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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
January-2014 Jurisprudence                 

  • A.C. No. 10135, January 15, 2014 - EDGARDO AREOLA, Complainant, v. ATTY. MARIA VILMA MENDOZA, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 5581, January 14, 2014 - ROSE BUNAGAN-BANSIG, Complainant, v. ATTY. ROGELIO JUAN A. CELERA, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. P-12-3043, January 15, 2014 - (Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 08-2953-P] - ATTY. MARCOS R. SUNDIANG, Complainant, v. ERLITO DS. BACHO, Sheriff IV, Regional Trial Court, Branch 124, Caloocan City, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-14-2367, January 13, 2014 - (Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 12-3879-RTJ) - SR. REMY ANGELA JUNIO, SPC and JOSEPHINE D. LORICA, Complainants, v. JUDGE MARIVIC A. CACATIAN-BELTRAN, BRANCH 3, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT TUGUEGARAO CITY, CAGAYAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 160600, January 15, 2014 - DOMINGO GONZALO, Petitioner, v. JOHN TARNATE, JR., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 161106, January 13, 2014 - WORLDWIDE WEB CORPORATION and CHERRYLL L. YU, Petitioners, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES and PHILIPPINE LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE COMPANY, Respondents.; G.R. No. 161266 - PLANET INTERNET CORP.,Petitioner, v. PHILIPPINE LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE COMPANY, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 164246, January 15, 2014 - HERMINIA ACBANG, Petitioner, v. HON. JIMMY H.F. LUCZON, JR., PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 01, SECOND JUDICIAL REGION, TUGUEGARAO CITY, CAGAYAN, and SPOUSES MAXIMO LOPEZ and HEIDI L. LOPEZ, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 164985, January 15, 2014 - FIRST UNITED CONSTRUCTORS CORPORATION and BLUE STAR CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Petitioners, v. BAYANIHAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No 166995, January 13, 2014 - DENNIS T. VILLAREAL, Petitioner, v. CONSUELO C. ALIGA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No.172551, January 15, 2014 - LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. YATCO AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 176043, January 15, 2014 - SPOUSES BERNADETTE and RODULFO VILBAR, Petitioners, v. ANGELITO L. OPINION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 176439, January 15, 2014 - THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS, Petitioner, v. BTL CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Respondent.; G.R. No. 176718 - BTL CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION,Petitioner, v. THE PRESIDENT OF THE MANILA MISSION OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS and BPI-MS INSURANCE CORPORATION, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 178564, January 15, 2014 - INC. SHIPMANAGEMENT, INC., CAPTAIN SIGFREDO E. MONTERROYO AND/OR INTERORIENT NAVIGATION LIMITED, Petitioners, v. ALEXANDER L. MORADAS, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 178564, January 15, 2014 : CONCURRING AND DISSENTING OPINION - Brion, J. : INC. SHIPMANAGEMENT, INC., CAPTAIN SIGFREDO E. MONTERROYO AND/OR INTERORIENT NAVIGATION LIMITED, Petitioners, v. ALEXANDER L. MORADAS, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 183015, January 15, 2014 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, represented by THE SECRETARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS (DPWH), Petitioner, v. TETRO ENTERPRISES, INCORPORATED, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 183204, January 13, 2014 - THE METROPOLITAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY, Petitioner, v. ANA GRACE ROSALES AND YO YUK TO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 183860, January 15, 2014 - RODOLFO LABORTE and PHILIPPINE TOURISM AUTHORITY, Petitioners, v. PAGSANJAN TOURISM CONSUMERS COOPERATIVE and LELIZA S. FABRICIO, WILLIAM BASCO, FELICIANO BASCO, FREDIE BASCO, ROGER MORAL NIDA ABARQUEZ, FLORANTE MUNAR, MARY JAVIER, MARIANO PELAGIO ALEX EQUIZ, ALEX PELAGIO ARNOLD OBIEN, EDELMIRO ABAQUIN, ARCEDO MUNAR, LIBRADO MALIWANAG, OSCAR LIWAG, OSCAR ABARQUEZ, JOEL BALAGUER, LIZARDO MUNAR, ARMANDO PANCHACOLA, MANUEL SAYCO, EDWIN MATIBAG, ARNEL VILLAGRACIA, RODOLFO LERON, ALFONSO ABANILLA, SONNY LAVA, AND DENNIS BASCO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 183918, January 15, 2014 - FRANCISCO LIM, Petitioner, v. EQUITABLE PCI BANK, now known as the BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC.,* Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 185798, January 13, 2014 - FIL-ESTATE PROPERTIES, INC. AND FIL-ESTATE NETWORK INC., Petitioners, v. SPOUSES CONRADO AND MARIA VICTORIA RONQUILLO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 185922, January 15, 2014 - HEIRS OF DR. MARIANO FAVIS SR. represented by their co-heirs and Attorneys-in-Fact MERCEDES A. FAVIS and NELLY FAVIS- VILLAFUERTE, Petitioners, v. JUANA GONZALES, her son MARIANO G. FAVIS, MA. THERESA JOANA D. FAVIS, JAMES MARK D. FAVIS, all minors represented herein by their parents SPS. MARIANO FAVIS and LARCELITA D. FAVIS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 186063, January 15, 2014 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK, Petitioner, v. SAN MIGUEL CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 190106, January 15, 2014 - MAGDALENA T. VILLASI, Petitioner, v. FILOMENO GARCIA, substituted by his heirs, namely, ERMELINDA H. GARCIA, LIZA GARCIA-GONZALEZ, THERESA GARCIA-TIANGSON, MARIVIC H. GARCIA, MARLENE GARCIA-MOMIN, GERARDO H. GARCIA, GIDEON H. GARCIA and GENEROSO H. GARCIA, and ERMELINDA H. GARCIA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 190928, January 13, 2014 - TEAM ENERGY CORPORATION (formerly MIRANT PAGBILAO CORP.), Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 191498, January 15, 2014 - COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Petitioner, v. MINDANAO II GEOTHERMAL PARTNERSHIP, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 191555, January 20, 2014 - UNION BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. DEVELOPMENT BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 192034, January 13, 2014 - ALPHA SHIP MANAGEMENT CORPORATION/JUNEL M CHAN and/or CHUO-KAIUN COMPANY, LIMITED, Petitioners, v. ELEOSIS V. CALO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 192371, January 15, 2014 - LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. EMMANUEL OÑATE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 193517, January 15, 2014 - THE HEIRS OF VICTORINO SARILI, NAMELY: ISABEL A. SARILI,* MELENCIA** S. MAXIMO, ALBERTO A. SARILI, IMELDA S. HIDALGO, all herein represented by CELSO A. SARILI, Petitioners, v. PEDRO F. LAGROSA, represented in this act by his Attorney-in-Fact LOURDES LABIOS MOJICA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 193986, January 15, 2014 - EASTERN SHIPPING LINES INC., Petitioner, v. BPI/MS INSURANCE CORP. and MITSUI SUM TOMO INSURANCE CO. LTD., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 195064, January 15, 2014 - NARI K. GIDWANI, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 196047, January 15, 2014 - LEPANTO CONSOLIDATED MINING CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. BELIO ICAO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 196156, January 15, 2014 - VISAYAS COMMUNITY MEDICAL CENTER (VCMC), Formerly known as METRO CEBU COMMUNITY HOSPITAL (MCCH), Petitioner, v. ERMA YBALLE, NELIA ANGEL, ELEUTERIA CORTEZ and EVELYN ONG, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 196171, January 15, 2014 - RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC. (now BDO UNIBANK, INC.), Respondent.; G.R. No. 199238 - BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC., Petitioner, v. COURT OF APPEALS and RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION, Respondents.; G.R. No. 200213 - BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC., Petitioner, v. RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION and THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL IN ICC ARBITRATION REF. NO. 13290/MS/JEM AND/OR RICHARD IAN BARKER, NEIL KAPLAN AND SANTIAGO KAPUNAN, in their official capacity as Members of THE ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 197760, January 13, 2014 - TEAM ENERGY CORPORATION (Formerly MIRANT PAGBILAO CORPORATION), Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. Nos. 198729-30, January 15, 2014 - CBK POWER COMPANY LIMITED, Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 199226, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. ROEL VERGARA y CLAVERO, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 200304, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. DONALD VASQUEZ y SANDIGAN @ "DON," Accused-Appellant,

  • G.R. No. 201092, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JOEL AQUINO y CENDANA @ "AKONG," Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 203028, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JOSELITO BERAN y ZAPANTA @ "Jose", Accused-Appellant.

  • UDK No. 14817, January 13, 2014 - IN THE MATTER OF THE PETITION FOR HABEAS CORPUS OF MINOR SHANG KO VINGSON YU SHIRLY [email protected] SHIRLY VINGSON DEMAISIP, Petitioner, v. JOVY CABCABAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 188747, January 29, 2014 - MANILA WATER COMPANY, Petitioner, v. CARLITO DEL ROSARIO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 191189, January 29, 2014 - MANLAR RICE MILL, INC., Petitioner, v. LOURDES L. DEYTO, DOING BUSINESS UNDER THE TRADE NAME “J.D. GRAINS CENTER” AND JENNELITA DEYTO ANG, A.K.A. “JANET ANG,” Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 188653, January 29, 2014 - LITO LOPEZ, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 178184, January 29, 2014 - GRAND ASIAN SHIPPING LINES, INC., EDUARDO P. FRANCISCO AND WILLIAM HOW, Petitioners, v. WILFREDO GALVEZ, JOEL SALES, CRISTITO GRUTA, DANILO ARGUELLES, RENATO BATAYOLA, PATRICIO FRESMILLO,* JOVY NOBLE, EMILIO DOMINICO, BENNY NILMAO, AND JOSE AUSTRAL, Respondents.

  • A.M. No. P–13–3171 (formerly A.M. OCA IPI No. 11–11–116–MeTC), January 28, 2014 - RE: HABITUAL TARDINESS OF CESAR E. SALES, CASH CLERK III, METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT, OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, MANILA.

  • G.R. No. 179367, January 29, 2014 - UNILEVER PHILIPPINES, INC., Petitioner, v. MICHAEL TAN A.K.A. PAUL D. TAN, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 9872, January 28, 2014 - NATIVIDAD P. NAVARRO AND HILDA S. PRESBITERO, Complainants, v. ATTY. IVAN M. SOLIDUM, JR., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 159926, January 20, 2014 - PINAUSUKAN SEAFOOD HOUSE, ROXAS BOULEVARD, INC., Petitioner, v. FAR EAST BANK & TRUST COMPANY, NOW BANK OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND HECTOR IL. GALURA, Respondents.

  • A.M. No. P–12–3069, January 20, 2014 - ATTY. VIRGILIO P. ALCONERA, Complainant, v. ALFREDO T. PALLANAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 202122, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff–Appellee, v. BERNABE PAREJA Y CRUZ, Accused–Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 189618, January 15, 2014 - RIVELISA REALTY, INC., REPRESENTED BY RICARDO P. VENTURINA, Petitioner, v. FIRST STA. CLARA BUILDERS CORPORATION, REPRESENTED BY RAMON A. PANGILINAN, AS PRESIDENT, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 186439, January 15, 2014 - UNIVERSAL ROBINA SUGAR MILLING CORPORATION AND RENE CABATI, Petitioners, v. FERDINAND ACIBO, ROBERTO AGUILAR, EDDIE BALDOZA, RENE ABELLAR, DIOMEDES ALICOS, MIGUEL ALICOS, ROGELIO AMAHIT, LARRY AMASCO, FELIPE BALANSAG, ROMEO BALANSAG, MANUEL BANGOT, ANDY BANJAO, DIONISIO BENDIJO, JR., JOVENTINO BROCE, ENRICO LITERAL, RODGER RAMIREZ, BIENVENIDO RODRIGUEZ, DIOCITO PALAGTIW, ERNIE SABLAN, RICHARD PANCHO, RODRIGO ESTRABELA, DANNY KADUSALE AND ALLYROBYL OLPUS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 196435, January 29, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff?Appellee, v. JOEL CRISOSTOMO Y MALLIAR, Accused?Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 185922, January 15, 2014 - HEIRS OF DR. MARIANO FAVIS, SR., REPRESENTED BY THEIR CO?HEIRS AND ATTORNEYS?IN?FACT MERCEDES A. FAVIS AND NELLY FAVIS?VILLAFUERTE, Petitioners, v. JUANA GONZALES, HER SON MARIANO G. FAVIS, MA. THERESA JOANA D. FAVIS, JAMES MARK D. FAVIS, ALL MINORS REPRESENTED HEREIN BY THEIR PARENTS, SPS. MARIANO FAVIS AND LARCELITA D. FAVIS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 161308, January 15, 2014 - RICARDO MEDINA, JR. Y ORIEL, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 201156, January 29, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff–Appellee, v. JOSELITO MORATE Y TARNATE, Accused–Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 186622, January 22, 2014 - PEBLIA ALFARO AND THE HEIRS OF PROSPEROUS ALFARO, NAMELY: MARY ANN PEARL ALFARO & ROUSLIA ALFARO, Petitioners, v. SPOUSES EDITHO AND HERA DUMALAGAN, SPOUSES CRISPIN AND EDITHA DALOGDOG, ET. AL., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 156407, January 15, 2014 - THELMA M. ARANAS, Petitioner, v. TERESITA V. MERCADO, FELIMON V. MERCADO, CARMENCITA M. SUTHERLAND, RICHARD V. MERCADO, MA. TERESITA M. ANDERSON, AND FRANKLIN L. MERCADO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 173188, January 15, 2014 - THE CONJUGAL PARTNERSHIP OF THE SPOUSES VICENTE CADAVEDO AND BENITA ARCOY-CADAVEDO (BOTH DECEASED), SUBSTITUTED BY THEIR HEIRS, NAMELY: HERMINIA, PASTORA, HEIRS OF FRUCTUOSA, HEIRS OF RAQUEL, EVANGELINE, VICENTE, JR., AND ARMANDO, ALL SURNAMED CADAVEDO, Petitioners, v. VICTORINO (VIC) T. LACAYA, MARRIED TO ROSA LEGADOS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 178564, January 15, 2014 - INC SHIPMANAGEMENT, INC., CAPTAIN SIGFREDO E. MONTERROYO AND/OR INTERORIENT NAVIGATION LIMITED, Petitioners, v. ALEXANDER L. MORADAS, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 176043, January 15, 2014 - SPOUSES BERNADETTE AND RODULFO VILBAR, Petitioners, v. ANGELITO L. OPINION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 164985, January 15, 2014 - FIRST UNITED CONSTRUCTORS CORPORATION AND BLUE STAR CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Petitioners, v. BAYANIHAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 194612, January 27, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. FLORO MANIGO Y MACALUA, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 164246, January 15, 2014 - HERMINIA ACBANG, Petitioner, v. HON. JIMMY H.F. LUCZON, JR., PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 01, SECOND JUDICIAL REGION, TUGUEGARAO CITY, CAGAYAN, AND SPOUSES MAXIMO LOPEZ AND HEIDI L. LOPEZ, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 192479, January 27, 2014 - DIONES BELZA, Petitioner, v. DANILO T. CANONERO, ANTONIO N. ESQUIVEL AND CEZAR I. BELZA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 201860, January 22, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. MARCELINO DADAO, ANTONIO SULINDAO, EDDIE MALOGSI (DECEASED) AND ALFEMIO MALOGSI,* Accused-Appellants.

  • G.R. No. 163753, January 15, 2014 - DR. ENCARNACION C. LUMANTAS, M.D., Petitioner, v. HANZ CALAPIZ, REPRESENTED BY HIS PARENTS, HILARIO CALAPIZ, JR. AND HERLITA CALAPIZ, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 200804, January 22, 2014 - A.L. ANG NETWORK, INC., Petitioner, v. EMMA MONDEJAR, ACCOMPANIED BY HER HUSBAND, EFREN MONDEJAR, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 162365, January 15, 2014 - ROBERTO R. DAVID, Petitioner, v. EDUARDO C. DAVID, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 198804, January 22, 2014 - CARLITO VALENCIA Y CANDELARIA, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 160758, January 15, 2014 - DEVELOPMENT BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. GUARIÑA AGRICULTURAL AND REALTY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 160600, January 15, 2014 - DOMINGO GONZALO, Petitioner, v. JOHN TARNATE, JR., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 184045, January 22, 2014 - SPOUSES NICASIO C. MARQUEZ AND ANITA J. MARQUEZ, Petitioners, v. SPOUSES CARLITO ALINDOG AND CARMEN ALINDOG, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 173540, January 22, 2014 - PEREGRINA MACUA VDA. DE AVENIDO, Petitioner, v. TECLA HOYBIA AVENIDO, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 10135, January 15, 2014 - EDGARDO AREOLA, Complainant, v. ATTY. MARIA VILMA MENDOZA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 170701, January 22, 2014 - RALPH P. TUA, Petitioner, v. HON. CESAR A. MANGROBANG, PRESIDING JUDGE, BRANCH 22, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, IMUS, CAVITE; AND ROSSANA HONRADO-TUA, Respondents.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-11-2287 (Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 11-3640-RTJ), January 22, 2014 - OFFICE OF THE COURT ADMINISTRATOR, Complainant, v. HON. CADER P. INDAR, AL HAJ, PRESIDING JUDGE AND ABDULRAHMAN D. PIANG, PROCESS SERVER, BRANCH 14, BOTH OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 14, COTABATO CITY, Respondents.

  • A.M. No. P-12-3043 [Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 08-2953-P], January 15, 2014 - ATTY. MARCOS R. SUNDIANG, Complainant, v. ERLITO DS. BACHO, SHERIFF IV, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 124, CALOOCAN CITY, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. P-08-2574 (Formerly A.M. OCA IPI No. 08-2748-P), January 22, 2014 - RAUL K. SAN BUENAVENTURA, Complainant, v. TIMOTEO A. MIGRIÑO, CLERK OF COURT III, METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 69, PASIG CITY, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 8644 [Formerly CBD Case No. 11-2908], January 22, 2014 - AIDA R. CAMPOS, ALISTAIR R. CAMPOS AND CHARMAINE R. CAMPOS, Complainants, v. ATTY. ELISEO M. CAMPOS, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 5581, January 14, 2014 - ROSE BUNAGAN-BANSIG, Complainant, v. ATTY. ROGELIO JUAN A. CELERA, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. P-13-3141 [Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 08-2875-P], January 21, 2014 - ATTY. RHEA R. ALCANTARA-AQUINO, Complainant, v. MYLENE H. DELA CRUZ, CLERK III, OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, SANTA CRUZ, LAGUNA, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. P-05-2051, January 21, 2014 - OFFICE OF THE COURT ADMINISTRATOR, Complainant, v. ATTY. MONA LISA A. BUENCAMINO, CLERK OF COURT IV, DAVID E. MANIQUIS, CLERK OF COURT III, AND CIELITO M. MAPUE, SHERIFF III, ALL OF THE OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT, CALOOCAN CITY, Respondents.; A.M. No. 05-4-118-MeTC - RE: REPORT ON THE FINANCIAL AUDIT CONDUCTED IN THE METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT, OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, CALOOCAN CITY

  • G.R. No. 197760, January 13, 2014 - TEAM ENERGY CORPORATION (FORMERLY MIRANT PAGBILAO CORPORATION), Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 191555, January 20, 2014 - UNION BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. DEVELOPMENT BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 183880, January 20, 2014 - COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Petitioner, v. TOLEDO POWER, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 180972, January 20, 2014 - JONAS MICHAEL R. GARZA, Petitioner, v. COCA-COLA BOTTLERS PEREZ, AND PHILIPPINES, INC. CHRISTINE BANAL/ CALIXTO MANAIG, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 192034, January 13, 2014 - ALPHA SHIP MANAGEMENT CORPORATION/JUNEL M. CHAN AND/OR CHUO-KAIUN COMPANY, LIMITED, Petitioners, v. ELEOSIS V. CALO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 176439, January 15, 2014 - THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS, Petitioner, v. BTL CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, RESPONDENT.; G.R. No. 176718 - BTL CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. THE PRESIDENT OF THE MANILA MISSION OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS AND BPI-MS INSURANCE CORPORATION, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 185798, January 13, 2014 - FIL-ESTATE PROPERTIES, INC. AND FIL-ESTATE NETWORK, INC., Petitioners, v. SPOUSES CONRADO AND MARIA VICTORIA RONQUILLO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 190928, January 13, 2014 - TEAM ENERGY CORPORATION (FORMERLY MIRANT PAGBILAO CORP.), Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 201011, January 27, 2014 - THERESITA, JUAN, ASUNCION, PATROCINIA, RICARDO, AND GLORIA, ALL SURNAMED DIMAGUILA, Petitioners, v. JOSE AND SONIA A. MONTEIRO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 187973, January 20, 2014 - LZK HOLDINGS AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. PLANTERS DEVELOPMENT BANK, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 196231, January 28, 2014 - EMILIO A. GONZALES III, Petitioner, v. OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES, ACTING THROUGH AND REPRESENTED BY EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PAQUITO N. OCHOA, JR., SENIOR DEPUTY EXECUTIVE SECRETARY JOSE AMOR M. AMORANDO, OFFICER-IN-CHARGE - OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY EXECUTIVE SECRETARY FOR LEGAL AFFAIRS, ATTY. RONALDO A. GERON, DIR. ROWENA TURINGAN-SANCHEZ, AND ATTY. CARLITO D. CATAYONG, Respondents.; G.R. No. 196232 - WENDELL BARRERAS-SULIT, Petitioner, v. ATTY. PAQUITO N. OCHOA, JR., IN HIS CAPACITY AS EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT, ATTY. DENNIS F. ORTIZ, ATTY. CARLO D. SULAY AND ATTY. FROILAN D. MONTALBAN, JR., IN THEIR CAPACITIES AS CHAIRMAN AND MEMBERS OF OFFICE OF MALACAÑANG LEGAL AFFAIRS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 200304, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. DONALD VASQUEZ Y SANDIGAN @ “DON,” Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 201092, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JOEL AQUINO Y CENDANA @ “AKONG,” Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 199226, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. ROEL VERGARA Y CLAVERO, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 196171, January 15, 2014 - RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC. (NOW BDO UNIBANK, INC.), Respondent.; G.R. NO. 199238 - BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC., Petitioner, v. COURT OF APPEALS AND RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 200213 - BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC., Petitioner, v. RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION AND THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL IN ICC ARBITRATION REF. NO. 13290/MS/JEM AND/OR RICHARD IAN BARKER, NEIL KAPLAN AND SANTIAGO KAPUNAN, IN THEIR OFFICIAL CAPACITY AS MEMBERS OF THE ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL, Respondents.

  • G.R. Nos. 198729-30, January 15, 2014 - CBK POWER COMPANY LIMITED, Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 196156, January 15, 2014 - VISAYAS COMMUNITY MEDICAL CENTER (VCMC), FORMERLY KNOWN AS METRO CEBU COMMUNITY HOSPITAL (MCCH), Petitioner, v. ERMA YBALLE, NELIA ANGEL, ELEUTERIA CORTEZ AND EVELYN ONG, Respondents.

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    G.R. No. 185798, January 13, 2014 - FIL-ESTATE PROPERTIES, INC. AND FIL-ESTATE NETWORK INC., Petitioners, v. SPOUSES CONRADO AND MARIA VICTORIA RONQUILLO, Respondents.

      G.R. No. 185798, January 13, 2014 - FIL-ESTATE PROPERTIES, INC. AND FIL-ESTATE NETWORK INC., Petitioners, v. SPOUSES CONRADO AND MARIA VICTORIA RONQUILLO, Respondents.

    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    SECOND DIVISION

    G.R. No. 185798, January 13, 2014

    FIL-ESTATE PROPERTIES, INC. AND FIL-ESTATE NETWORK INC., Petitioners, v. SPOUSES CONRADO AND MARIA VICTORIA RONQUILLO, Respondents.

    D E C I S I O N

    PEREZ, J.:

    Before the Court is a petition for review on certiorari under Rule 45 of the 1997 Rules .of Civil Procedure assailing the Decision1 of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. SP No. 100450 which affirmed the Decision of the Office of the President in O.P. Case No. 06-F-216.

    As culled from the records, the facts are as follow:

    Petitioner Fil-Estate Properties, Inc. is the owner and developer of the Central Park Place Tower while co-petitioner Fil-Estate Network, Inc. is its authorized marketing agent. Respondent Spouses Conrado and Maria Victoria Ronquillo purchased from petitioners an 82-square meter condominium unit at Central Park Place Tower in Mandaluyong City for a pre-selling contract price of FIVE MILLION ONE HUNDRED SEVENTY-FOUR THOUSAND ONLY (P5,174,000.00). On 29 August 1997, respondents executed and signed a Reservation Application Agreement wherein they deposited P200,000.00 as reservation fee. As agreed upon, respondents paid the full downpayment of P1,552,200.00 and had been paying the P63,363.33 monthly amortizations until September 1998.

    Upon learning that construction works had stopped, respondents likewise stopped paying their monthly amortization. Claiming to have paid a total of P2,198,949.96 to petitioners, respondents through two (2) successive letters, demanded a full refund of their payment with interest. When their demands went unheeded, respondents were constrained to file a Complaint for Refund and Damages before the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB). Respondents prayed for reimbursement/refund of P2,198,949.96 representing the total amortization payments, P200,000.00 as and by way of moral damages, attorney’s fees and other litigation expenses.

    On 21 October 2000, the HLURB issued an Order of Default against petitioners for failing to file their Answer within the reglementary period despite service of summons.2

    Petitioners filed a motion to lift order of default and attached their position paper attributing the delay in construction to the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Petitioners denied committing fraud or misrepresentation which could entitle respondents to an award of moral damages.

    On 13 June 2002, the HLURB, through Arbiter Atty. Joselito F. Melchor, rendered judgment ordering petitioners to jointly and severally pay respondents the following amount:

    a) The amount of TWO MILLION ONE HUNDRED NINETY-EIGHT THOUSAND NINE HUNDRED FORTY NINE PESOS & 96/100 (P2,198,949.96) with interest thereon at twelve percent (12%) per annum to be computed from the time of the complainants’ demand for refund on October 08, 1998 until fully paid,

    b) ONE HUNDRED THOUSAND PESOS (P100,000.00) as moral damages,

    c) FIFTY THOUSAND PESOS (P50,000.00) as attorney’s fees,

    d) The costs of suit, and

    e) An administrative fine of TEN THOUSAND PESOS (P10,000.00) payable to this Office fifteen (15) days upon receipt of this decision, for violation of Section 20 in relation to Section 38 of PD 957.3

    The Arbiter considered petitioners’ failure to develop the condominium project as a substantial breach of their obligation which entitles respondents to seek for rescission with payment of damages. The Arbiter also stated that mere economic hardship is not an excuse for contractual and legal delay.

    Petitioners appealed the Arbiter’s Decision through a petition for review pursuant to Rule XII of the 1996 Rules of Procedure of HLURB. On 17 February 2005, the Board of Commissioners of the HLURB denied4 the petition and affirmed the Arbiter’s Decision. The HLURB reiterated that the depreciation of the peso as a result of the Asian financial crisis is not a fortuitous event which will exempt petitioners from the performance of their contractual obligation.

    Petitioners filed a motion for reconsideration but it was denied5 on 8 May 2006. Thereafter, petitioners filed a Notice of Appeal with the Office of the President. On 18 April 2007, petitioners’ appeal was dismissed6 by the Office of the President for lack of merit. Petitioners moved for a reconsideration but their motion was denied7 on 26 July 2007.

    Petitioners sought relief from the Court of Appeals through a petition for review under Rule 43 containing the same arguments they raised before the HLURB and the Office of the President:

    I.

    THE HONORABLE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT ERRED IN AFFIRMING THE DECISION OF THE HONORABLE HOUSING AND LAND USE REGULATORY BOARD AND ORDERING PETITIONERS-APPELLANTS TO REFUND RESPONDENTS-APPELLEES THE SUM OF P2,198,949.96 WITH 12% INTEREST FROM 8 OCTOBER 1998 UNTIL FULLY PAID, CONSIDERING THAT THE COMPLAINT STATES NO CAUSE OF ACTION AGAINST PETITIONERS-APPELLANTS.

    II.

    THE HONORABLE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT ERRED IN AFFIRMING THE DECISION OF THE OFFICE BELOW ORDERING PETITIONERS-APPELLANTS TO PAY RESPONDENTS-APPELLEES THE SUM OF P100,000.00 AS MORAL DAMAGES AND P50,000.00 AS ATTORNEY’S FEES CONSIDERING THE ABSENCE OF ANY FACTUAL OR LEGAL BASIS THEREFOR.

    III.

    THE HONORABLE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT ERRED IN AFFIRMING THE DECISION OF THE HOUSING AND LAND USE REGULATORY BOARD ORDERING PETITIONERS-APPELLANTS TO PAY P10,000.00 AS ADMINISTRATIVE FINE IN THE ABSENCE OF ANY FACTUAL OR LEGAL BASIS TO SUPPORT SUCH FINDING.8

    On 30 July 2008, the Court of Appeals denied the petition for review for lack of merit. The appellate court echoed the HLURB Arbiter’s ruling that "a buyer for a condominium/subdivision unit/lot unit which has not been developed in accordance with the approved condominium/subdivision plan within the time limit for complying with said developmental requirement may opt for reimbursement under Section 20 in relation to Section 23 of Presidential Decree (P.D.) 957 x x x."9 The appellate court supported the HLURB Arbiter’s conclusion, which was affirmed by the HLURB Board of Commission and the Office of the President, that petitioners’ failure to develop the condominium project is tantamount to a substantial breach which warrants a refund of the total amount paid, including interest. The appellate court pointed out that petitioners failed to prove that the Asian financial crisis constitutes a fortuitous event which could excuse them from the performance of their contractual and statutory obligations. The appellate court also affirmed the award of moral damages in light of petitioners’ unjustified refusal to satisfy respondents’ claim and the legality of the administrative fine, as provided in Section 20 of Presidential Decree No. 957.

    Petitioners sought reconsideration but it was denied in a Resolution10 dated 11 December 2008 by the Court of Appeals.

    Aggrieved, petitioners filed the instant petition advancing substantially the same grounds for review:

    A.

    THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS ERRED WHEN IT AFFIRMED IN TOTO THE DECISION OF THE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT WHICH SUSTAINED RESCISSION AND REFUND IN FAVOR OF THE RESPONDENTS DESPITE LACK OF CAUSE OF ACTION.

    B.

    GRANTING FOR THE SAKE OF ARGUMENT THAT THE PETITIONERS ARE LIABLE UNDER THE PREMISES, THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS ERRED WHEN IT AFFIRMED THE HUGE AMOUNT OF INTEREST OF TWELVE PERCENT (12%).

    C.

    THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS LIKEWISE ERRED WHEN IT AFFIRMED IN TOTO THE DECISION OF THE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INCLUDING THE PAYMENT OF P100,000.00 AS MORAL DAMAGES, P50,000.00 AS ATTORNEY’S FEES AND P10,000.00 AS ADMINISTRATIVE FINE IN THE ABSENCE OF ANY FACTUAL OR LEGAL BASIS TO SUPPORT SUCH CONCLUSIONS.11

    Petitioners insist that the complaint states no cause of action because they allegedly have not committed any act of misrepresentation amounting to bad faith which could entitle respondents to a refund. Petitioners claim that there was a mere delay in the completion of the project and that they only resorted to "suspension and reformatting as a testament to their commitment to their buyers." Petitioners attribute the delay to the 1997 Asian financial crisis that befell the real estate industry. Invoking Article 1174 of the New Civil Code, petitioners maintain that they cannot be held liable for a fortuitous event.

    Petitioners contest the payment of a huge amount of interest on account of suspension of development on a project. They liken their situation to a bank which this Court, in Overseas Bank v. Court of Appeals,12 adjudged as not liable to pay interest on deposits during the period that its operations are ordered suspended by the Monetary Board of the Central Bank.

    Lastly, petitioners aver that they should not be ordered to pay moral damages because they never intended to cause delay, and again blamed the Asian economic crisis as the direct, proximate and only cause of their failure to complete the project. Petitioners submit that moral damages should not be awarded unless so stipulated except under the instances enumerated in Article 2208 of the New Civil Code. Lastly, petitioners refuse to pay the administrative fine because the delay in the project was caused not by their own deceptive intent to defraud their buyers, but due to unforeseen circumstances beyond their control.

    Three issues are presented for our resolution: 1) whether or not the Asian financial crisis constitute a fortuitous event which would justify delay by petitioners in the performance of their contractual obligation; 2) assuming that petitioners are liable, whether or not 12% interest was correctly imposed on the judgment award, and 3) whether the award of moral damages, attorney’s fees and administrative fine was proper.

    It is apparent that these issues were repeatedly raised by petitioners in all the legal fora. The rulings were consistent that first, the Asian financial crisis is not a fortuitous event that would excuse petitioners from performing their contractual obligation; second, as a result of the breach committed by petitioners, respondents are entitled to rescind the contract and to be refunded the amount of amortizations paid including interest and damages; and third, petitioners are likewise obligated to pay attorney’s fees and the administrative fine.

    This petition did not present any justification for us to deviate from the rulings of the HLURB, the Office of the President and the Court of Appeals.

    Indeed, the non-performance of petitioners’ obligation entitles respondents to rescission under Article 1191 of the New Civil Code which states:

    Article 1191. The power to rescind obligations is implied in reciprocal ones, in case one of the obligors should not comply with what is incumbent upon him.

    The injured party may choose between the fulfillment and the rescission of the obligation, with payment of damages in either case. He may also seek rescission, even after he has chosen fulfillment, if the latter should become impossible.

    More in point is Section 23 of Presidential Decree No. 957, the rule governing the sale of condominiums, which provides:

    Section 23. Non-Forfeiture of Payments. No installment payment made by a buyer in a subdivision or condominium project for the lot or unit he contracted to buy shall be forfeited in favor of the owner or developer when the buyer, after due notice to the owner or developer, desists from further payment due to the failure of the owner or developer to develop the subdivision or condominium project according to the approved plans and within the time limit for complying with the same. Such buyer may, at his option, be reimbursed the total amount paid including amortization interests but excluding delinquency interests, with interest thereon at the legal rate. (Emphasis supplied).

    Conformably with these provisions of law, respondents are entitled to rescind the contract and demand reimbursement for the payments they had made to petitioners.

    Notably, the issues had already been settled by the Court in the case of Fil-Estate Properties, Inc. v. Spouses Go13 promulgated on 17 August 2007, where the Court stated that the Asian financial crisis is not an instance of caso fortuito. Bearing the same factual milieu as the instant case, G.R. No. 165164 involves the same company, Fil-Estate, albeit about a different condominium property. The company likewise reneged on its obligation to respondents therein by failing to develop the condominium project despite substantial payment of the contract price. Fil-Estate advanced the same argument that the 1997 Asian financial crisis is a fortuitous event which justifies the delay of the construction project. First off, the Court classified the issue as a question of fact which may not be raised in a petition for review considering that there was no variance in the factual findings of the HLURB, the Office of the President and the Court of Appeals. Second, the Court cited the previous rulings of Asian Construction and Development Corporation v. Philippine Commercial International Bank14 and Mondragon Leisure and Resorts Corporation v. Court of Appeals15 holding that the 1997 Asian financial crisis did not constitute a valid justification to renege on obligations. The Court expounded:

    Also, we cannot generalize that the Asian financial crisis in 1997 was unforeseeable and beyond the control of a business corporation. It is unfortunate that petitioner apparently met with considerable difficulty e.g. increase cost of materials and labor, even before the scheduled commencement of its real estate project as early as 1995. However, a real estate enterprise engaged in the pre-selling of condominium units is concededly a master in projections on commodities and currency movements and business risks. The fluctuating movement of the Philippine peso in the foreign exchange market is an everyday occurrence, and fluctuations in currency exchange rates happen everyday, thus, not an instance of caso fortuito.16

    The aforementioned decision becomes a precedent to future cases in which the facts are substantially the same, as in this case. The principle of stare decisis, which means adherence to judicial precedents, applies.

    In said case, the Court ordered the refund of the total amortizations paid by respondents plus 6% legal interest computed from the date of demand. The Court also awarded attorney’s fees. We follow that ruling in the case before us.

    The resulting modification of the award of legal interest is, also, in line with our recent ruling in Nacar v. Gallery Frames,17 embodying the amendment introduced by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Monetary Board in BSP-MB Circular No. 799 which pegged the interest rate at 6% regardless of the source of obligation.

    We likewise affirm the award of attorney’s fees because respondents were forced to litigate for 14 years and incur expenses to protect their rights and interest by reason of the unjustified act on the part of petitioners.18 The imposition of P10,000.00 administrative fine is correct pursuant to Section 38 of Presidential Decree No. 957 which reads:

    Section 38. Administrative Fines. The Authority may prescribe and impose fines not exceeding ten thousand pesos for violations of the provisions of this Decree or of any rule or regulation thereunder. Fines shall be payable to the Authority and enforceable through writs of execution in accordance with the provisions of the Rules of Court.

    Finally, we sustain the award of moral damages. In order that moral damages may be awarded in breach of contract cases, the defendant must have acted in bad faith, must be found guilty of gross negligence amounting to bad faith, or must have acted in wanton disregard of contractual obligations.19 The Arbiter found petitioners to have acted in bad faith when they breached their contract, when they failed to address respondents’ grievances and when they adamantly refused to refund respondents' payment.

    In fine, we find no reversible error on the merits in the impugned Court of Appeals' Decision and Resolution.

    WHEREFORE, the petition is PARTLY GRANTED. The appealed Decision is AFFIRMED with the MODIFICATION that the legal interest to be paid is SIX PERCENT (6%) on the amount due computed from the time of respondents' demand for refund on 8 October 1998.

    SO ORDERED.

    JOSE PORTUGAL PEREZ
    Associate Justice

    WE CONCUR:

    ANTONIO T. CARPIO
    Associate Justice
    Chairperson

    ARTURO D. BRION
    Associate Justice
    MARIANO C. DEL CASTILLO
    Associate Justice

    ESTELA M. PERLAS-BERNABE
    Associate Justice

    A T T E S T A T I O N

    I attest that the conclusions in the above Decision had been reached in consultation before the case was assigned to the writer of the opinion of the Court’s Division.

    ANTONIO T. CARPIO
    Associate Justice
    Second Division, Chairperson

    C E R T I F I C A T I O N

    Pursuant to Section 13, Article VIII of the Constitution and the Division Chairperson s Attestation, I certify that the conclusions in the above Decision had been reached in consultation before the case was assigned to the writer of the opinion of the Court’s Division.

    MARIA LOURDES P. A. SERENO
    Chief Justice




    Endnotes:


    1 Penned by Associate Justice Arturo G. Tayag with Associate Justices Martin S. Villarama, Jr. (now Supreme Court Associate Justice) and Noel G. Tijam, concurring. Rollo, pp. 34-46.

    2 Id. at 68.

    3 Id. at 92.

    4 Id. at 113-115.

    5 Id. at 129-130.

    6 Id. at 178-180.

    7 Id. at 191.

    8 See Petition for Review filed with the Court of Appeals. Id. at 198-199.

    9 Id. at 42.

    10 Id. at 48-49.

    11 Id. at 16-17.

    12 192 Phil. 355 (1981).

    13 557 Phil. 377 (2007).

    14 522 Phil. 168, 180-181 (2006).

    15 499 Phil. 268, 279 (2005).

    16 Fil-Estate Properties, Inc. v. Spouses Go, supra note 13 at 384.

    17 G.R. No. 189871, 13 August 2013.

    18 Maglasang v. Northwestern University, Inc., G.R. No. 188986, 20 March 2013, 694 SCRA 128, 140.

    19 Almeda Development and Equipment Corp. v. Metro Motor Sales, Inc., 534 Phil. 672, 675 (2006).


    G.R. No. 185798, January 13, 2014 - FIL-ESTATE PROPERTIES, INC. AND FIL-ESTATE NETWORK INC., Petitioners, v. SPOUSES CONRADO AND MARIA VICTORIA RONQUILLO, Respondents.


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