenciano Castrodes took the witness stand to affirm his innocence.

    According to the defense, accused-appellant Leonardo Castrodes on the fateful day of April 17, 2000, was nowhere near the area where the alleged rape happened. As on that same day, at around 6:30 in the morning, accused-appellant, together with Jovenciano Castrodes, left the former’s house and walked towards the latter’s farm.

    After twenty minutes of walking, they finally arrived at the farm. They then started working around seven o’clock in the morning and only took a break from working to take their lunch and again resumed around 1:00 in the afternoon.

    They finished working around five o’clock in the afternoon. After the hard day’s toil in the farm, the pair returned to accused-appellant’s house together.

    Jovenciano Castrodes affirmed that he was physically beside his cousin the whole day and there was no moment that he could not see Leonardo.6

    Upon arraignment, Castrodes pleaded not guilty to the crime charged. During the presentation of evidence, the prosecution presented three (3) witnesses: (1) AAA; (2) Dr. Hamilcar Saniel; and (3) AAA’s uncle, CCC. On the other hand, the defense presented Castrodes and Jovencio Castrodes, Castrodes’ cousin, as witnesses.

    After trial, the RTC found Castrodes guilty beyond doubt of the crime of rape. The dispositive portion of the decision reads:

    WHEREFORE, finding the accused, LEONARDO CASTRODES guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of rape penalized under paragraph 1, Article 266-B of Republic Act 8353 amending Article 335 of the Revised Penal Code, the Court metes upon him the penalty of reclusion perpetua with all the accessory penalties of the law, with costs. The accused is further ordered to pay the offended party, AAA, the amount of P50,000.00 as civil indemnity and another P50,000.00 as moral damages.

    SO ORDERED.7

    On appeal, the CA affirmed with modification Castrodes’ conviction. The CA rejected Castrodes’ attempt to cast doubt on AAA’s credibility. According to the CA, “testimonies of rape victims who are young and immature deserve full credence, considering that no young woman, especially of tender age, would concoct a story of defloration, allow an examination of her private parts, and thereafter pervert herself by being subject to a public trial, if she was not motivated solely by the desire to obtain justice for the wrong committed against her.”8

    On AAA’s delay in reporting her ordeal, the CA ruled that delay in reporting the rape incident does not weaken the case for the prosecution. The CA opined that is not uncommon for a young girl to conceal assaults on her virtue.9

    With regard to Castrodes’ defense of alibi, the defense failed to prove that it was physically impossible for him to be at the crime scene at the time of the incident because the crime scene and the farm where Castrodes was allegedly working was only a twenty-minute walk from the scene of the crime.10

    The dispositive portion of the CA Decision reads:

    IN LIGHT OF ALL THE FOREGOING, the Court hereby AFFIRMS with MODIFICATION the assailed Decision dated July 26, 2007 of the Regional Trial Court, Branch 52, Talibon, Bohol in Criminal Case No. 00-731. The accused-appellant Leonardo Castrodes is found GUILTY of the crime of Rape and is hereby sentenced to suffer the penalty of reclusion perpetua. He is likewise ordered to indemnify AAA Php 50,000.00 as civil indemnity, Php 50,000.00 as moral damages, and Php 30,000.00 as exemplary damages, plus legal interest on all damages awarded at the rate of six percent (6%) from the date of the finality of this decision.

    SO ORDERED. 11

    The defense pointed to several circumstances and inconsistencies in the prosecution’s evidence, namely: (1) it was highly incredible for AAA to bring a bolo when she was just merely gathering firewood; (2) it was highly improbable that AAA was raped in broad daylight and in a very highly visible area surrounded by eight (8) houses; (3) AAA’s delay in reporting the incident, which showed the incredulity of AAA’s allegation; and (4) there were no vaginal lacerations found in AAA based on the Municipal Health Officer’s report.

    Our Ruling

    We repeat that there is no rule that rape is committed only in seclusion.12 Castrodes’ contention that it was highly improbable that he raped AAA in broad daylight and in a very visible area surrounded by eight (8) houses deserves scant consideration. A man’s carnality is not hindered by time or place—his prurient desire impels him to commit rape even in the most public of places.13

    Delay in reporting an incident of rape does not discredit the credibility of a victim. Human experience dictates that a rape victim, especially a young girl, who experienced sexual assault, is expected to conceal assaults on her virtue;14 this principle validates the social stigma a rape victim may suffer after she discloses her ordeal, especially in a conservative society such as ours. In effect, “the victim may choose to keep quiet rather than expose her defilement to the harsh glare of public scrutiny.”15 Therefore, AAA’s failure to immediately report the rape incident does not undermine her credibility as a witness.

    The defense alleged that it was highly improbable that there was a crime of rape because AAA suffered no vaginal lacerations based on the medical examination.16 We rule in the negative. Time and again, we have held that in prosecuting crimes of rape, the medical examination is dispensable.17 In fact, there could be a finding of rape even if the medical examination showed no vaginal laceration.18

    Castrodes’alibi that he was working in a farm when AAA was raped is not exculpatory because he failed to prove the physical impossibility of his presence at the scene of the crime at the time of the incident. As borne by the records, Castrodes was just twenty (20) minutes away from the crime scene. To merit credence, Castrodes must adduce clear and convincing evidence that he was in a place other than the situs criminis at the time when the crime was committed, such that it was physically impossible for him to have been at the scene of the crime when it was committed.19 Clearly, Castrodes failed to prove the fact vital to the credibility of the alibi.

    WHEREFORE, the Decision of the Honorable Court of Appeals dated 31 May 2012 in CA-G.R. CEB-CR HC No. 00875 finding accused-appellant LEONARDO CASTRODES guilty beyond reasonable doubt of rape is AFFIRMED in toto.

    SO ORDERED.

    Sereno, C.J., (Chairperson), Leonardo De-Castro, Bersamin, and Perlas-Bernabe, JJ., concur.

    Endnotes:


    1People v. Montinola, 567 Phil. 387, 402 (2008), citing People v. Abellera, 553 Phil. 307, 320 (2007).

    2 Penned by Associate Justice Pamela Ann Abella Maxino with Associate Justices Gabriel T. Ingles and Victoria Isabel A. Paredes, concurring; CA rollo, pp. 82-95.

    3 Penned by Presiding Judge Irma Zita V. Masamayor; records, pp. 158-168.

    4 Pursuant to Republic Act No. 7610 or the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act and its Implementing Rules, Republic Act No. 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and their Children Act of 2004 and its Implementing Rules, and Supreme Court Resolution dated 19 October 2004 in A.M. No. 04-10-11-SC or the Rule on Violence Against Women and their Children.

    5 Records, p. 29.

    6 CA rollo, pp. 84-86.

    7 Records, p. 168.

    8 CA rollo, p. 92.

    9 Id. at 93.

    10 Id. at 93-94.

    11 CA rollo, pp. 94-95.

    12People v. Montinola, supra note 1.

    13 People v. Lindo, G.R. No. 189818, 9 August 2010, 627 SCRA 519, 527.

    14People v. Mauro, 447 Phil. 207, 223 (2003).

    15People v. Ariola, 418 Phil. 808, 821 (2001).

    16 Exhibit “C-4”; records, p. 15,

    17People v. De los Reyes, 383 Phil. 801, 814 (2000).

    18 Id., citing People v. Sapurco, 315 Phil. 561, 572 (1995).

    19People v. Veloso, G.R. No. 188849, 13 February 2013, 690 SCRA 586, 597.

    G.R. No. 206768, December 03, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. LEONARDO CASTRODES, Accused-Appellant.


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