Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence


Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence > Year 2016 > January 2016 Decisions > G.R. No. 191018, January 25, 2016 - CARLOS BORROMEO, Petitioner, v. FAMILY CARE HOSPITAL, INC. AND RAMON S. INSO, M.D., Respondents.:




G.R. No. 191018, January 25, 2016 - CARLOS BORROMEO, Petitioner, v. FAMILY CARE HOSPITAL, INC. AND RAMON S. INSO, M.D., Respondents.

PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

SECOND DIVISION

G.R. No. 191018, January 25, 2016

CARLOS BORROMEO, Petitioner, v. FAMILY CARE HOSPITAL, INC. AND RAMON S. INSO, M.D., Respondents.

D E C I S I O N

BRION, J.:

Carlos Borromeo lost his wife Lillian when she died after undergoing a routine appendectomy. The hospital and the attending surgeon submit that Lillian bled to death due to a rare, life-threatening condition that prevented her blood from clotting normally. Carlos believes, however, that the hospital and the surgeon were simply negligent in the care of his late wife.

On January 22, 2010, the Court of Appeals (CA) in CA-G.R CV No. 890961 dismissed Carlos' complaint and thus reversed the April 10, 2007 decision of the Regional Trial Court (RTC) in Civil Case No. 2000-603-MK2 which found the respondents liable for medical negligence.

The present petition for review on certiorari seeks to reverse the CA's January 22, 2010 decision.

ANTECEDENTS

The petitioner, Carlos Borromeo, was the husband of the late Lilian V. Borromeo (Lilian). Lilian was a patient of the respondent Family Care Hospital, Inc. (Family Care) under the care of respondent Dr. Ramon Inso (Dr. Inso).

On July 13, 1999, the petitioner brought his wife to the Family Care Hospital because she had been complaining of acute pain at the lower stomach area and fever for two days. She was admitted at the hospital and placed under the care of Dr. Inso.

Dr. Inso suspected that Lilian might be suffering from acute appendicitis. However, there was insufficient data to rule out other possible causes and to proceed with an appendectomy. Thus, he ordered Lilian's confinement for testing and evaluation.

Over the next 48 hours, Lilian underwent multiple tests such as complete blood count, urinalysis, stool exam, pelvic ultrasound, and a pregnancy test. However, the tests were not conclusive enough to confirm that she had appendicitis.

Meanwhile, Lilian's condition did not improve. She suffered from spiking fever and her abdominal pain worsened. The increasing tenderness of her stomach, which was previously confined to her lower right side, had also extended to her lower left side. Lilian abruptly developed an acute surgical abdomen.

On July 15, 1999, Dr. Inso decided to conduct an exploratory laparotomy on Lilian because of the findings on her abdomen and his fear that she might have a ruptured appendix. Exploratory laparotomy is a surgical procedure involving a large incision on the abdominal wall that would enable Dr. Inso to examine the abdominal cavity and identify the cause of Lilian's symptoms. After explaining the situation, Dr. Inso obtained the patient's consent to the laparotomy.

At around 3:45 P.M., Lilian was brought to the operating room where Dr. Inso conducted the surgery. During the operation, Dr. Inso confirmed that Lilian was suffering from acute appendicitis. He proceeded to remove her appendix which was already infected and congested with pus.

The operation was successful. Lilian's appearance and vital signs improved. At around 7:30 P.M., Lilian was brought back to her private room from the recovery room.

At around 1:30 A.M. on July 16, 1999, roughly six hours after Lilian was brought back to her room, Dr. Inso was informed that her blood pressure was low. After assessing her condition, he ordered the infusion of more intravenous (IV) fluids which somehow raised her blood pressure.

Despite the late hour, Dr. Inso remained in the hospital to monitor Lilian's condition. Subsequently, a nurse informed him that Lilian was becoming restless. Dr. Inso immediately went to Lilian and saw that she was quite pale. He immediately requested a blood transfusion.

Lilian did not respond to the blood transfusion even after receiving two 500 cc-units of blood. Various drugs, such as adrenaline or epinephrine, were administered.

Eventually, an endotracheal tube connected to an oxygen tank was inserted into Lilian to ensure her airway was clear and to compensate for the lack of circulating oxygen in her body from the loss of red blood cells. Nevertheless, her condition continued to deteriorate.

Dr. Inso observed that Lilian was developing petechiae in various parts of her body. Petechiae are small bruises caused by bleeding under the skin whose presence indicates a blood-coagulation problem - a defect in the ability of blood to clot. At this point, Dr. Inso suspected that Lilian had Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC), a blood disorder characterized by bleeding in many parts of her body caused by the consumption or the loss of the clotting factors in the blood. However, Dr. Inso did not have the luxury to conduct further tests because the immediate need was to resuscitate Lilian.

Dr. Inso and the nurses performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on Lilian. Dr. Inso also informed her family that there may be a need to re-operate on her, but she would have to be put in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Unfortunately, Family Care did not have an ICU because it was only a secondary hospital and was not required by the Department of Health to have one. Dr. Inso informed the petitioner that Lilian would have to be transferred to another hospital.

At around 3:30 A.M., Dr. Inso personally called the Perpetual Help Medical Center to arrange Lilian's transfer, but the latter had no available bed in its ICU. Dr. Inso then personally coordinated with the Muntinlupa Medical Center (MMC) which had an available bed.

At around 4:00 A.M., Lilian was taken to the MMC by ambulance accompanied by the resident doctor on duty and a nurse. Dr. Inso followed closely behind in his own vehicle.

Upon reaching the MMC, a medical team was on hand to resuscitate Lilian. A nasogastric tube (NGT) was inserted and IV fluids were immediately administered to her. Dr. Inso asked for a plasma expander. Unfortunately, at around 10:00 A.M., Lilian passed away despite efforts to resuscitate her.

At the request of the petitioner, Lilian's body was autopsied at the Philippine National Police (PNP) Camp Crame Crime Laboratory. Dr. Emmanuel Reyes (Dr. Reyes), the medico-legal assigned to the laboratory, conducted the autopsy. Dr. Reyes summarized his notable findings as:
x x x I opened up the body and inside the abdominal cavity which you call peritoneal cavity there were 3,000 ml of clot and unclot blood accumulated thereat. The peritoneal cavity was also free from any adhesion. Then, I opened up the head and the brain revealed paper white in color and the heart revealed abundant petechial hemorrhages from the surface and it was normal. The valvular leaflets were soft and pliable, and of course, the normal color is reddish brown as noted. And the coronary arteries which supply the heart were normal and unremarkable. Next, the lungs appears [sic] hemorrhagic. That was the right lung while the left lung was collapsed and paled. For the intestines, I noted throughout the entire lengths of the small and large intestine were hemorrhagic areas. Noted absent is the appendix at the ileo-colic area but there were continuous suture repair done thereat. However, there was a 0.5 x 0.5 cm opening or left unrepaired at that time. There was an opening on that repair site. Meaning it was not repaired. There were also at that time clot and unclot blood found adherent thereon. The liver and the rest of the visceral organs were noted exhibit [sic] some degree of pallor but were otherwise normal. The stomach contains one glassful about 400 to 500 ml.3ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary
Dr. Reyes concluded that the cause of Lilian's death was hemorrhage due to bleeding petechial blood vessels: internal bleeding. He further concluded that the internal bleeding was caused by the 0.5 x 0.5 cm opening in the repair site. He opined that the bleeding could have been avoided if the site was repaired with double suturing instead of the single continuous suture repair that he found.

Based on the autopsy, the petitioner filed a complaint for damages against Family Care and against Dr. Inso for medical negligence.

During the trial, the petitioner presented Dr. Reyes as his expert witness. Dr. Reyes testified as to his findings during the autopsy and his opinion that Lilian's death could have been avoided if Dr. Inso had repaired the site with double suture rather than a single suture.

However, Dr. Reyes admitted that he had very little experience in the field of pathology and his only experience was an on-the-job training at the V. Luna Hospital where he was only on observer status. He further admitted that he had no experience in appendicitis or appendectomy and that Lilian's case was his first autopsy involving a death from appendectomy.

Moreover, Dr. Reyes admitted that he was not intelligently guided during the autopsy because he was not furnished with clinical, physical, gross, histopath, and laboratory information that were important for an accurate conclusion. Dr. Reyes also admitted that an appendical stump is initially swollen when sutured and that the stitches may loosen during the healing process when the initial swelling subside.

In their defense, Dr. Inso and Family Care presented Dr. Inso, and expert witnesses Dr. Celso Ramos (Dr. Ramos) and Dr. Herminio Hernandez (Dr. Hernandez).

Dr. Ramos is a practicing pathologist with over 20 years of experience. He is an associate professor at the Department of Surgery of the Fatima Medical Center, the Manila Central University, and the Perpetual Help Medical Center. He is a Fellow of the Philippine College of Surgeons, a Diplomate of the Philippine Board of Surgery, and a Fellow of the Philippine Society of General Surgeons.

Dr. Ramos discredited Dr. Reyes' theory that the 0.5 x 0.5 cm opening at the repair site caused Lilian's internal bleeding. According to Dr. Ramos, appendical vessels measure only 0.1 to 0.15 cm, a claim that was not refuted by the petitioner. If the 0.5 x 0.5 cm opening had caused Lilian's hemorrhage, she would not have survived for over 16 hours; she would have died immediately, within 20 to 30 minutes, after surgery.

Dr. Ramos submitted that the cause of Lilian's death was hemorrhage due to DIC, a blood disorder that leads to the failure of the blood to coagulate; Dr. Ramos considered the abundant petechial hemorrhage in the myocardic sections and the hemorrhagic right lung; the multiple bleeding points indicate that Lilian was afflicted with DIC.

Meanwhile, Dr. Hernandez is a general surgeon and a hospital administrator who had been practicing surgery for twenty years as of the date of his testimony.

Dr. Hernandez testified that Lilian's death could not be attributed to the alleged wrong suturing. He submitted that the presence of blood in the lungs, in the stomach, and in the entire length of the bowels cannot be reconciled with Dr. Reyes' theory that the hemorrhage resulted from a single-sutured appendix.

Dr., Hernandez testified that Lilian had uncontrollable bleeding in the microcirculation as a result of DIC. In DIC, blood oozes from very small blood vessels because of a problem in the clotting factors of the blood vessels. The microcirculation is too small to be seen by the naked eye; the red cell is even smaller than the tip of a needle. Therefore, the alleged wrong suturing could not have caused the amount of hemorrhaging that caused Lilian's death.

Dr. Hernandez further testified that the procedure that Dr. Inso performed was consistent with the usual surgical procedure and he would not have done anything differently.4

The petitioner presented Dr. Rudyard Avila III (Dr. Avila) as a rebuttal witness. Dr. Avila, also a lawyer, was presented as an expert in medical jurisprudence. Dr. Avila testified that between Dr. Reyes who autopsied the patient and Dr. Ramos whose findings were based on medical records, greater weight should be given to Dr. Reyes' testimony.

On April 10, 2007, the RTC rendered its decision awarding the petitioner P88,077.50 as compensatory damages; P50,000.00 as death indemnity; P3,607,910.30 as loss of earnings; P50,000.00 as moral damages; P30,000.00 as exemplary damages; P50,000.00 as attorney's fees, and the costs of the suit.

The RTC relied on Dr. Avila's opinion and gave more weight to Dr. Reyes' findings regarding the cause of Lilian's death. It held that Dr. Inso was negligent in using a single suture on the repair site causing Lilian's death by internal hemorrhage. It applied the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur, holding that a patient's death does not ordinarily occur during an appendectomy.

The respondents elevated the case to the CA and the appeal was docketed as CA-G.R. CV No. 89096.

On January 22, 2010, the CA reversed the RTC's decision and dismissed the complaint. The CA gave greater weight to the testimonies of Dr. Hernandez and Dr. Ramos over the findings of Dr. Reyes because the latter was not an expert in pathology, appendectomy, nor in surgery. It disregarded Dr. Avila's opinion because the basic premise of his testimony was that the doctor who conducted the autopsy is a pathologist of equal or of greater expertise than Dr. Ramos or Dr. Hernandez.

The CA held that there was no causal connection between the alleged omission of Dr. Inso to use a double suture and the cause of Lilian's death. It also found that Dr. Inso did, in fact, use a double suture ligation with a third silk reinforcement ligation on the repair site which, as Dr. Reyes admitted on cross-examination, loosened up after the initial swelling of the stump subsided.

The CA denied the applicability of the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur because the element of causation between the instrumentality under the control and management of Dr. Inso and the injury that caused Lilian's death was absent; the respondents sufficiently established that the cause of Lilian's death was DIC.

On March 18, 2010, the petitioner filed the present petition for review on certiorari.

THE PETITION

The petitioner argues: (1) that Dr. Inso and Family Care were negligent in caring for Lilian before, during, and after her appendectomy and were responsible for her death; and (2) that the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur is applicable to this case.

In their Comment, the respondents counter: (1) that the issues raised by the petitioner are not pure questions of law; (2) that they exercised utmost care and diligence in the treatment of Lilian; (3) that Dr. Inso did not deviate from the standard of care observed under similar circumstances by other members of the profession in good standing; (4) that res ipsa loquitur is not applicable because direct evidence as to the cause of Lilian's death and the presence/absence of negligence is available; and (5) that doctors are not guarantors of care and cannot be held liable for the death of their patients when they exercised diligence and did everything to save the patient.

OUR RULING

The petition involves factual questions.

Under Section 1 of Rule 45, a petition for review on certiorari shall only raise questions of law. The Supreme Court is not a trier of facts and it is not our function to analyze and weigh evidence that the lower courts had already passed upon.

The factual findings of the Court of Appeals are, as a general rule, conclusive upon this Court. However, jurisprudence has also carved out recognized exceptions5 to this rule, to wit: (1) when the findings are grounded entirely on speculation, surmises, or conjectures;6 (2) when the inference made is manifestly mistaken, absurd, or impossible;7 (3) when there is grave abuse of discretion;8 (4) when the judgment is based on a misapprehension of facts;9 (5) when the findings of facts are conflicting;10 (6) when in making its findings the Court of Appeals went beyond the issues of the case, or its findings are contrary to the admissions of both the appellant and the appellee;11(7) when the findings are contrary to those of the trial court's;12 (8) when the findings are conclusions without citation of specific evidence on which they are based;13 (9) when the facts set forth in the petition as well as in the petitioner's main and reply briefs are not disputed by the respondent;14 (10) when the findings of fact are premised on the supposed absence of evidence and contradicted by the evidence on record;15 and (11) when the Court of Appeals manifestly overlooked certain relevant facts not disputed by the parties, which, if properly considered, would justify a different conclusion.16

Considering that the CA's findings with respect to the cause of Lilian's death contradict those of the RTC, this case falls under one of the exceptions. The Court will thus give due course to the petition to dispel any perception that we denied the petitioner justice.

The requisites of establishing medical malpractice

Whoever alleges a fact has the burden of proving it. This is a basic legal principle that equally applies to civil and criminal cases. In a medical malpractice case, the plaintiff has the duty of proving its elements, namely: (1) a duty of the defendant to his patient; (2) the defendant's breach of this duty; (3) injury to the patient; and (4) proximate causation between the breach and the injury suffered.17 In civil cases, the plaintiff must prove these elements by a preponderance of evidence.

A medical professional has the duty to observe the standard of care and exercise the degree of skill, knowledge, and training ordinarily expected of other similarly trained medical professionals acting under the same circumstances.18 A breach of the accepted standard of care constitutes negligence or malpractice and renders the defendant liable for the resulting injury to his patient.19

The standard is based on the norm observed by other reasonably competent members of the profession practicing the same field of medicine.20 Because medical malpractice cases are often highly technical, expert testimony is usually essential to establish: (1) the standard of care that the defendant was bound to observe under the circumstances; (2) that the defendant's conduct fell below the acceptable standard; and (3) that the defendant's failure to observe the industry standard caused injury to his patient.21

The expert witness must be a similarly trained and experienced physician. Thus, a pulmonologist is not qualified to testify as to the standard of care required of an anesthesiologist22 and an autopsy expert is not qualified to testify as a specialist in infectious diseases.23

The petitioner failed to present an expert witness.

In ruling against the respondents, the RTC relied on the findings of Dr. Reyes in the light of Dr. Avila's opinion that the former's testimony should be given greater weight than the findings of Dr. Ramos and Dr. Hernandez. On the other hand, the CA did not consider Dr. Reyes or Dr. Avila as expert witnesses and disregarded their testimonies in favor of Dr. Ramos and Dr. Hernandez. The basic issue, therefore, is whose testimonies should carry greater weight?

We join and affirm the ruling of the CA.

Other than their conclusion on the culpability of the respondents, the CA and the RTC have similar factual findings. The RTC ruled against the respondents based primarily on the following testimony of Dr. Reyes.
Witness:
Well, if I remember right during my residency in my extensive training, during the operation of the appendix, your Honor, it should really be sutured twice which we call double.
Court:
What would be the result if there is only single?
Witness:
We cannot guarranty [sic] the bleeding of the sutured blood vessels, your Honor.
Court:
So, the bleeding of the patient was caused by the single suture?
Witness:
It is possible.24
Dr. Reyes testified that he graduated from the Manila Central University (MCU) College of Medicine and passed the medical board exams in 1994.25 He established his personal practice at his house clinic before being accepted as an on-the-job trainee in the Department of Pathology at the V. Luna Hospital in 1994. In January 1996, he joined the PNP Medico-Legal Division and was assigned to the Crime Laboratory in Camp Crame. He currently heads the Southern Police District Medico-Legal division.26 His primary duties are to examine victims of violent crimes and to conduct traumatic autopsies to determine the cause of death.

After having conducted over a thousand traumatic autopsies, Dr. Reyes can be considered an expert in traumatic autopsies or autopsies involving violent deaths. However, his expertise in traumatic autopsies does not necessarily make him an expert in clinical and pathological autopsies or in surgery.

Moreover, Dr. Reyes' cross-examination reveals that he was less than candid about his qualifications during his initial testimony:
Atty. Castro:
Dr. Reyes, you mentioned during your direct testimony last March 5, 2002 that you graduated in March of 1994, is that correct?
Witness:
Yes, sir.
Atty. Castro:
You were asked by Atty. Fajardo, the counsel for the plaintiff, when did you finish your medical works, and you answered the following year of your graduation which was in 1994?
Witness:
Not in 1994, it was in 1984, sir.
Atty. Castro:
And after you graduated Mr. Witness, were there further study that you undergo after graduation? [sic]
Witness:
It was during my service only at the police organization that I was given the chance to attend the training, one year course.
Atty. Castro:
Did you call that what you call a post graduate internship?
Witness:
Residency.
Atty. Castro:
Since you call that a post graduate, you were not undergo post graduate? [sic]
Witness:
I did.
Atty. Castro:
Where did you undergo a post graduate internship?
Witness:
Before I took the board examination in the year 1984, sir.
Atty. Castro:
That was where?
Witness:
MCU Hospital, sir.
Atty. Castro:
After the post graduate internship that was the time you took the board examination?
Witness:
Yes, sir.
Atty. Castro:
And I supposed that you did it for the first take?
Witness:
Yes, sir.
Atty. Castro:
Are you sure of that?
Witness:
Yes, sir.
Atty. Castro:
After you took the board examination, did you pursue any study?
Witness:
During that time, no sir.
Atty. Castro:
You also testified during the last hearing that "page 6 of March 5, 2002, answer of the witness: then I was accepted as on the job training at the V. Luna Hospital at the Department of Pathologist in 1994", could you explain briefly all of this Mr. witness?
Witness:
I was given an order that I could attend the training only as a civilian not as a member of the AFP because at that time they were already in the process of discharging civilian from undergoing training.
Atty. Castro:
So in the Department of Pathology, what were you assigned to?
Witness:
Only as an observer status.
Atty. Castro:
So you only observed.
Witness:
Yes, sir.
Atty. Castro:
And on the same date during your direct testimony on March 5, 2002, part of which reads "well if I remember right during my residency in my extensive training during the operation of the appendix," what do you mean by that Mr. witness?
Witness:
I was referring to my internship, sir.
Atty. Castro:
So this is not a residency training?
Witness:
No, sir.
Atty. Castro:
This is not a specialty training?
Witness:
No, sir.
Atty. Castro:
This was the time the year before you took the board examination?
Witness:
That's right, sir. Yes, sir.
Atty. Castro:
You were not then a license[d] doctor?
Witness:
No, sir.
Atty. Castro:
And you also mentioned during the last hearing shown by page 8 of the same transcript of the stenographic notes, dated March 5,2002 and I quote "and that is your residence assignment?", and you answered "yes, sir." What was the meaning of your answer? What do you mean when you say yes, sir?
x x x x
Witness:
Okay, I stayed at the barracks of the Southern Police District Fort Bonifacio.
Atty. Castro:
So this is not referring to any kind of training?
Witness:
No, sir.
Atty. Castro:
This is not in anyway related to appendicitis?
Witness:
No, sir.27
Atty. Reyes appears to have inflated his qualifications during his direct testimony. First, his "extensive training during [his] residency" was neither extensive actual training, nor part of medical residency. His assignment to the V. Luna Hospital was not as an on-the-job trainee but as a mere observer. This assignment was also before he was actually licensed as a doctor. Dr. Reyes also loosely used the terms "residence" and "residency" - terms that carry a technical meaning with respect to medical practice -during his initial testimony28 to refer to (1) his physical place of dwelling and (2) his internship before taking the medical board exams. This misled the trial court into believing that he was more qualified to give his opinion on the matter than he actually was.

Perhaps nothing is more telling about Dr. Reyes' lack of expertise in the subject matter than the petitioner's counsel's own admission during Dr. Reyes' cross examination.
Atty. Castro:
How long were you assigned to observe with the Department of Pathology?
Witness:
Only 6 months, sir.
Atty. Castro:
During your studies in the medical school, Mr. Witness, do you recall attending or having participated or [sic] what you call motivity mortality complex?
Atty. Fajardo:
Your honor, what is the materiality?
Atty. Castro:
That is according to his background, your honor. This is a procedure which could more or less measure his knowledge in autopsy proceedings when he was in medical school and compared to what he is actually doing now.
Atty. Fajardo:
The witness is not an expert witness, your honor.
Atty. Castro:
He is being presented as an expert witness, your honor.29
When Atty. Castro attempted to probe Dr. Reyes about his knowledge on the subject of medical or pathological autopsies, Dr. Fajardo objected on the ground that Dr. Reyes was not an expert in the field. His testimony was offered to prove that Dr. Inso was negligent during the surgery without necessarily offering him as an expert witness.
Atty. Fajardo:
x x x The purpose of this witness is to establish that there was negligence on the surgical operation of the appendix or in the conduct of the appendectomy by the defendant doctor on the deceased Lilian Villaran Borromeo.30
Dr. Reyes is not an expert witness who could prove Dr. Inso's alleged negligence. His testimony could not have established the standard of care that Dr. Inso was expected to observe nor assessed Dr. Inso's failure to observe this standard. His testimony cannot be relied upon to determine if Dr. Inso committed errors during the operation, the severity of these errors, their impact on Lilian's probability of survival, and the existence of other diseases/conditions that might or might not have caused or contributed to Lilian's death.

The testimony of Dr. Avila also has no probative value in determining whether Dr. Inso was at fault. Dr. Avila testified in his capacity as an expert in medical jurisprudence, not as an expert in medicine, surgery, or pathology. His testimony fails to shed any light on the actual cause of Lilian's death.

On the other hand, the respondents presented testimonies from Dr. Inso himself and from two expert witnesses in pathology and surgery.

Dr. Ramos graduated from the Far Eastern University, Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation, in 1975. He took up his post-graduate internship at the Quezon Memorial Hospital in Lucena City, before taking the board exams. After obtaining his professional license, he underwent residency training in pathology at the Jose R. Reyes Memorial Center from 1977 to 1980. He passed the examination in Anatomic, Clinical, and Physical Pathology in 1980 and was inducted in 1981. He also took the examination in anatomic pathology in 1981 and was inducted in 1982.31

At the time of his testimony, Dr. Ramos was an associate professor in pathology at the Perpetual Help Medical School in Biñan, Laguna, and at the De La Salle University in Dasmariñas, Cavite. He was the head of the Batangas General Hospital Teaching and Training Hospital where he also headed the Pathology Department. He also headed the Perpetual Help General Hospital Pathology department.32

Meanwhile, Dr. Hernandez at that time was a General Surgeon with 27 years of experience as a General Practitioner and 20 years of experience as a General Surgeon. He obtained his medical degree from the University of Santo Tomas before undergoing five years of residency training as a surgeon at the Veterans Memorial Center hospital. He was certified as a surgeon in 1985. He also holds a master's degree in Hospital Administration from the Ateneo de Manila University.33

He was a practicing surgeon at the: St. Luke's Medical Center, Fatima Medical Center, Unciano Medical Center in Antipolo, Manila East Medical Center of Taytay, and Perpetual Help Medical Center in Biñan.34 He was also an associate professor at the Department of Surgery at the Fatima Medical Center, the Manila Central University, and the Perpetual Help Medical Center. He also chaired the Department of Surgery at the Fatima Medical Center.35

Dr. Hernandez is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons, the Philippine College of Surgeons, and the Philippine Society of General Surgeons. He is a Diplomate of the Philippine Board of Surgery and a member of the Philippine Medical Association and the Antipolo City Medical Society.36

Dr. Hernandez affirmed that Dr. Inso did not deviate from the usual surgical procedure.37 Both experts agreed that Lilian could not have died from bleeding of the appendical vessel. They identified Lilian's cause of death as massive blood loss resulting from DIC.

To our mind, the testimonies of expert witnesses Dr. Hernandez and Dr. Ramos carry far greater weight than that of Dr. Reyes. The petitioner's failure to present expert witnesses resulted in his failure to prove the respondents' negligence. The preponderance of evidence clearly tilts in favor of the respondents.

Res ipsa loquitur is not applicable when the failure to observe due care is not immediately apparent to the layman.

The petitioner cannot invoke the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur to shift the burden of evidence onto the respondent. Res ipsa loquitur, literally, "the thing speaks for itself;" is a rule of evidence that presumes negligence from the very nature of the accident itself using common human knowledge or experience.

The application of this rule requires: (1) that the accident was of a kind which does not ordinarily occur unless someone is negligent; (2) that the instrumentality or agency which caused the injury was under the exclusive: control of the person charged with negligence; and (3) that the injury suffered must not have been due to any voluntary action or contribution from the injured person.38 The concurrence of these elements creates a presumption of negligence that, if unrebutted, overcomes the plaintiffs burden of proof.

This doctrine is used in conjunction with the doctrine of common knowledge. We have applied this doctrine in the following cases involving medical practitioners:
  1. Where a patient who was scheduled for a cholecystectomy (removal of gall stones) but was otherwise healthy suffered irreparable brain damage after being administered anesthesia prior to the operation.39

  2. Where after giving birth, a woman woke up with a gaping burn wound close to her left armpit;40

  3. The removal of the wrong body part during the operation; and

  4. Where an operating surgeon left a foreign object (i.e., rubber gloves) inside the body of the patient.41
The rule is not applicable in cases such as the present one where the defendant's alleged failure to observe due care is not immediately apparent to a layman.42 These instances require expert opinion to establish the culpability of the defendant doctor. It is also not applicable to cases where the actual cause of the injury had been identified or established.43

While this Court sympathizes with the petitioner's loss, the petitioner failed to present sufficient convincing evidence to establish: (1) the standard of care expected of the respondent and (2) the fact that Dr. Inso fell short of this expected standard. Considering further that the respondents established that the cause of Lilian's uncontrollable bleeding (and, ultimately, her death) was a medical disorder - Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation — we find no reversible errors in the CA's dismissal of the complaint on appeal.

WHEREFORE, we hereby DENY the petition for lack of merit. No costs.

SO ORDERED.chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

Carpio, (Chairperson), Del Castillo, Mendoza, and Leonen, JJ., concur.chanrobleslaw

Endnotes:


1 Penned by Associate Justice Isaias Dicdican and concurred in by Associate Justices Romeo F. Barza and Antonio L. Villamor, rollo, pp. 9-32.

2 Marikina City, Branch 273 through Presiding Judge Manuel S. Quimbo.

3 TSN dated March 5,2002, p. 14, quoted in the RTC Decision; see rollo, pp. 143-144.

4 TSN dated November 19,2003, pp. 27, 29 and 36.

5New City Builders, Inc. v. NLRC, 499 Phil. 207, 212-213 (2005), citing Insular Life Assurance Company, Ltd. v. CA, 472 Phil. 7 (2004).

6Joaquin v. Navarro, 93 Phil. 257-270 (1953).

7De Luna v. Linatoc, 74 Phil. 15 (1942).

8Buyco v. People, 95 Phil. 453 (1954).

9Cruz v. Sosing, 94 Phil. 26 (1953).

10Casica v. Villaseca, 101 Phil. 1205 (1957).

11Lim Yhi Luya v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-40258, September 11, 1980, 99 SCRA 668-669.

12Sacay v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. L-66497-98, July 10, 1986, 142 SCRA 593.

13Universal Motors v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-47432, January 27, 1992, 205 SCRA 448.

14Alsua-Betts v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-46430-31, July 30, 1979, 92 SCRA 332.

15Medina v. Asistio, G.R. No. 75450, November 8, 1990, 191 SCRA 218.

16Abellana v. Dosdos, 121 Phil. 241 (1965).

17Garcia-Rueda v. Pascasio, 344 Phil. 323, 331-332 (1997); Sps. Flores v. Sps. Pineda, 591 Phil. 699, 706 (2008); Reyes v. Sisters of Mercy Hospital, 396 Phil. 87, 95-96 (2000).

18Garcia-Rueda v. Pascasio, supra note 17, at 332; Dr. Cruz v. CA, 346 Phil. 872, 883-884 (1997); Reyes v. Sisters of Mercy Hospital, supra note 17, at 104.

19Sps. Flores v. Sps. Pineda, supra note 17.

20Dr. Cruz v. CA, supra note 18, at 884; Cabugao v. People of the Philippines, G.R. No. 163879, July 30, 2014, 731 SCRA 214, 234.

21Dr. Cruz v. CA, supra note 18, at 885.

22Ramos v. CA, 378 Phil. 1198, 1236 (1999).

23Reyes v. Sisters of Mercy Hospital, supra note 17.

24 TSN dated March 5, 2002, pp. 22-23 (Direct Examination of Dr. Emmanuel Reyes).

25 Cross Examination, TSN dated March 19, 2002, p. 3.

26 TSN dated March 5, 2002, pp. 3-11 (Direct Examination of Dr. Emmanuel Reyes).

27 Cross Examination of Dr. Reyes, TSN dated March 19, 2002, pp. 4-11.

28 See Direct Examination of Dr. Reyes, TSN dated March 5,2002, pp. 8 and 22.

29 Cross Examination of Dr. Reyes, TSN dated March 19, 2002, pp. 30-31.

30 Direct Examination of Dr. Reyes, TSN dated March 5, 2002, p. 4.

31 Direct Examination of Dr. Ramos, TSN dated June 6,2003, p. 13.

32Id. at 14.

33 Direct Examination of Dr. Hernandez, TSN dated November 19, 2003, pp. 5-10.

34Id. at 9.

35Id. at 10.

36Id. at 11.

37Id. at 27, 29 and 36.

38Malayan Insurance Co. v. Alberto, G.R. No. 194320, February 1, 2012, 664 SCRA 791, 803-804.

39Ramos v. CA, supra note 22.

40Dr. Cantre v. Spouses Go, 550 Phil. 637 (2007).

41Batiquin v. Court of Appeals, 321 Phil. 965-971 (1996).

42Reyes v. Sisters of Mercy Hospital, supra note 17, at 98.

43 See Professional Services, Inc. v. Agana, 542 Phil. 464, 484 (2007).



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January-2016 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. 201264, January 11, 2016 - FLORANTE VITUG, Petitioner, v. EVANGELINE A. ABUDA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 178110, January 12, 2016 - AYALA LAND, INC. AND CAPITOL CITIFARMS, INC., Petitioners, v. SIMEONA CASTILLO, LORENZO PERLAS, JESSIELYN CASTILLO, LUIS MAESA, ROLANDO BATIQUIN, AND BUKLURAN MAGSASAKA NG TIBIG, AS REPRESENTED BY THEIR ATTORNEY-IN-FACT, SIMEONA CASTILLO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 209387, January 11, 2016 - ERWIN LIBO-ON DELA CRUZ, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 211140, January 12, 2016 - LORD ALLAN JAY Q. VELASCO, Petitioner, v. HON. SPEAKER FELICIANO R. BELMONTE, JR., SECRETARY GENERAL MARILYN B. BARUA-YAP AND REGINA ONGSIAKO REYES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 167333, January 11, 2016 - PEDRO LADINES, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES AND EDWIN DE RAMON, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 209921, January 13, 2016 - EMMA H. QUIRO-QUIRO, Petitioner, v. BALAGTAS CREDIT COOPERATIVE & COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, INC., Respondent.

  • A.M. NO. RTJ-16-2443 (FORMERLY OCA IPINO. 10-3521-RTJ), January 11, 2016 - ARMANDO M. BALANAY, Complainant, v. JUDGE JULIANA ADALEM WHITE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 5, EASTERN SAMAR, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 203882, January 11, 2016 - LORELEI O. ILADAN, Petitioner, v. LA SUERTE INTERNATIONAL MANPOWER AGENCY, INC., AND DEBBIE LAO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 198450, January 11, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. FERNANDO RANCHE HAVANA A.K.A. FERNANDO RANCHE ABANA, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 197825, January 11, 2016 - CAMILO SIBAL, Petitioner, v. PEDRO BUQUEL, SANTIAGO BUQUEL, JR., ROSALINDA BUQUEL, REPRESENTED BY FRANCISCO BUQUEL, Respondents.

  • AC. No. 10912, January 19, 2016 - PAULINA T. YU, Complainant, v. ATTY. BERLIN R. DELA CRUZ, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 180993, January 27, 2016 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, REPRESENTED BY THE LAND REGISTRATION AUTHORITY, Petitioner, v. RAYMUNDO VIAJE, ET AL., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 218536, January 26, 2016 - ROLANDO P. TOLENTINO, Petitioner, v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS (FIRST DIVISION), ATTY. CRISTINA T. GUIAO-GARCIA, AND HENRY MANALO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 205472, January 25, 2016 - AMADO I. SARAUM, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 185746, January 20, 2016 - LUCITA TIOROSIO-ESPINOSA, Petitioner, v. HONORABLE PRESIDING JUDGE VIRGINIA HOFILEÑA-EUROPA, IN HER CAPACITY AS PRESIDING JUDGE OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT OF DAVAO CITY, BRANCH 11, 11TH JUDICIAL REGION, DAVAO CITY, NICOLAS L. SUMAPIG, IN HIS CAPACITY AS SHERIFF IV OF THE OFFICE OF THE PROVINCIAL SHERIFF, OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, 11TH JUDICIAL REGION, DAVAO CITY AND NECEFERO JOVERO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 180434, January 20, 2016 - COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Petitioner, v. MIRANT PAGBILAO CORPORATION (NOW TEAM ENERGY CORPORATION), Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 204047, January 13, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. ALEXANDER "SANDER" BANGSOY, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 193140, January 11, 2016 - MILA GRACE PATACSIL PIOTROWSKI, REP. BY HER ATTORNEY-IN- FACT, VENUS G. PATACSIL, Petitioner, v. HON. COURT OF APPEALS AND GINA Q. DAPLIYAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 205785, January 20, 2016 - HELEN B. LUKBAN, Petitioner, v. OPTIMUM DEVELOPMENT BANK, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 213215, January 11, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. RUBEN BARON, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 217948, January 12, 2016 - ALMA G. PARAISO-ABAN, Petitioner, v. COMMISSION ON AUDIT, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 8723 [Formerly CBD Case No. 11-2974], January 26, 2016 - GREGORY FABAY, Complainant, v. ATTY. REX A. RESUENA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 196784, January 13, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. MA. FE TORRES SOLINA A.K.A. MA. FE BAYLON GALLO, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 176549, January 20, 2016 - DEPARTMENT OF AGRARIAN REFORM, QUEZON CITY & PABLO MENDOZA, Petitioners, v. ROMEO C. CARRIEDO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 206291, January 18, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Appellee, v. ZALDY SALAHUDDIN AND THREE (3) OTHER UNIDENTIFIED COMPANIONS, Appellants.

  • G.R. Nos. 173254-55 & 173263, January 13, 2016 - DIAMOND FARMS, INC., Petitioner, v. SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES FEDERATION OF LABOR (SPFL)-WORKERS SOLIDARITY OF DARBMUPCO/DIAMOND-SPFL, DIAMOND FARMS AGRARIAN REFORM BENEFICIARIES MULTI-PURPOSE COOPERATIVE (DARBMUPCO), VOLTER LOPEZ, RUEL ROMERO, PATRICK) CAPRECHO, REY DIMACALI, ELESIO EMANEL, VICTOR SINGSON, NILDA DIMACALI, PREMITIVO* DIAZ, RUDY VISTAL, ROGER MONTERO, JOSISIMO GOMEZ AND MANUEL MOSQUERA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 201310, January 11, 2016 - MARK REYNALD MARASIGAN Y DE GUZMAN, Petitioner, v. REGINALD FUENTES ALIAS "REGIE," ROBERT CALILAN ALIAS "BOBBY," AND ALAIN DELON LINDO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 171722, January 11, 2016 - REMEDIOS PASCUAL, Petitioner, v. BENITO BURGOS, ET AL., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 209330, January 11, 2016 - SECRETARY LEILA DE LIMA, ASSISTANT STATE PROSECUTOR STEWART ALLAN A. MARIANO, ASSISTANT STATE PROSECUTOR VIMAR M. BARCELLANO AND ASSISTANT STATE PROSECUTOR GERARD E. GAERLAN, Petitioners, v. MARIO JOEL T. REYES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 198745, January 13, 2016 - BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC. (FORMERLY BANCO DE ORO-EPCI, INC.), Petitioner, v. SUNNYSIDE HEIGHTS HOMEOWNERS ASSOCIATION, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 208986, January 13, 2016 - HIJO RESOURCES CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. EPIFANIO P. MEJARES, REMEGIO C. BALURAN, JR., DANTE SAYCON, AND CECILIO CUCHARO, REPRESENTED BY NAMABDJERA-HRC, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 201417, January 13, 2016 - ORIX METRO LEASING AND FINANCE CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. CARDLINE INC., MARY C. CALUBAD, SONY N. CALUBAD, AND NG BENG SHENG, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 208731, January 27, 2016 - PHILIPPINE AMUSEMENT AND GAMING CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. BUREAU OF INTERNAL REVENUE, COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, AND REGIONAL DIRECTOR, REVENUE REGION NO. 6, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 173636, January 13, 2016 - HEIRS OF JOSE MA. GEPUELA, Petitioners, v. HERNITA MEÑEZ-ANDRES, ET AL., Respondents.; G.R. No. 173770 - HERNITA MEÑEZ-ANDRES AND NELIA MEÑEZ CAYETANO, REPRESENTED BY THEIR DULY-APPOINTED ATTORNEY-IN-FACT ANGELITO MEÑEZ, Petitioners, v. HEIRS OF JOSE MA. GEPUELA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 199440, January 18, 2016 - MARY LOU GETURBOS TORRES, Petitioner, v. CORAZON ALMA G. DE LEON, IN HER CAPACITY AS SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RED CROSS AND THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RED CROSS, NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 198627, January 13, 2016 - DST MOVERS CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE'S GENERAL INSURANCE CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 207406, January 13, 2016 - NORBERTO A. VITANGCOL, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 191132, January 27, 2016 - APOSTOLIC VICAR OF TABUK, INC. REPRESENTED BY BISHOP PRUDENCIO ANDAYA, JR., Petitioner, v. SPOUSES ERNESTO AND ELIZABETH SISON AND VENANCIO WADAS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 202885, January 20, 2016 - WALLEM MARITIME SERVICES, INC., REGINALDO A. OBEN AND WALLEM SHIPMANAGEMENT, LTD., Petitioners, v. EDWINITO V. QUILLAO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 217694, January 27, 2016 - FAIRLAND KNITCRAFT CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. ARTURO LOO PO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 198594, January 25, 2016 - HELEN CALIMOSO, MARILYN P. CALIMOSO AND LIBY P. CALIMOSO, Petitioners, v. AXEL D. ROULLO, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 10910 [Formerly CBD Case No. 12-3594], January 19, 2016 - ANTERO M. SISON, JR., Complainant, v. ATTY. MANUEL N. CAMACHO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 167615, January 11, 2016 - SPOUSES ALEXANDER AND JULIE LAM, DOING BUSINESS UNDER THE NAME AND STYLE "COLORKWIK LABORATORIES" AND "COLORKWIK PHOTO SUPPLY", Petitioners, v. KODAK PHILIPPINES, LTD., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 206147, January 13, 2016 - MICHAEL C. GUY, Petitioner, v. ATTY. GLENN C. GACOTT, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 206584, January 11, 2016 - MAE FLOR GALIDO, Petitioner, v. NELSON P. MAGRARE, EVANGELINE M. PALCAT, RODOLFO BAYOMBONG, AND REGISTER OF DEEDS OF ANTIQUE, SAN JOSE, ANTIQUE, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 214490, January 13, 2016 - HOWARD LESCANO Y CARREON @ "TISOY", Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. CA-15-31-P (formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 13-218-CA-P), January 12, 2016 - COMMITTEE ON SECURITY AND SAFETY, COURT OF APPEALS, Complainant, v. REYNALDO V. DIANCO - CHIEF SECURITY, JOVEN O. SORIANOSOS - SECURITY GUARD 3, AND ABELARDO P. CATBAGAN - SECURITY GUARD 3, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 198172, January 25, 2016 - REGULUS DEVELOPMENT, INC., Petitioner, v. ANTONIO DELA CRUZ, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 195477, January 15, 2016 - SPOUSES HERMINIO E. ERORITA AND EDITHA C. ERORITA, Petitioners, v. SPOUSES LIGAYA DUMLAO AND ANTONIO DUMLAO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 191018, January 25, 2016 - CARLOS BORROMEO, Petitioner, v. FAMILY CARE HOSPITAL, INC. AND RAMON S. INSO, M.D., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 202426, January 27, 2016 GINA ENDAYA, Petitioner, v. ERNESTO V. VILLAOS, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 201595, January 25, 2016 - ALLAN M. MENDOZA, Petitioner, v. OFFICERS OF MANILA WATER EMPLOYEES UNION (MWEU), NAMELY, EDUARDO B. BORELA, BUENAVENTURA QUEBRAL, ELIZABETH COMETA, ALEJANDRO TORRES, AMORSOLO TIERRA, SOLEDAD YEBAN, LUIS RENDON, VIRGINIA APILADO, TERESITA BOLO, ROGELIO BARBERO, JOSE CASAÑAS, ALFREDO MAGA, EMILIO FERNANDEZ, ROSITA BUENAVENTURA, ALMENIO CANCINO, ADELA IMANA, MARIO MANCENIDO, WILFREDO MANDILAG, ROLANDO MANLAPAZ, EFREN MONTEMAYOR, NELSON PAGULAYAN, CARLOS VILLA, RIC BRIONES,AND CHITO BERNARDO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 169507, January 11, 2016 - AIR CANADA, Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 194964-65, January 11, 2016 - UNIVERSITY OF MINDANAO, INC., Petitioner, v. BANGKO SENTRAL PILIPINAS, ET AL., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 168078, January 13, 2016 - FABIO CAHAYAG AND CONRADO RIVERA, Petitioners, v. COMMERCIAL CREDIT CORPORATION, REPRESENTED BY ITS PRESIDENT, LEONARDO B. ALEJANDRO; TERESITA T. QUA, ASSISTED BY HER HUSBAND ALFONSO MA. QUA; AND THE REGISTER OF DEEDS OF LAS PINAS, METRO MANILA, DISTRICT IV, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 168357 - DULOS REALTY & DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, REPRESENTED BY ITS PRESIDENT, JUANITO C. DULOS; AND MILAGROS E. ESCALONA, AND ILUMINADA D. BALDOZA, Petitioners, v. COMMERCIAL CREDIT CORPORATION, REPRESENTED BY ITS PRESIDENT, LEONARDO B. ALEJANDRO; TERESITA T. QUA, ASSISTED BY HER HUSBAND ALFONSO MA. QUA; AND THE REGISTER OF DEEDS OF LAS PINAS, METRO MANILA, DISTRICT IV, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 212623, January 11, 2016 - ENRIQUE G. DE LEON, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES AND SPO3 PEDRITO L. LEONARDO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 219603, January 26, 2016 - MARY ELIZABETH TY-DELGADO, Petitioner, v. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ELECTORAL TRIBUNAL AND PHILIP ARREZA PICHAY, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 215847, January 12, 2016 - GOV. EXEQUIEL B. JAVIER, Petitioner, v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, CORNELIO P. ALDON, AND RAYMUNDO T. ROQUERO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 186635, January 27, 2016 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner,; UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, Oppositor, v. SEGUNDINA ROSARIO, JOINED BY ZUELLGATE CORPORATION, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 212426, January 12, 2016 - RENE A.V. SAGUISAG, WIGBERTO E. TAÑADA, FRANCISCO "DODONG" NEMENZO, JR., SR. MARY JOHN MANANZAN, PACIFICO A. AGABIN, ESTEBAN "STEVE" SALONGA, H. HARRY L. ROQUE, JR., EVALYN G. URSUA, EDRE U. OLALIA, DR. CAROL PAGADUAN-ARAULLO, DR. ROLAND SIMBULAN, AND TEDDY CASINO, Petitioners, v. EXECUTIVE PAQUITO N. DEPARTMENT DEFENSE VOLTAIRE DEPARTMENT SECRETARY OCHOA, JR., OF NATIONAL SECRETARY GAZMIN, OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS SECRETARY ALBERT DEL ROSARIO, JR., DEPARTMENT OF BUDGET AND MANAGEMENT SECRETARY FLORENCIO ABAD, AND ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES CHIEF OF STAFF GENERAL EMMANUEL T. BAUTISTA, Respondents.; G.R. No. 212444 - BAGONG ALYANSANG MAKABAYAN (BAYAN), REPRESENTED BY ITS SECRETARY GENERAL RENATO M. REYES, JR., BAYAN MUNA PARTY-LIST REPRESENTATIVES NERI J. COLMENARES AND CARLOS ZARATE, GABRIELA WOMEN'S PARTY-LIST REPRESENTATIVES LUZ ILAGAN AND EMERENCIANA DE JESUS, ACT TEACHERS PARTY-LIST REPRESENTATIVE ANTONIO L. TINIO, ANAKPAWIS PARTY-LIST REPRESENTATIVE FERNANDO HICAP, KABATAAN PARTY-LIST REPRESENTATIVE TERRY RIDON, MAKABAYANG KOALISYON NG MAMAMAYAN (MAKABAYAN), REPRESENTED BY SATURNINO OCAMPO AND LIZA MAZA, BIENVENIDO LUMBERA, JOEL C. LAMANGAN, RAFAEL MARIANO, SALVADOR FRANCE, ROGELIO M. SOLUTA, AND CLEMENTE G. BAUTISTA, Petitioners, v. DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENSE (DND) SECRETARY VOLTAIRE GAZMIN, DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS SECRETARY ALBERT DEL ROSARIO, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PAQUITO N. OCHOA, JR., ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES CHIEF OF STAFF GENERAL EMMANUEL T. BAUTISTA, DEFENSE UNDERSECRETARY PIO LORENZO BATINO, AMBASSADOR LOURDES YPARRAGUIRRE, AMBASSADOR J. EDUARDO MALAYA, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE UNDERSECRETARY FRANCISCO BARAAN III, AND DND ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR STRATEGIC ASSESSMENTS RAYMUND JOSE QUILOP AS CHAIRPERSON AND MEMBERS, RESPECTIVELY, OF THE NEGOTIATING PANEL FOR THE PHILIPPINES ON EDCA, Respondents.; KILUSANG MAYO UNO, REPRESENTED BY ITS CHAIRPERSON, ELMER LABOG, CONFEDERATION FOR UNITY, RECOGNITION AND ADVANCEMENT OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES (COURAGE), REPRESENTED BY ITS NATIONAL PRESIDENT FERDINAND GAITE, NATIONAL FEDERATION OF LABOR UNIONS-KILUSANG MAYO UNO, REPRESENTED BY ITS NATIONAL PRESIDENT JOSELITO USTAREZ, NENITA GONZAGA, VIOLETA ESPIRITU, VIRGINIA FLORES, AND ARMANDO TEODORO, JR., Petitioners-in-Intervention; RENE A.Q. SAGUISAG, JR., Petitioners-in-Intervention.

  • G.R. No. 191033, January 11, 2016 - THE ORCHARD GOLF & COUNTRY CLUB, INC., EXEQUIEL D. ROBLES, CARLO R.H. MAGNO, CONRADO L. BENITEZ II, VICENTE R. SANTOS, HENRY CUA LOPING, MARIZA SANTOS-TAN, TOMAS B. CLEMENTE III, AND FRANCIS C. MONTALLANA, Petitioners, v. ERNESTO V. YU AND MANUEL C. YUHICO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 174673, January 11, 2016 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. FE ROA GIMENEZ AND IGNACIO B. GIMENEZ, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 211737, January 13, 2016 - SERGIO R. OSMEÑA III, Petitioner, v. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SECRETARY JOSEPH EMILIOI A. ABAYA, MACTAN-CEBU INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AUTHORITY (MCIAA), THE PRE-QUALIFICATION, BIDS AND AWARDS COMMITTEE (PBAC) FOR THE MACTAN-CEBU INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT PROJECT THROUGH ITS CHAIRMAN, UNDERSECRETARY JOSE PERPETUO M. LOTILLA, GMR INFRASTRUCTURE, LTD. AND MEGAWIDE CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 214756 - BUSINESS FOR PROGRESS MOVEMENT AS REPRESENTED BY MEDARDO C. DEACOSTA, JR., Petitioner, v. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS, GMR-MEGAWIDE CEBU AIRPORT CORPORATION, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 173137, January 11, 2016 - BASES CONVERSION DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, Petitioner, v. DMCI PROJECT DEVELOPERS, INC., Respondent.; G.R. NO. 173170 - NORTH LUZON RAILWAYS CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. DMCI PROJECT DEVELOPERS, INC. Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 201614, January 12, 2016 - SHERYL M. MENDEZ, Petitioner, v. SHARI'A DISTRICT COURT, 5th SHARI'A DISTRICT, COTABATO CITY, RASAD G. BALINDONG (ACTING PRESIDING JUDGE); 1st SHARI'A CIRCUIT COURT, 5th SHARI'A DISTRICT, COTABATO CITY, MONTANO K. KALIMPO (PRESIDING JUDGE); AND DR. JOHN O. MALIGA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 174471, January 12, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. JERRY PEPINO Y RUERAS AND PRECIOSA GOMEZ Y CAMPOS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 197970, January 25, 2016 - METROPOLITAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY, Petitioner, v. FADCOR, INC. OR THE FLORENCIO CORPORATION, LETICIA D. FLORENCIO, RACHEL FLORENCIO-AGUSTIN, MA. MERCEDES FLORENCIO AND ROSENDO CESAR FLORENCIO, JR., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 214241, January 13, 2016 - SPOUSES RAMON AND LIGAYA GONZALES, Petitioners, v. MARMAINE REALTY CORPORATION, REPRESENTED BY MARIANO MANALO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 194962, January 27, 2016 - CAGAYAN ECONOMIC ZONE AUTHORITY, Petitioner, v. MERIDIEN VISTA GAMING CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 173140, January 11, 2016 - MACTAN CEBU INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AUTHORITY [MCIAA], Petitioner, v. HEIRS OF GAVINA IJORDAN, NAMELY, JULIAN CUISON, FRANCISCA CUISON, DAMASTNA CUISON, PASTOR CUISON, ANGELINA CUISON, MANSUETO CUISON, BONIFACIA CUISON, BASILIO CUISON, MOISES CUISON, AND FLORENCIO CUISON, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 171303, January 20, 2016 - ELIZABETH L. DIAZ, Petitioner, v. GEORGINA R. ENCANTO, ERNESTO G. TABUJARA, GEMINO H. ABAD AND UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 165223, January 11, 2016 - WINSTON F. GARCIA, IN HIS CAPACITY AS PRESIDENT AND GENERAL MANAGER OF THE GOVERNMENT SERVICE INSURANCE SYSTEM (GSIS), Petitioner, v. MARIO I. MOLINA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 205639, January 18, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPRNES, Appellee, v. ANITA MIRANBA Y BELTRAN, Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 203642, January 18, 2016 - THOMASITES CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES (TCIS), Petitioner, v. RUTH N. RODRIGUEZ, IRENE P. PADRIGON AND ARLYN B. RILLERA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 213863, January 27, 2016 - LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. EDGARDO L. SANTOS, REPRESENTED BY HIS ASSIGNEE, ROMEO L. SANTOS, Respondent.; G.R. NO. 214021 - EDGARDO L. SANTOS, REPRESENTED BY HIS ASSIGNEE, ROMEO L. SANTOS, Petitioner, v. LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 195666, January 20, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. FE ABELLA Y BUHAIN, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 172919, January 13, 2016 - TIMOTEO BACALSO AND DIOSDADA BACALSO, Petitioners, v. GREGORIA B. ACA-AC, EUTIQUIA B. AGUILA, JULIAN BACUS AND EVELYN SYCHANGCO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 198140, January 25, 2016 - IA1 ERWIN L. MAGCAMIT, Petitioner, v. INTERNAL AFFAIRS SERVICE -PHILIPPINE DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENCY, AS REPRESENTED BY SI V ROMEO M. ENRIQUEZ AND DIRECTOR GENERAL DIONISIO R. SANTIAGO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 213607, January 25, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. GLEN PIAD Y BORI, RENATO VILLAROSA Y PLATINO AND NILO DAVIS Y ARTIGA, Accused-Appellants.

  • G.R. No. 207970, January 20, 2016 - FERNANDO MEDICAL ENTERPRISES, INC., Petitioner, v. WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY PHILIPPINES, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 206224, January 18, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JUAN ASISLO Y MATIO, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 215995, January 19, 2016 - VICE-MAYOR MARCELINA S. ENGLE, Petitioner, v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS EN BANC AND WINSTON B. MENZON, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 174909, January 20, 2016 - MARCELINO M. FLORETE, JR., MARIA ELENA F. MUYCO AND RAUL A. MUYCO, Petitioners, v. ROGELIO M. FLORETE, IMELDA C. FLORETE, DIAMEL CORPORATION, ROGELIO C. FLORETE JR., AND MARGARET RUTH C. FLORETE, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 177275 - ROGELIO M. FLORETE SR., Petitioner, v. MARCELINO M. FLORETE, JR., MARIA ELENA F. MUYCO AND RAUL A. MUYCO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 213472, January 26, 2016 - ZAMBOANGA CITY WATER DISTRICT, REPRESENTED BY ITS GENERAL MANAGER, LEONARDO REY D. VASQUEZ, ZAMBOANGA CITY WATER DISTRICT-EMPLOYEES UNION, REPRESENTED BY ITS PRESIDENT, NOEL A. FABIAN, LOPE IRINGAN, ALEJO S. ROJAS, JR., EDWIN N. MAKASIAR, RODOLFO CARTAGENA, ROBERTO R. MENDOZA, GREGORIO R. MOLINA, ARNULFO A. ALFONSO, LUCENA R. BUSCAS, LUIS A. WEE, LEILA M. MONTEJO, FELECITA G. REBOLLOS, ERIC A. DELGADO, NORMA L. VILLAFRANCA, ABNER C. PADUA, SATURNINO M. ALVIAR, FELIPE S. SALCEDO, JULIUS P. CARPITANOS, HANLEY ALBANA, JOHNY D. DEMAYO, ARCHILES A. BRAULIO, ELIZA MAY R. BRAULIO, TEDILITO R. SARMIENTO, SUSANA C. BONGHANOY, LUZ A. BIADO, ERIC V. SALARITAN, RYAN ED C. ESTRADA, NOEL MASA KAWAGUCHI, TEOTIMO REYES, JR., EUGENE DOMINGO, AND ALEX ACOSTA, REPRESENTED BY LUIS A. WEE, Petitioners, v. COMMISSION ON AUDIT, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 198889, January 20, 2016 - UFC PHILIPPINES, INC. (NOW MERGED WITH NUTRI-ASIA, INC., WITH NUTRI-ASIA, INC. AS THE SURVIVING ENTITY), Petitioner, v. FIESTA BARRIO MANUFACTURING CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 192914, January 28, 2016 - NAPOLEON D. SENIT, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 10952, January 26, 2016 - ENGEL PAUL ACA, Complainant, v. ATTY. RONALDO P. SALVADO, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 10859 [Formerly CBD Case No. 09-2514], January 26, 2016 - MARIA FATIMA JAPITANA, Complainant, v. ATTY. SYLVESTER C. PARADO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 192268, January 27, 2016 - DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, REPRESENTED BY ITS REGIONAL DIRECTOR, Petitioner, v. DELFINA C. CASIBANG, ANGELINA C. CANAPI, ERLINDA C. BAJAN, LORNA G. GUMABAY, DION1SIA C. ALONZO, MARIA C. BANGAYAN AND DIGNA C. BINAYUG, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 180559, January 20, 2016 - ANECITA GREGORIO, Petitioner, v. MARIA CRISOLOGO VDA. DE CULIG, THRU HER ATTORN EY-IN-FACT ALFREDO CULIG, JR., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 198752, January 13, 2016 - ARTURO C. ALBA, JR., DULY REPRESENTED BY HIS ATTORNEYS-IN-FACT, ARNULFO B. ALBA AND ALEXANDER C. ALBA, Petitioner, v. RAYMUND D. MALAPAJO, RAMIL D. MALAPAJO AND THE REGISTER OF DEEDS FOR THE CITY OF ROXAS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 196140, January 27, 2016 - NATIONAL POWER CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. ELIZABETH MANALASTAS AND BEA CASTILLO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 216920, January 13, 2016 - GIRLIE M. QUISAY, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 210454, January 13, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff and Appellee, v. RONALDO CASACOP Y AMIL, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 187691, January 13, 2016 - OLYMPIA HOUSING, INC., Petitioner, v. ALLAN LAPASTORA AND IRENE UBALUBAO, Respondents.

  • A.M. No. P-15-3344, January 13, 2016 - ANTONIO A. FERNANDEZ, Complainant, v. MILA A. ALERTA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 214092, January 11, 2016 - ECHO 2000 COMMERCIAL CORPORATION, EDWARD N. ENRIQUEZ, LEONORA K. BENEDICTO AND ATTY. GINA WENCESLAO, Petitioners, v. OBRERO FILIPINO-ECHO 2000 CHAPTER-CLO, ARLO C. CORTES AND DAVE SOMIDO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 197665, January 13, 2016 - P/S INSP. SAMSON B. BELMONTE, SPO1 FERMO R. GALLARDE, PO3 LLOYD F. SORIA, PO1 HOMER D. GENEROSO, PO1 SERGS DC. MACEREN, PO3 AVELINO L. GRAVADOR, PO2 FIDEL O. GUEREJERO, AND PO1 JEROME T. NOCHEFRANCA, JR., Petitioner, v. OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY OMBUDSMAN FOR THE MILITARY AND OTHER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICES, OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 188213, January 11, 2016 - NATIVIDAD C. CRUZ AND BENJAMIN DELA CRUZ, Petitioners, v. PANDACAN HIKER'S CLUB, INC., REPRESENTED BY ITS PRESIDENT, PRISCILAILAO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 170004, January 13, 2016 - ILONA HAPITAN, Petitioner, v. SPOUSES JIMMY LAGRADILLA AND WARLILY LAGRADILLA AND ESMERALDA BLACER, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 174113, January 13, 2016 - PAZ CHENG Y CHU, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF PHILIPPINES, THE Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 176986, January 13, 2016 - NISSAN CAR LEASE PHILS., INC., Petitioner, v. LICA MANAGEMENT, INC. AND PROTON PILIPINAS, INC., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 178501, January 11, 2016 - NILO S. RODRIGUEZ, FRANCISCO T. ALISANGCO, BENJAMIN T. ANG, VICENTE P. ANG, SILVESTRE D. ARROYO, RUDERICO C. BAQUIRAN, WILFREDO S. CRUZ, EDMUNDO M. DELOS REYES, JR., VIRGILIO V. ECARMA, ISMAEL F. GALISIM, TITO F. GARCIA, LIBERATO D. GUTIZA, GLADYS L. JADIE, LUISITO M. JOSE, PATERNO C. LABUGA, JR. NOEL Y. LASTIMOSO, DANILO C. MATIAS, BEN T. MATURAN, VIRGILIO N. OCHARAN, GABRIEL P. PIAMONTE, JR., ARTURO A. SABADO, MANUEL P. SANCHEZ, MARGOT A. CORPUS AS THE SURVIVING SPOUSE OF THE DECEASED ARNOLD S. CORPUS, AND ESTHER VICTORIA A. ALCAÑESES AS THE SURVIVING SPOUSE OF THE DECEASED EFREN S. ALCAÑESES, Petitioners, v. PHILIPPINE AIRLINES, INC., AND NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, Respondent.; G.R. NO. 178510 - PHILIPPINE AIRLINES, INC., Petitioner, v. NILO S. RODRIGUEZ, FRANCISCO T. ALISANGCO, BENJAMIN T. ANG, VICENTE P. ANG, SILVESTRE D. ARROYO, RUDERICO C. BAQUIRAN, ARNOLD S. CORPUS, WILFREDO S. CRUZ, EDMUNDO M. DELOS REYES, JR., VIRGILIO V. ECARMA, ISMAEL F. GALISIM, TITO F. GARCIA, LIBERATO D. GUTIZA, GLADYS L. JADIE, LUISITO M. JOSE, PATERNO C. LABUGA, JR., NOEL Y. LASTIMOSO, DANILO C. MATIAS, BEN T. MATURAN, VIRGILIO N. OCHARAN, GABRIEL M. PIAMONTE, JR., RODOLFO O. POE, JR., ARTURO A. SABADO, MANUEL P. SANCHEZ, and ESTHER VICTORIA A. ALCAÑESES, AS THE SOLE HEIR OF THE DECEASED EFREN S. ALCAÑESES, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 190798, January 27, 2016 - RONALD IBAÑEZ, EMILIO IBAÑEZ, AND DANIEL "BOBOT" IBAÑEZ, Petitioners, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. Nos. 198916-17, January 11, 2016 - MALAYAN INSURANCE COMPANY, INC., Petitioner, v. ST. FRANCIS SQUARE REALTY CORPORATION, Respondent.; G.R. NOS. 198920-21 - ST. FRANCIS SQUARE REALTY CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. MALAYAN INSURANCE COMPANY, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. Nos. 198916-17, January 11, 2016 - MALAYAN INSURANCE COMPANY, INC., Petitioner, v. ST. FRANCIS SQUARE REALTY CORPORATION, Respondent.; G.R. NOS. 198920-21 - ST. FRANCIS SQUARE REALTY CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. MALAYAN INSURANCE COMPANY, INC., Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 10868 [Formerly CBD Case No. 07-2041], January 26, 2016 - CHERYL E. VASCO-TAMARAY, Complainant, v. ATTY. DEBORAH Z. DAQUIS, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 212070, January 20, 2016 - CEBU PEOPLE'S MULTI­PURPOSE COOPERATIVE AND MACARIO G. QUEVEDO, Petitioners, v. NICERATO E. CARBONILLA, JR., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 160408, January 11, 2016 - SPOUSES ROBERTO AND ADELAIDA PEN, Petitioners, v. SPOUSES SANTOS AND LINDA JULIAN, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 180235, January 20, 2016 - ALTA VISTA GOLF AND COUNTRY CLUB, Petitioner, v. THE CITY OF CEBU, HON. MAYOR TOMAS R. OSMEÑA, IN HIS CAPACITY AS MAYOR OF CEBU, AND TERESITA C. CAMARILLO, IN HER CAPACITY AS THE CITY TREASURER, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 177680, January 13, 2016 - JENNIFER C. LAGAHIT, Petitioner, v. PACIFIC CONCORD CONTAINER LINES/MONETTE CUENCA (BRANCH MANAGER), Respondents.

  • A.C. No. 10753 (Formerly CBD Case No. 10-2703), January 26, 2016 - ATTY. PABLO B. FRANCISCO, Complainant, v. ATTY. ROMEO M. FLORES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 156635, January 11, 2016 - THE HONGKONG & SHANGHAI BANKING CORPORATION EMPLOYEES UNION, MA. DALISAY P. DELA CHICA, MARVILON B. MILITANTE, DAVID Z. ATANACIO, JR., CARMINA C. RIVERA, MARIO T. FERMIN(T), ISABELO E. MOLO, RUSSEL M. PALMA, IMELDA G. HERNANDEZ, VICENTE M. LLACUNA, JOSEFINA A. ORTIGUERRO, MA. ASUNCION G. KIMSENG, MIGUEL R. SISON, RAUL P. GERONIMO, MARILOU E. CADENA, ANA N. TAMONTE, AVELINO Q. RELUCIO, JORALYN R. GONGORA, CORAZON E. ALBOS, ANABELLA J. GONZALES, MA. CORAZON Q. BALTAZAR, MARIA LUZ I. JIMENEZ, ELVIRA A. ORLINA, SAMUEL B. ELLARMA, ROSARIO A. FLORES, EDITHA L. BROQUEZA, REBECCA T. FAJARDO, MA. VICTORIA C. LUNA, MA. THERESA G. GALANG, BENIGNO V. AMION, GERARDO J. DE LEON, ROWENA T. OCAMPO, MALOU P. DIZON, RUBEN DE C. ATIENZA, MELO E. GABA, HERNAN B. CAMPOSANTO, NELIA D. M. DERIADA, LOLITO L. HILIS, GRACE C. MABUNAY, FE ESPERANZA C. GERONG, MANUEL E. HERRERA, JOSELITO J. GONZAGA, ULDARTCO D. PEDIDA, ROSALINA JULIET B. LOQUELLANO, MARCIAL F. GONZAGA, MERCEDES R. PAULE, JOSE TEODORO A. MOTUS, BLANCHE D. MOTUS, DAISY M. FAGUTAO, ANTONIO A. DEL ROSARIO, EMMANUEL JUSTIN S. GREY, FRANCISCA DEL MUNDO, JULIETA A. CRUZ, RODRIGO J. DURANO, CATALINA R. YEE, MENANDRO CALIGAGAN, MAIDA M. SACRO MILITANTE, LEONILA M. PEREZ, AND EMMA MATEO, Petitioners, v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION AND THE HONGKONG & SHANGHAI BANKING CORPORATION, LTD., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 211062, January 13, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. MANUEL MACAL Y BOLASCO, Accused-Appellants.

  • G.R. No. 158622, January 27, 2016 - SPOUSES ROBERT ALAN L. AND NANCY LEE LIMSO, Petitioners, v. PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK AND THE REGISTER OF DEEDS OF DAVAO CITY, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 169441 - DAVAO SUNRISE INVESTMENT AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AND SPOUSES ROBERT ALAN AND NANCY LIMSO, Petitioners, v. HON. JESUS V. QUITAIN, IN HIS CAPACITY AS PRESIDING JUDGE OF REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, DAVAO CITY, BRANCH 15 AND PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 172958 - DAVAO SUNRISE INVESTMENT AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION REPRESENTED BY ITS PRESIDENT ROBERT ALAN L. LIMSO, AND SPOUSES ROBERT ALAN AND NANCY LEE LIMSO, Petitioners, v. HON. JESUS V. QUITAIN, IN HIS CAPACITY AS PRESIDING JUDGE OF REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, DAVAO CITY, BRANCH 15 AND PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 173194 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK, Petitioner, v. DAVAO SUNRISE INVESTMENT AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AND SPOUSES ROBERT ALAN LIMSO AND NANCY LEE LIMSO, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 196958 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK, Petitioner, v. DAVAO SUNRISE INVESTMENT AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AND SPOUSES ROBERT ALAN L. LIMSO AND NANCY LEE LIMSO, Respondent.; G.R. NO. 197120 - DAVAO SUNRISE INVESTMENT AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AND SPOUSES ROBERT ALAN AND NANCY LEE LIMSO, Petitioners, v. PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK, Respondent.; G.R. NO. 205463 - IN THE MATTER OF THE PETITION EX-PARTE FOR THE ISSUANCE OF THE WRIT OF POSSESSION UNDER LRC RECORD NO. 12973, 18031 AND LRC RECORD NO. 317, PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK,