Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence


Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence > Year 2016 > June 2016 Decisions > G.R. No. 189401, June 15, 2016 - VIL-REY PLANNERS AND BUILDERS, Petitioners, v. LEXBER, INC., Respondent.; G.R. NO. 189447 - LEXBER, INC., Petitioner, v. STRONGHOLD INSURANCE COMPANY, INC., Respondent.:




G.R. No. 189401, June 15, 2016 - VIL-REY PLANNERS AND BUILDERS, Petitioners, v. LEXBER, INC., Respondent.; G.R. NO. 189447 - LEXBER, INC., Petitioner, v. STRONGHOLD INSURANCE COMPANY, INC., Respondent.

PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

FIRST DIVISION

G.R. No. 189401, June 15, 2016

VIL-REY PLANNERS AND BUILDERS, Petitioners, v. LEXBER, INC., Respondent.

G.R. NO. 189447

LEXBER, INC., Petitioner, v. STRONGHOLD INSURANCE COMPANY, INC., Respondent.

D E C I S I O N

SERENO, C.J.:

Before us are petitions for review on certiorari under Rule 45 of the Rules of Court seeking to nullify the Court of Appeals (CA) Decision1 and Resolution2 in CA-G.R. CV No. 90241. The CA Decision found Vil-Rey Planners and Builders (Vil-Rey) and Stronghold Insurance Company, Inc. (Stronghold), solidarily liable to Lexber, Inc. (Lexber) in the amount of P284,084.46 plus attorney's fees of P50,000. The CA Resolution denied the motions for reconsideration filed by Vil-Rey and Stronghold.

FACTS

Vil-Rey and Lexber entered into a Construction Contract dated 17 April 19963 (first contract) whereby the former undertook to work on the compacted backfill of the latter's 56,565-square-meter property in Barangay Bangad, Cabanatuan City. Based on the first contract, Vil-Rey shall complete the project in 60 days for a consideration of P5,100,000. Lexber released to Vil-Rey a mobilization downpayment of P500,000 secured by Surety Bond G(16) No. 0669154 (first surety bond) issued by Stronghold. For its part, Vil-Rey agreed to indemnify Stronghold for whatever amount the latter might be adjudged to pay Lexber under the surety bond.5ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

Vil-Rey and Lexber mutually terminated the first contract and entered into a Construction Contract dated 1 July 19966 (second contract) to cover the remaining works, but under revised terms and conditions. The contract amount was P2,988,700.20, and the scope of work was required to be completed in 60 days.

On 23 December 1996, Vil-Rey and Lexber executed Work Order No. CAB-96-097 (third contract) for the completion of the remaining works by 15 January 1997. Under the third contract, a consideration of P1,168,728.37 shall be paid on the following basis: 50% downpayment to be secured by a surety bond in the same amount issued by Stronghold upon approval of the work order and 50% balance upon completion of the works. Accordingly, Stronghold, issued Surety Bond G(16) No. 0772588 (second surety bond) in the amount of P584,364.19 in favor of Lexber. Vil-Rey again obligated itself to indemnify Stronghold for whatever amount the latter might be held to pay under the surety bond.9ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

In a letter dated 21 January 199710 addressed to Lexber, Vil-Rey requested the extension of the contract period to 31 January 1997. Lexber granted the request for extension.11 However, Vil-Rey failed to complete the works by the end of the extended period, or even after Lexber gave it another five days to finish the works.12 Lexber then wrote Stronghold seeking to collect on the two surety bonds issued in favor of the former.13ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

When negotiations failed, Lexber filed a Complaint14 for sum of money and damages against Vil-Rey and Stronghold before the Regional Trial Court of Quezon City, Branch 93 (RTC).

In its Answer (with Counterclaim),15 Vil-Rey denied that it was guilty of breach of contract and insisted that it was Lexber that owed the amount of P1,960,558.40 to the former. Vil-Rey alleged that under the first contract, it was able to finish 75.33% of the works, but that Lexber paid an amount equivalent to only 50% of the contract, thereby leaving a balance of PI,291,830 in Vil-Rey's favor. Furthermore, considering that almost 100% of the works were finished under the third contract, Vil-Rey had receivables of P668/728.40 representing the contract amount of P1,168,728.37 less the downpayment of P500,000. It also prayed for the payment of moral damages and attorney's fees.

Stronghold filed its Answer16 alleging that its liability under the surety bonds was very specific. Under the first surety bond, it guaranteed only the mobilization down payment of 10% of the total consideration for the first contract. The mobilization downpayment was fully liquidated prior to the mutual termination of the first contract. Also, no collection could be made on the second surety bond, because Lexber failed to allege that there were defects in the materials used and workmanship utilized by Vil-Rey in undertaking the works. Stronghold put forward its counterclaim against Lexber for attorney's fees, litigation expenses, and cross-claim against Vil-Rey for any and all amounts Stronghold may be ordered to pay under the surety bonds pursuant to the indemnity agreements.

RULING OF THE RTC

In a Decision dated 12 December 2005,17 the RTC adjudged Vil-Rey and Stronghold jointly and severally liable to Lexber in the amount of P2,988,700.20, with interest at the rate of 12% per annum as actual and compensatory damages from the time of the breach until full satisfaction. The trial court also ordered Vil-Rey and Stronghold to pay attorney's fees in the amount of P500,000 plus the costs of suit. It upheld the indemnity agreements and granted Stronghold's cross-claim against Vil-Rey.

The RTC emphasized that parties to a contract are bound by the stipulations therein. When the contract requires the accomplishment of tasks at a given time and the obligor fails to deliver, there is breach of contract that entitles the obligee to damages. In this case, when Vil-Rey failed to finish the works on time, it became liable to Lexber for damages brought about by the breach. The trial court found no merit in the claim of Vil-Rey that there was underpayment and brushed aside the latter's counterclaim.

As regards Stronghold, the trial court found that the wording of the surety bonds did not embody the parties' true intent, which was to ensure the faithful performance by Vil-Rey of its obligations. Considering its failure in this regard, Stronghold should pay the total amount of the two surety bonds to Lexber.

In an Order dated 22 October 2007,18 the RTC decreed a partial reconsideration and ordered Vil-Rey and Stronghold to pay Lexber in solidum in the amount of PI,084,364.19. This represented the true total amount of the two surety bonds, with 12% interest per annum as actual and compensatory damages from the time of the breach until full satisfaction. Furthermore, attorney's fees were reduced to P200,000.

Vil-Rey and Stronghold filed an appeal before the CA.

RULING OF THE CA

In the assailed Decision dated 16 April 2009,19 the CA modified the RTC Order and further lowered the liability of Vil-Rey and Stronghold to P284,084.46 with interest at the rate of 6% per annum from 11 February 1997 until the finality of the Decision. Thereafter, the amount shall earn 12% interest per annum until full satisfaction. The appellate court also reduced attorney's fees to P50,000.

The CA ruled that, considering the mutual termination of the first and second contracts, no liability could be assessed against Vil-Rey. Whatever claims Lexber had against Vil-Rey had been deemed waived with the execution of the third contract. Consequently, Stronghold could not be made to pay under the first surety bond, which covered only the mobilization downpayment under the first contract.

Nevertheless, there was a clear breach of the third contract, and Vil-Rey should be held liable for the natural and probable consequences of the breach as duly proven. In this case, Lexber was able to prove that it sustained damages in the amount of P284,084.46, which was the amount it paid another contractor tasked to complete the works left unfinished by Vil-Rey. That amount was charged against the second surety bond, which guaranteed not only the workmanship and the quality of the materials used in the project, but also the obligations of Vil-Rey.

The CA modified the interest imposed considering that the obligation breached was not a loan or forbearance of money. Like the RTC, it denied the counterclaims of Vil-Rey and Stronghold against Lexber, but upheld Stronghold's cross-claim against Vil-Rey.

Vil-Rey's motion for reconsideration and Stronghold's motion for partial reconsideration were denied by the CA in the challenged Resolution dated 1 September 2009.20ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

Issues

Dissatisfied, Vil-Rey and Stronghold filed the instant petitions before us raising the following issues for our resolution:

  1. Whether Vil-Rey is liable for breach of contract
  2. Whether Stronghold's liability under the second surety bond was extinguished by the extension of the third contract
  3. Whether Lexber is entitled to attorney's fees

Our Ruling

I.
Vil-Rey is liable for breach of contract.


In resisting the ruling of the CA that Vil-Rey was guilty of breach of contract, the latter alleges that the appellate court's findings are based on a misapprehension of facts.21 Vil-Rey argues that the consideration for the third contract was P1,168,728.37, of which it was paid only P500,000. Considering that there remained a balance of P668,728.37, the amount was more than enough to offset that incurred by Lexber in order to finish the works.

The argument misses the point.

Breach of contract is the failure of a party, without legal reason, to comply with the terms of a contract or perform any promise that forms either a part or the whole of it.22 The failure of Vil-Rey to complete the works under the third contract was never an issue in this case. In fact, that failure was readily admitted by Moises Villarta, its managing partner,23 in his testimony before the trial court:

Q.
What happened after you accomplished 95% under the [third contract]?
A.
The only remaining there would be the compaction and fill density test.
Q.
Could you please tell us why you did not finish the compaction and density test under the [third] contract.
A.
Because I lacked funds. 1 was not paid anymore.24

To clarify, aside from this testimony, no proof was presented to show that Vil-Rey was able to accomplish 95% of the works under the third contract. Nevertheless, even if we were to assume that this claim is true, it still falls short of the obligation to finish 100% of the works.

In the third contract, Vil-Rey and Lexber agreed on the following terms of payment:

50% downpayment upon approval of this work order against a surety bond from Stronghold Insurance Corporation
50% balance upon completion of work

The work will be completed on or before 15 January 1997 x x x.25

It is clear that the next payment for Vil-Rey would have fallen due upon completion of the works. Thus, it cannot put up the defense that its failure to comply with its obligation was because it was not paid.

Under the above provisions, the parties clearly took on reciprocal obligations. These are obligations that arise from the same cause, such that the obligation of one is dependent upon that of the other.26ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

The reciprocal obligation in this case was Lexber's payment of the 50% balance upon Vil-Rey's completion of the works on or before 15 January 1997. However, despite the grant of extension until 31 January 1997, and even after the lapse of another five-day grace period, Vil-Rey failed to finish the works under the third contract.

The law provides that the obligation of a person who fails to fulfill it shall be executed at that person's cost.27 The CA was correct in ruling that Vil-Rey should be held liable for the amount paid by Lexber to another contractor to complete the works. Furthermore, Article 2201 of the Civil Code provides:

Article 2201. In contracts and quasi-contracts, the damages for which the obligor who acted in good faith is liable shall be those that are the natural and probable consequences of the breach of the obligation, and which the parties have foreseen or could have reasonably foreseen at the time the obligation was constituted.

In case of fraud, bad faith, malice or wanton attitude, the obligor shall be responsible for all damages which may be reasonably attributed to the non-performance of the obligation.

In the absence of a clear showing of bad faith on the part of Vil-Rey, it shall be liable for damages only with regard to those that are the natural and probable consequences of its breach. In this case, the failure of Vil-Rey to finish the works compelled Lexber to secure the services of another contractor, to which the latter paid a total of P284,084.46. Considering that this amount was not a loan or forbearance of money, We impose interest at the rate of 6% per annum28 from 17 February 199729 until the finality of this Decision. Thereafter, it shall earn interest at the rate of 6% per annum until satisfaction.30ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

We shall not close this discussion without passing upon another reciprocal obligation assumed by the parties under the third contract. As agreed, Vil-Rey shall acquire a surety bond from Stronghold equivalent to 50% of the contract price of P1,168,728.37 upon Lexber's downpayment of the same amount. Accordingly, on 24 December 1996, Vil-Rey secured the second surety bond in the amount of P584,364.19. On the same day, Lexber made a downpayment of only P500,000.31ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

Article 1169 of the Civil Code provides that in reciprocal obligations, delay by one of the parties begins from the moment the other fulfills the obligation. In this case, Lexber is guilty of delay with regard to the amount of P84,364.19, which should be paid. Also, the delay shall make it liable to Vil-Rey for damages,32 which We impose in the form of interest at the rate of 6% per annum33 from 24 December 1996 until the finality of this Decision. Thereafter, it shall earn interest at the rate of 6% per annum until satisfaction.34ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

The parties shall be allowed to compensate the amounts due them to the extent of their respective obligations.

II.
THE EXTENSION OF THE THIRD CONTRACT
DID NOT EXTINGUISH STRONGHOLD'S LIABILITY
UNDER THE SECOND SURETY BOND.

Stronghold claims that the extension of time for the completion of the works under the third contract from 15 January 1997 to 31 January 1997 was made without its consent as surety.35 It is argued that an extension of payment given by the creditor to the debtor without notice to or consent of the surety extinguishes the surety's obligation, unless a continuing guarantee was executed by the surety. Stronghold insists that the CA erred in construing the second surety bond as a continuing guarantee despite clear stipulations to the contrary.36 Furthermore, considering that the second surety bond guaranteed only the materials and the workmanship that would be utilized by Vil-Rey, the absence of any complaint from Lexber in this respect discharged Stronghold.37ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

The following were the conditions and the obligations assumed by Stronghold under the second surety bond:

TO GUARANTEE [VIL-REY'S] OBLIGATIONS AND TO ANSWER FOR ANY DEFECTS IN THE MATERIALS USED AND WORKMANSHIP UTILIZED IN THE LAND FILLING OF LEXBER HOMES CABANATUAN (REMAINING WORKS).

AND THAT THE LIABILITY OF THIS BOND SHALL NOT EXCEED THE SUM OF PESOS, FIVE HUNDRED EIGHTY FOUR THOUSAND THREE HUNDRED SIXTY FOUR & 19/100 ONLY, (P584,364.19), PHILIPPINE CURRENCY.38cralawred

The second surety bond clearly guaranteed the full and faithful performance of the "obligations" of Vil-Rey under the third contract, and it was not secured just to answer for "defects in the materials used and workmanship utilized." As a performance bond, the second surety bond guaranteed that Vil-Rey would perform the contract, and provided that if the latter defaults and fails to complete the contract, Stronghold itself shall complete the contract or pay damages up to the limit of the bond.39ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

A surety bond is an accessory contract dependent for its existence upon the principal obligation it guarantees.40 Being so associated with the third contract as a necessary condition or component thereof, the second surety bond cannot be separated or severed from its principal. Considering that the third contract provided that the works shall be completed on or before 15 January 1997, the second surety bond was deemed to have guaranteed the completion of the works on the same date.

It is true that a surety is discharged from its obligation when there is a material alteration of the principal contract, such as a change that imposes a new obligation on the obligor; or takes away some obligation already imposed; or changes the legal effect, and not merely the form, of the original contract.42 Nevertheless, no release from the obligation shall take place when the change in the contract does not have the effect of making the obligation more onerous to the surety.43ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

In this case, the extension of the third contract for 15 days and the grant of an additional five-day grace period did not make Stronghold's obligation more onerous. On the contrary, the extensions were aimed at the completion of the works, which would have been for the benefit of Stronghold. This perspective comes from the provision of the second surety bond that "if [Vil-Rey] shall in all respects duly and fully observe and perform all xxx the aforesaid covenants, conditions and agreements to the true intent and meaning thereof, then this obligation shall be null and void, otherwise to remain in full force and effect."44 The completion of the works would have discharged Stronghold from its liability.

We find no merit in the contention of Stronghold that the extensions extinguished its obligation as a surety.45 We note that it also realized the importance of the completion of the works as far as it was concerned, as shown in its letter to Vil-Rey dated 25 March 1997:

Enclosed is a copy of the letter dated February 18, 1997 we received on February 20, 1997 from Lexber, Inc., posting formal claim against our bonds at caption due to your failure to complete your contracted project within the stipulated period.

Please take appropriate action to make good your commitment and contractual obligations to the Obligee within five (5) days from receipt hereof and advise us on any development you have with them on the matter for our guidance.46

Even as late as 25 March 1997, Stronghold still sought the completion of the works to the point of giving Vil-Rey a period of five days to fulfill its commitments. Clearly, it cannot now claim that it was prejudiced by the extensions given by Lexber, when it was prepared to give an extension of its own just so Vil-Rey could finish the works.

Stronghold contends that the extension of time for the completion of the third contract without its knowledge discharged it from its obligation under the second surety bond. What further militates against this contention is the fact that it was raised for the first time in the Motion for Partial Reconsideration47 of the CA Decision dated 16 April 2009. Prior to the filing of that motion by Stronghold, its consistent argument before the RTC and even before the CA was that the second surety bond guaranteed only the materials and the workmanship utilized by Vil-Rey; and that the absence of any complaint from Lexber in this regard discharged Stronghold.

We have ruled that issues, grounds, points of law, or theories not brought to the attention of the trial courts cannot be passed upon by reviewing courts.48 Thus, when a party deliberately adopts a certain theory, which becomes the basis for the manner on which the case is tried and decided, the party will not be permitted to change that theory on appeal; otherwise, it would be unfair to the adverse party.49ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

At any rate, as surety, Stronghold has the right to be indemnified for whatever it may be ordered to pay Lexber. This right is provided in the law and not merely based on the indemnity agreement Stronghold executed with Vil-Rey.

In Escaño v. Ortigas, Jr.,50 we explained the right to full reimbursement by a surety for whatever it pays the creditor:

[E]ven as the surety is solidarity bound with the principal debtor to the creditor, the surety who does pay the creditor has the right to recover the full amount paid, and not just any proportional share, from the principal debtor or debtors. Such right to full reimbursement falls within the other rights, actions and benefits which pertain to the surety by reason of the subsidiary obligation assumed by the surety.

What is the source of this right to full reimbursement by the surety? We find the right under Article 2066 of the Civil Code, which assures that "[t]he guarantor who pays for a debtor must be indemnified by the latter," such indemnity comprising of, among others, "the total amount of the debt." Further, Article 2067 of the Civil Code likewise establishes that "ft]he guarantor who pays is subrogated by virtue thereof to all the rights which the creditor had against the debtor."

Articles 2066 and 2067 explicitly pertain to guarantors, and one might argue that the provisions should not extend to sureties, especially in light of the qualifier in Article 2047 that the provisions on joint and several obligations should apply to sureties. We reject that argument, and instead adopt Dr. Tolentino's observation that "[t]he reference in the second paragraph of [Article 2047] to the provisions of Section 4, Chapter 3, Title I, Book IV, on solidary or several obligations, however, does not mean that suretyship is withdrawn from the applicable provisions governing guaranty." For if that were not the implication, there would be no material difference between the surety as defined under Article 2047 and the joint and several debtors, for both classes of obligors would be governed by exactly the same rules and limitations.

Accordingly, the rights to indemnification and subrogation as established and granted to the guarantor by Articles 2066 and 2067 extend as well to sureties as defined under Article 2047. x x x51cralawred

III.
Lexber is entitled to reduced attorney's fees.

Section 9.3 of the first contract provides that in the event Lexber has to institute judicial proceedings in order to enforce any term or condition therein, Vil-Rey shall pay attorney's fees equivalent to not less than 25% of the total amount adjudged.52 This provision was adopted in the second contract53 and even in the third contract, which provides that all conditions in the second contract shall remain in force.54ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

Attorney's fees as provided for in the contracts are in the nature of liquidated damages agreed upon by the parties. These fees are to be paid in case of breach of the contractual stipulations necessitating a party to seek judicial intervention to protect its rights.55 Normally, the obligor is bound to pay the stipulated indemnity without the necessity of proof of the existence or the measure of damages caused by the breach.56ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary

In this case, the failure of Vil-Rey to fulfill its obligation to finish the works under the third contract compelled Lexber to seek judicial intervention. Pursuant to a contractual stipulation therefor, the payment of attorney's fees to Lexber shall be the obligation of Vil-Rey and Stronghold.

However, considering the circumstances surrounding this case, We reduce the award to 10% of P284,084.46, which was the amount Lexber paid to another contractor for the completion of the works. Liquidated damages may be equitably reduced by the courts.57 Since the failure of Vil-Rey to fulfill its obligations was apparently caused by financial difficulties, and Lexber was also guilty of delay with regard to the latter's reciprocal obligation to make a downpayment of 50% of the amount of the third contract upon Vil-Rey's acquisition of a surety bond in the same amount, the courts' power may be properly exercised in this case.

WHEREFORE, the Court of Appeals Decision dated 16 April 2009 and Resolution dated 1 September 2009 in CA-G.R. CV No. 90241 are hereby MODIFIED as follows:
  1. Vil-Rey Planners and Builders and Stronghold Insurance Company, Inc., are hereby ORDERED to jointly and severally pay the following amounts to Lexber, Inc.:

    1. P284,084.46, with interest at the rate of 6% per annum from 17 February 1997 until full payment

    2. 10% of F284,084.46 as attorney's fees

  2. Vil-Rey Planners and Builders is hereby ORDERED to indemnify Stronghold Insurance Company, Inc., for whatever amount the latter shall pay Lexber, Inc.

  3. Lexber, Inc. is hereby ORDERED to pay Vil-Rey Planners and Builders the amount of P84,364.19, with interest at the rate of 6% per annum from 24 December 1996 until full payment.

Vil-Rey Planners and Builders and Lexber, Inc., shall be allowed to compensate the amounts due them to the extent of their respective obligations.

SO ORDERED.chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

Leonardo-De Castro, Bersamin, Reyes,* and Caguioa, JJ., concur.

Endnotes:


* Designated additional Member/ in lieu of Associate Justice Estela M. Perlas-Bernabe per raffle dated 23 May 2016.

1Rollo (G.R, No. 189447), pp. 40-50. The Decision dated 16 April 2009 issued by the Court of Appeals (CA) Thirteenth Division was penned by Associate Justice Estela M. Perlas-Bernabe (now a Member of this Court), with Associate Justices Amelita G. Tolentino and Ramon M. Bato, Jr., concurring.

2 Id. at 52, dated 1 September 2009.

3 Id. at 55-61.

4 Id. at 53.

5 Id. at 54.

6 Id. at 70-74.

7 Id. at 77-78.

8 Id. at 79.

9 Id. at 80.

10 Id. at 81.

11 Id. at 81, 82.

12 Id. at 82.

13 Id. at 83.

14 Id. at 87-90.

15 Id. at 108-112.

16 Id. at 99-105.

17 Id. at 212-220. The Decision was penned by Pairing Judge Samuel H. Gaerlan.

18 Id. at 255-257. The Order was penned by Presiding Judge Ramon Paul L. Hernando.

19 Id. at 40-50.

20 Id. at 52.

21Rollo (G.R. No. 189401), pp. 24-26.

22 R.S. Toman, Inc. v. Rizal Cement Co., Inc., 685 Phil. 9 (2012).

23Rollo (G.R. No. 189401), p. 16.

24 Id. at 23.chanrobleslaw

25Rollo (G.R. No. 189447), p. 78.

26 Metropolitan Bank and Trust Co. v. Chiok, G.R. Nos. 172652, 175302 & 175394, 26 November 2014, 742 SCRA 435,472.

27 CIVIL CODE, Article 1167.

28Nacar v. Gallery Frames, G.R. No. 189871, 13 August 2013, 703 SCRA 439, 458. The Court ruled thus:

To recapitulate and for future guidance, the guidelines laid down in the case of Eastern Shipping Lines are accordingly modified to embody BSP-MB Circular No. 799, as follows:
  1. When an obligation, regardless of its source, i.e., law, contracts, quasi-contracts, delicts or quasi-delicts is breached, the contravenor can be held liable for damages. The provisions under Title XVIII on "Damages" of the Civil Code govern in determining the measure of recoverable damages.

  2. With regard particularly to an award of interest in the concept of actual and compensatory damages, the rate of interest, as well as the accrual thereof, is imposed, as follows:

    1. When the obligation is breached, and it consists in the payment of a sum of money, i.e., a loan or forbearance of money, the interest due should be that which may have been stipulated in writing. Furthermore, the interest due shall itself earn legal interest from the time it is judicially demanded. In the absence of stipulation, the rate of interest shall be 6% per annum to be computed from default, i.e., from judicial or extrajudicial demand under and subject to the provisions of Article 1169 of the Civil Code.

    2. When an obligation, not constituting a loan or forbearance of money, is breached, an interest on the amount of damages awarded may be imposed at the discretion of the court at the rate of 6% per annum. No interest, however, shall be adjudged on unliquidated claims or damages, except when or until the demand can be established with reasonable certainty. Accordingly, where the demand is established with reasonable certainty, the interest shall begin to run from the time the claim is made judicially or extrajudicially (Art. 1169, Civil Code), but when such certainty cannot be so reasonably established at the time the demand is made, the interest shall begin to run only from the date the judgment of the court is made (at which time the quantification of damages may be deemed to have been reasonably ascertained). The actual base for the computation of legal interest shall, in any case, be on the amount finally adjudged.

    3. When the judgment of the court awarding a sum of money becomes final and executory, the rate of legal interest, whether the case falls under paragraph 1 or paragraph 2, above, shall be 6% per annum from such finality until its satisfaction, this interim period being deemed to be by then an equivalent to a forbearance of credit.
29 The day after the lapse of the five-day grace period that Lexber gave Vil-Rey. The notice of delay and noncompliance sent by Lexber was received by Vil-Rey on 11 February 1997 [Rol/o (G.R. No. 189447), p. 49]. In the said notice, Lexber gave Vil-Rey a grace period of five days from notice within which to complete the project.

30 Id.

31Rollo (G.R. No. 189447), p. 132.

32 CIVIL CODE, Article 1170, which states:

Those who in the performance of their obligations are guilty of fraud, negligence, or delay, and those who in any manner contravene the tenor thereof, are liable for damages.

33 Supra note 29.

34 Id.

35Rollo (G.R. No. 189447), pp. 21-25.

36 Id. at 25-30.

37 Id. at 30-32.

38 Id. at 79.

39J Plus Asia Development Corp. v. Utility Assurance Corp., G.R. No. 199650 26 June 2013 700 SCRA 134, 158.

40 Prudential Guarantee & Assurance, Inc. v. Anscor Land, Inc., 644 Phil 634 (2010).

41 Id.

43Stronghold Insurance Co., Inc. v. Tokyu Construction Co., Ltd., 606 Phil. 400, 413 (2009).

44Rollo (G.R. No. 189447), p. 79.

45 Id. at 29-30.

46 Id. at 84.

47 Id. at 391-396.

48General Credit Corp. v. Alsons Development and Investment Corp., 542 Phil. 219 (2007).

49Chua v. CA, 449 Phil. 25 (2003).

50 553 Phil. 24 (2007).

51 Id. at 42-44.

52Rollo (G.R. No. 189447), p. 60.

53 Id. at 73.

54 Id. at 78.

55Spouses Suatengco v. Reyes, 594 Phil. 609 (2008).

56 Id.

57 CIVIL CODE, Article 2227, which states:

Liquidated damages, whether intended as an indemnity or a penalty, shall be equitably reduced if they are iniquitous or unconscionable.



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  • G.R. No. 208137, June 08, 2016 - MARIA CECILIA OEBANDA, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR AND/OR THE OCCUPANTS AND EMPLOYEES OF VISAYAN FORUM FOUNDATION, INC., Petitioners, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 203750, June 06, 2016 - JORGE B. NAVARRA, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, HONGKONG AND SHANGHAI BANKING CORPORATION, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 209146, June 08, 2016 - PROVINCE OF ANTIQUE AND MUNICIPALITY OF CALUYA, Petitioners, v. HON. RECTO A. CALABOCAL, JUDGE-DESIGNATE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 43, ROXAS, ORIENTAL MINDORO, PROVINCE OF ORIENTAL MINDORO, AND MUNICIPALITY OF BULALACAO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 200180, June 06, 2016 - BENJAMIN H. CABAÑEZ, Petitioner, v. MARIE JOSEPHINE CORDERO SOLANO A.K.A. MA. JOSEPHINE S. CABAÑEZ, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 207811, June 01, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. DELIA MOLINA Y CABRAL, Accused-Appellants.

  • G.R. No. 212493, June 01, 2016 - GABRIEL YAP, SR. DULY REPRESENTED BY GILBERT YAP AND ALSO IN HIS PERSONAL CAPACITY, GABRIEL YAP, JR., AND HYMAN YAP, Petitioners, v. LETECIA SIAO, LYNEL SIAO, JANELYN SIAO, ELEANOR FAYE SIAO, SHELETT SIAO AND HONEYLET SIAO, Respondents.; G.R. No. 212504 - CEBU SOUTH MEMORIAL GARDEN, INC., Petitioner, v. LETECIA SIAO, LYNEL SIAO, JANELYN SIAO, ELEANOR FAYE SIAO, SHELETT SIAO AND HONEYLET SIAO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 182537, June 01, 2016 - MACTAN-CEBU INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AUTHORITY, Petitioner, v. RICHARD E. UNCHUAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 187462, June 01, 2016 - RAQUEL G. KHO, Petitioner, v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES AND VERONICA B. KHO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 206419, June 01, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. RUBEN DELA ROSA, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 202047, June 08, 2016 - LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT AUTHORITY, Petitioner, v. NOEL B. PILI, MEDEL I. LIRIO, RODERICK B. JAMON, VICTORINO A. MACHICA, RONNIE C. VALORIA, VIRGILIO M. FLORES, RENATO C. PALMA, ANGELITO V. GUINTO, RAMIRO M. FELICIANO, ENRIQUE L. CIUBAL, ELMER P. TABIGAN, VENANCIO T. MADRIA, MAXIMO M. VITANGCOL, RODOLFO L. PAGUIO, ARNEL F. MAGSALIN, JULIANA N. DOLOR, NOEL C. CRUZ, SANDY C. JARILLA, BERTITO I. SERVIDAD, ALAN R. CORPUZ, ROBERT D. PABLO, ROBERT H. MONTEREY, HENRY L. LIAO, ROLANDO C. CEBANICO, VELIENTE S. FANTASTICO, MA. EMILIAN S. CRUZ, EDGARDO G. GAMBAYAN, GERARDO M. RUMBAWA, DANTE D. PALOMARA, MA. TERESA B. DE LOS REYES, JOSE ALLAN S. PACIFICO, RESTITUTO R. MALAPO, EARL G. PONGCO, LUCILO C. DEL MONTE, RUEL F. MAGBALANA, MARLYN V. VILLANUEVA, JUDITH C. BANEZ, GERMAN N. DE LUNA, FREDERICK B. DEL CORRO, CLODUALDO B. PASIOLAN, ROLANDO I. NAVARRO, AND PACIANO J. VILLANUEVA,*, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 211026, June 27, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. RENATO B. SUEDAD, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 204441, June 08, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. MICHAEL KURT JOHN BULAWAN Y ANDALES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 201834, June 01, 2016 - ANDRES L. DIZON, Petitioner, v. NAESS SHIPPING PHILIPPINES, INC. AND DOLE UK (LTD.), Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 196962, June 08, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JOAN SONJACO Y STA. ANA, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 191936, June 01, 2016 - VIRGINIA D. CALIMAG, Petitioner, v. HEIRS OF SILVESTRA N. MACAPAZ, REPRESENTED BY ANASTACIO P. MACAPAZ, JR., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 193374, June 08, 2016 - HEIRS OF THE LATE GERRY* ECARMA, NAMELY: AVELINA SUIZA-ECARMA, DENNIS ECARMA, JERRY LYN ECARMA PENA, ANTONIO ECARMA AND NATALIA ECARMA SANGALANG, Petitioners, v. COURT OF APPEALS AND RENATO A. ECARMA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 175592, June 14, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. EDISON C. MAGBITANG, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 174838, June 01, 2016 - STRONGHOLD INSURANCE CO., INC., Petitioner, v. PAMANA ISLAND RESORT HOTEL AND MARINA CLUB, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 185331, June 08, 2016 - SPOUSES ABELARDO VALARAO AND FRANCISCA VALARAO, Petitioners, v. MSC AND COMPANY, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 205097, June 08, 2016 - CORAZON D. ISON, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 211212, June 08, 2016 - SUN LIFE OF CANADA (PHILIPPINES), INC., Petitioner, v. MA. DAISY'S. SIBYA, JESUS MANUEL S. SIBYA III, JAIME LUIS S. SIBYA, AND THE ESTATE OF THE DECEASED ATTY. JESUS SIBYA, JR., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 208646, June 15, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. LORETO SONIDO Y CORONEL, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 207517, June 01, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Appellee, v. RAUL AMARO Y CATUBAY ALIAS "LALAKS," Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 200081, June 08, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. EDGARDO T. CRUZ, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 194605, June 14, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. MARIANO OANDASAN, JR., Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 214440, June 15, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. ALEX MENDEZ RAFOLS, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 217732, June 15, 2016 - EMILIO S. AGCOLICOL, JR., Petitioner, v. JERWIN CASIÑO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 172352, June 08, 2016 - LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. ALFREDO HABABAG, SR., SUBSTITUTED BY HIS WIFE, CONSOLACION, AND CHILDREN, NAMELY: MANUEL, SALVADOR, WILSON, JIMMY, ALFREDO, JR., AND JUDITH, ALL SURNAMED HABABAG, Respondents.; G.R. NOS. 172387-88 - ALFREDO HABABAG, SR., SUBSTITUTED BY HIS WIFE, CONSOLACION, AND CHILDREN, NAMELY: MANUEL, SALVADOR, WILSON, JIMMY, ALFREDO, JR., AND JUDITH, ALL SURNAMED HABABAG, Petitioners, v. LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES AND THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRARIAN REFORM, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 215994, June 06, 2016 - OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN AND FIELD INVESTIGATION OFFICE, Petitioner, v. ROLANDO B. FALLER, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 11069, June 08, 2016 - RONALDO C. FACTURAN, Complainant, v. PROSECUTOR ALFREDO L. BARCELONA, JR., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 208475, June 08, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. MANUEL REBANUEL Y NADERA, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 168749, June 06, 2016 - SUGARSTEEL INDUSTRIAL, INC. AND MR. BEN YAPJOCO, Petitioners, v. VICTOR ALBINA, VICENTE UY AND ALEX VELASQUEZ, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 160071, June 06, 2016 - ANDREW D. FYFE, RICHARD T. NUTTALL, AND RICHARD J. WALD, Petitioners, v. PHILIPPINE AIRLINES, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 217943, June 06, 2016 - J. MELLIZA ESTATE DEVELOPMENT COMPANY, INC., REPRESENTED BY ITS DIRECTOR, ATTY. RAFAEL S. VILLANUEVA, Petitioner, v. ROSENDO SIMOY, GREGORIO SIMOY AND CONSEJO SIMOY, Respondents.

  • G. R. No. 185169, June 15, 2016 - HEIRS OF CATALINO DACANAY, HIS WIFE ERLINDA DACANAY, THEIR CHILDREN AURORA D. CONSTANTINO AND REYNALDO DACANAY; LOLITA DACANAY VDA. DE PARASO; HEIRS OF SOLEDAD APOSTOL, NAMELY: HER HUSBAND LEONARDO CAGUIOA, THEIR CHILDREN AMALIA, DANILO, RONALD, MARLENE, ROBERT, ROLDAN, THELMA AND TERESA, ALL SURNAMED CAGUIOA, Petitioners, v. JUAN SIAPNO, JR., MARIO RILLON, SPOUSES JOSE TAN AND LETICIA DY TAN, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 201016, June 22, 2016 - LEONCIA A. YUMANG, Petitioner, v. RADIO PHILIPPINES NETWORK, INC. (RPN 9), MIA A. CONCIO, LEONOR C. LINAO, IDA BARRAMEDA AND LOURDES O. ANGELES, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 189401, June 15, 2016 - VIL-REY PLANNERS AND BUILDERS, Petitioners, v. LEXBER, INC., Respondent.; G.R. NO. 189447 - LEXBER, INC., Petitioner, v. STRONGHOLD INSURANCE COMPANY, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 203057, June 06, 2016 - BUREAU OF INTERNAL REVENUE AS REPRESENTED BY THE COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Petitioner, v. MANILA HOME TEXTILE, INC, THELMA LEE AND SAMUEL LE,E, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 204769, June 06, 2016 - MAGSAYSAY MARITIME CORP., CSCS BMTERNATIONAL NV AND/OR MARLON* RONO, Petitioners, v. RODEL A. CRUZ, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 203336, June 06, 2016 - SPOUSES GERARDO AND CORAZON TRINIDAD, Petitioners, v. FAMA REALTY, INC. AND FELIX ASSAD, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 208524, June 01, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. BERNARDINO PERALTAJ MORILLO AND MICHAEL AMBAS Y REYES, Accused, BERNARDINO PERALTA Y MORILLO, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 209038, June 08, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. RONALD BACALAN GABUYA AND RYANNEAL MENESES GIRON, Accused-Appellants.

  • G.R. No. 197393, June 15, 2016 - PHILIPPINE SAVINGS BANK, Petitioner, v. MANUEL P. BARRERA, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 11246, June 14, 2016 - ARNOLD PACAO, Complainant, v. ATTY. SINAMAR LIMOS, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 181353, June 06, 2016 - HGL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION REPRESENTED BY ITS PRESIDENT, HENRY G. LIM, Petitioner, v. HON. RAFAEL O. PENUELA, IN HIS CAPACITY AS ACTING PRESIDING JUDGE OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, 6TH JUDICIAL REGION, BRANCH 13, CULASI, ANTIQUE AND SEMIRARA COAL CORPORATION (NOW SEMIRARA MINING CORPORATION), Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 217575, June 15, 2016 - SOUTH COTABATO COMMUNICATIONS CORPORATION AND GAUVAIN J. BENZONAN, Petitioners, v. HON. PATRICIA STO. TOMAS, SECRETARY OF LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT, ROLANDO FABRIGAR, MERLYN VELARDE, VINCE LAMBOC, FELIPE GALINDO, LEONARDO MIGUEL, JULIUS RUBIN, EDEL RODEROS, MERLYN COLIAO, AND EDGAR JOPSON, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 213919, June 15, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Appellee, v. VIRGILIO A. QUIM, Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 203152, June 20, 2016 - GEORGIA ROYO ADLAWAN, IN HER OWN BEHALF AND AS SURVIVING SPOUSE OF ALFONSO V. ADLAWAN, Petitioner, v. NICETAS I. JOAQUINO, FLORENCIA J. SON, EUSTOLIA J. MATA, BEATRIZ J. SATIRA, TERESA J. BERMEJO, CORAZON J. COGINA, MARIA J. NOVAL AND VISITACION J. DELA TORRE, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 193075, June 20, 2016 - EMMANUEL REYES, SR. AND MUTYA M. REYES, Petitioners, v. HEIRS OF DEOGRACIAS FORLALES, NAMELY: NAPOLEON FORLALES, LITA HELEN FORLALES-FRADEJAS, JAIME FORLALES, JR., JULIUS FORLALES FORTUNA, HORACE FORLALES, GALAHAD FORLALES, JR., INDEPENDENCE FORLALES-FETALVERO, MELITON FORLALES, JR., MILAGROS V. FORLALES AND MERCEDES FORLALES-BAUTISTA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 208146, June 08, 2016 - VIRGINIA DIO, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES AND TIMOTHY DESMOND, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 208586, June 22, 2016 - HEIRS OF DATU MAMALINDING MAGAYOONG, REPRESENTED BY DR. MAIMONA MAGAYOONG-PANGARUNGAN WITH HER SPOUSE DATU SA MARAWI RASID PANGARUNGAN, AND DR. ANISHA* MAGAYOONG-MACABATO WITH HER SPOUSE DATU KHALIQUZZAMAN MACABATO, Petitioners, v. HEIRS OF CATAMANAN MAMA, REPRESENTED BY HASAN MAMA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 189516, June 08, 2016 - EDNA MABUGAY-OTAMIAS, JEFFREN M. OTAMIAS AND MINOR JEMWEL M. OTAMIAS, REPRESENTED BY THEIR MOTHER EDNA MABUGAY-OTAMIAS, Petitioners, v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, REPRESENTED BY COL. VIRGILIO O. DOMINGO, IN HIS CAPACITY AS THE COMMANDING OFFICER OF THE PENSION AND GRATUITY MANAGEMENT CENTER (PGMC) OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 214122, June 08, 2016 - AUTOZENTRUM ALABANG, INC., Petitioner, v. SPOUSES MIAMAR A. BERNARDO AND GENARO F. BERNARDO, JR., DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY, ASIAN CARMAKERS CORPORATION, AND BAYERISHE MOTOREN WERKE (BMW) A.G., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 195382, June 15, 2016 - ORION WATER DISTRICT, REPRESENTED BY ITS GENERAL MANAGER, CRISPIN Q. TRIA, ET AL., Petitioner, v. THE GOVERNMENT SERVICE INSURANCE SYSTEM (GSIS), Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 201584, June 15, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. APOLONIO "TOTONG" AVILA Y ALECANTE, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 210936, June 28, 2016 - TEODORO B. CRUZ, JR., MELCHOR M. ALONZO, AND WILFREDO P. ALDAY, Petitioners, v. COMMISSION ON AUDIT, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 196329, June 01, 2016 - PABLO B. ROMAN, JR., AND ATTY. MATIAS V. DEFENSOR, AS OFFICERS OF THE CAPITOL HILLS GOLF AND COUNTRY CLUB, INC., Petitioners, v. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, ATTY. FRANKLIN I. CUETO, ATTY. EMMANUEL Y. ARTIZA AND MANUEL C. BALDEO, AS MEMBERS OF THE MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE; JUSTINA F. CALLANGAN, AS DIRECTOR OF THE CORPORATION FINANCE DEPARTMENT; ATTY. NARCISO T. ATIENZA, EUSEBIO A. ABAQUIN, ATTY. CLODUALDO C. DE JESUS, SR., ATTY. CLODUALDO ANTONIO R. DE JESUS, JR., ATTY. IRENEO T. AGUIRRE, JR., SUNDAY O. PINEDA, PORFIRIO M. FLORES, AND ATTY. ZOSIMO PADRO, JR., Respondents.

  • A.C. No. 7330, June 14, 2016 - JUDGE GREGORIO D. PANTANOSAS, JR., Complainant, v. ATTY. ELLY L. PAMATONG, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 211604, June 08, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. DARYL POLONIO Y TUANGCAY, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 203932, June 08, 2016 - PHILIPPINE AIRLINES, INC., Petitioner, v. ENRIQUE LIGAN, EDUARDO MAGDARAOG, JOLITO OLIVEROS, RICHARD GONCER, EMELITO SOCO, VIRGILIO P. CAMPOS, JR., LORENZO BUTANAS, RAMEL BERNARDES, NELSON M. DULCE, CLEMENTE R. LUMAYNO, ARTHUR M. CAPIN, ALLAN BENTUZAL, AND JEFFREY LLENES, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 209344, June 27, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JAIME BRIOSO ALIAS TALAP-TALAP, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 206294, June 29, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. CERILO "ILOY" ILOGON, Accused-Appellant.

  • A.C. No. 9871, June 29, 2016 - IN RE: A.M. NO. 04-7-373-RTC [REPORT ON THE JUDICIAL AUDIT CONDUCTED IN THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 60, BARILI, CEBU] AND A.M. NO. 04-7-374-RTC [VIOLATION OF JUDGE ILDEFONSO SUERTE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 60, BARILI, CEBU OF ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 36-2004 DATED MARCH 3, 2004], PROSECUTOR MARY ANN T. CASTRO-ROA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 210673, June 29, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff and Appellee, v. GILBERT CABALLERO Y GARSOLA, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 206880, June 29, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. ENRIQUE MIRANDA, JR. Y PAÑA @ "ERIKA" AND ALVIN ALGA Y MIRANDA @ "ALVIN," Accused-Appellants.

  • G.R. No. 205871, June 27, 2016 - RUEL TUANO Y HERNANDEZ, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 207231, June 29, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Appellee, v. ROGER GALAGATI Y GARDOCE, Appellant.

  • G.R. Nos. 183200-01, June 29, 2016 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL OIL COMPANY-ENERGY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AND/OR PAUL AQUINO AND ESTER R. GUERZON, Petitioners, v. AMELYN A. BUENVIAJE, Respondent.; G.R. Nos. 183253 & 183257 - AMELYN A. BUENVIAJE, Petitioner, v. PHILIPPINE NATIONAL OIL COMPANY-ENERGY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, PAUL A. AQUINO AND ESTER R. GUERZON, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 219468, June 08, 2016 - JOSE BURGOS, JR., Petitioner, v. SPOUSES ELADIO SJ. NAVAL AND ARLINA B. NAVAL, AND AMALIA B. NAVAL, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 194664, June 15, 2016 - FLORITA LIAM, Petitioner, v. UNITED COCONUT PLANTERS BANK, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 194235, June 08, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JAY GREGORIO Y AMAR @ "JAY," ROLANDO ESTRELLA Y RAYMUNDO @ "BONG," DANILO BERGONIA Y ALELENG @ "DANNY," EFREN GASCON Y DELOS SANTOS @ "EFREN," RICARDO SALAZAR Y GO @ "ERIC," AND JOHN DOE, Accused-Appellants.

  • G.R. No. 187696, June 15, 2016 - FILOMENA CABLING, Petitioner, v. RODRIGO DANGCALAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 211065, June 15, 2016 - HEIRS OF JOSE EXTREMADURA, REPRESENTED BY ELENA H. EXTREMADURA, Petitioners, v. MANUEL EXTREMADURA AND MARLON EXTREMADURA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 190876, June 15, 2016 - YELLOW BUS LINE EMPLOYEES UNION (YBLEU), Petitioner, v. YELLOW BUS LINE, INC. (YBLI), Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 8677, June 15, 2016 - MARITA CABAS, Petitioner, v. ATTY. RIA NINA L. SUSUSCO AND CHIEF CITY PROSECUTOR EMELIE FE DELOS SANTOS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 196557, June 15, 2016 - GREGORIO "TONGEE" BALAIS, JR., Petitioner, v. SE'LON BY AIMEE, AMELITA REVILLA AND ALMA BELARMINO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 195224, June 15, 2016 - VIRGINIA JABALDE Y JAMANDRON, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 199422, June 21, 2016 - COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Petitioner, v. KEPCO ILIJAN CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 189851, June 22, 2016 - INTEC CEBU INC., AKIHIKO KAMBAYASHI AND WATARU SATO, Petitioners, v. HON. COURT OF APPEALS, ROWENA REYES, ROWENA ODIONG, HYDEE AYUDA, TERESITA BERIDO, CRISTINA LABAPIZ, GEMMA JUMAO-AS, SIGMARINGA BAROLO, LIGAYA B. ANADON, DONALINE DELA TORRE, JOY P. LOMOD, JACQUELINE A. FLORES, SUSAN T. ALIÑO, ANALYN P. ABALLE, CAROLINE A. LABATOS, LENITH F. ROMANO, LEONILA B. FLORES, CECILIA G. PAPELLERO, AGNES C. CASIO, VIOLETA O. MATCHETE, CANDIDA I. CRUJIDO, CLAUDIA B. CUTAMORA, ROSALIE R. POLICIOS, GENELYN C. MUÑEZ, ALOME MIGUE, ELSIE ALCOS, LYDIALYN B. GODINEZ AND MYRNA S. LOGAOS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 214503, June 22, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. RICO ENRIQUEZ Y CRUZ, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 181369, June 22, 2016 - TALA REALTY SERVICES CORP., INC., PEDRO B. AGUIRRE, REMEDIOS A. DUPASQUIER, DOLLY LIM, RUBENCITO M. DEL MUNDO AND ELIZABETH H. PALMA, Petitioners, v. BANCO FILIPINO SAVINGS & MORTGAGE BANK, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 170966, June 22, 2016 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, REPRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, Petitioner, v. ALBERTO LOOYUKO, DOING BUSINESS UNDER THE NAME AND STYLE OF NOAH'S ARK SUGAR HOLDINGS AND WILSON T. GO, Respondents.

  • A.C. No. 9226 (Formerly CBD 06-1749), June 14, 2016 - MA. CECILIA CLARISSA C, ADVINCULA, Complainant, v. ATTY. LEONARDO C. ADVINCULA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 214473, June 22, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. EMETERIO MEDINA Y DAMO, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 208393, June 15, 2016 - CITY OF TAGUIG, Petitioner, v. CITY OF MAKATI, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 9574, June 21, 2016 - MYRNA M. DEVEZA, Complainant, v. ATTY. ALEXANDER M. DEL PRADO, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. P-16-3459 [Formerly OCA IPI No. 13-4119-P], June 21, 2016 - ATTY. JOSELITA C. MALIBAGO-SANTOS, CLERK OF COURT VI, OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, ANTIPOLO CITY, RIZAL, Complainant, v. JUANITO B. FRANCISCO, JR., SHERIFF IV, OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT [OCC], REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, ANTIPOLO CITY, RIZAL, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 200072, June 20, 2016 - PHILIP YU, Petitioner, v. VIVECA LIM YU, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 183543, June 20, 2016 - NATIONAL HOUSING AUTHORITY, Petitioner, v. MANILA SEEDLING BANK FOUNDATION, INC., Respondent.

  • A.M. No. MTJ-16-1877 (Formerly OCA IPI No. 13-2635-MTJ), June 13, 2016 - MOAMAR PANGANDAG, Complainant, v. PRESIDING JUDGE OTTOWA B. ABINAL, 8TH MUNICIPAL CIRCUIT TRIAL COURT IN MULONDO, MAGUING, LUMBA-BAYABAO, AND TARAKA, LANAO DEL SUR, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 154069, June 06, 2016 - INTERPORT RESOURCES CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. SECURITIES SPECIALIST, INC., AND R.C. LEE SECURITIES INC., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 193455, June 13, 2016 - NATIONAL POWER CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. HEIRS OF GREGORIO RAMORAN, NAMELY: DELFIN R. PINEDA, ESPERANZA PINEDA MAGPALI, DIGNA PINEDA ARZADON, CARIDAD R. PINEDA, IMELDA ZIAPNO, TERESITA PINEDA DELFIN, ESTER R. PINEDA, FE Y. UZON, PACENCIA ERFE VERSOZA, IMPRESSION V. CLEMENTE, ALL REPRESENTED BY DELFIN R. PINEDA, ATTORNEY-IN-FACT, Respondents.; SPOUSES ARNULFO R. VERSOZA AND PRISCILLA M. VERSOZA; SPOUSES DOMINGO AND DOMINGA GOMEZ; AND ERLINDA GOMEZ-OCAY, IN HER BEHALF AND IN BEHALF OF CARLITO, MEDELINA, ANGELISTA, SILVERA, LOLITA, & ROMBERTO, ALL SURNAMED GOMEZ, Intervenor-Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 183794, June 13, 2016 - SPOUSES JAIME AND MATILDE POON, Petitioners, v. PRIME SAVINGS BANK REPRESENTED BY THE PHILIPPINE DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION AS STATUTORY LIQUIDATOR, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 190644, June 13, 2016 - NDC TAGUM FOUNDATION, INC., ANITA B. SOMOSO, AND LIDA U. NATAVIO, Petitioners, v. EVELYN B. SUMAKOTE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 208205, June 01, 2016 - ATTY. ROMEO G. ROXAS, Petitioner, v. REPUBLIC REAL ESTATE CORPORATION, Respondent.; G.R. No. 208212 - REPUBLIC REAL ESTATE CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 188829, June 13, 2016 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, HON. RAUL S. GONZALEZ, IN HIS CAPACITY AS SECRETARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, HON. ALIPIO F. FERNANDEZ, JR., IN HIS CAPACITY AS COMMISSIONER OF THE BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, HON. ARTHEL B. CAROÑONGAN, HON. TEODORO B. DELARMENTE, HON. JOSE D. CABOCHAN, AND HON. FRANKLIN Z. LITTAUA, IN THEIR CAPACITY AS MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF THE BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, Petitioners, v. DAVONN MAURICE C. HARP, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 197122, June 15, 2016 - INGRID SALA SANTAMARIA AND ASTRID SALA BOZA, Petitioners, v. THOMAS CLEARY, Respondent.; G.R. No. 197161 - KATHRYN GO-PEREZ, Petitioner, v. THOMAS CLEARY, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 213054, June 15, 2016 - TERESITA TAN, Petitioner, v. JOVENCIO F. CINCO, SIMON LORI HOLDINGS, INC., PENTACAPITAL INVESTMENT CORPORATION, FORTUNATO G. PE, RAYMUNDO G. PE, JOSE REVILLA REYES, JR., AND DEPUTY SHERIFF ROMMEL IGNACIO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 214901, June 15, 2016 - LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. APOLONIO KHO, REPRESENTED BY HIS HEIRS, NAMELY: PERLA LUZ, KRYPTON, KOSELL, KYRIN, AND KELVIN, ALL SURNAMED KHO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 211015, June 20, 2016 - CAGAYAN ELECTRIC POWER & LIGHT COMPANY, INC. (CEPALCO) AND CEPALCO ENERGY SERVICES CORPORATION (CESCO), FORMERLY CEPALCO ENERGY SERVICES & TRADING CORPORATION (CESTCO), Petitioners, v. CEPALCO EMPLOYEE'S LABOR UNION-ASSOCIATED LABOR UNIONS-TRADE UNION CONGRESS OF THE PHILIPPINES (TUCP), Respondent.; G.R. No. 213835 - CAGAYAN ELECTRIC POWER & LIGHT COMPANY, INC. (CEPALCO) AND CEPALCO ENERGY SERVICES CORPORATION (CESCO), FORMERLY CEPALCO ENERGY SERVICES & TRADING CORPORATION (CESTCO), Petitioners, v. CEPALCO EMPLOYEE'S LABOR UNION-ASSOCIATED LABOR UNIONS-TRADE UNION CONGRESS OF THE PHILIPPINES (TUCP), Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 215348, June 20, 2016 - ELDEFONSO G. DEL ROSARIO AND JOSEFINO R. ORTIZ, Petitioners, v. CRISTINA OCAMPO-FERRER, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 203527, June 27, 2016 - SPS. AURELIO HITEROZA AND CYNTHIA HITEROZA, Petitioners, v. CHARITO S. CRUZADA, PRESIDENT AND CHAIRMAN, CHRIST'S ACHIEVERS MONTESSORI, INC., AND CHRIST'S ACHIEVERS MONTESSORI, INC., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 212960, June 08, 2016 - SAMAHANG MANGGAGAWA SA GENERAL OFFSET PRESS, INC., Petitioner, v. GENERAL OFFSET PRESS, INC., JUANITA TIU AND JOJI TIU, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 210565, June 28, 2016 - EMMANUEL D. QUINTANAR, BENJAMIN O. DURANO, CECILIO C. DELAVIN, RICARDO G GABORNI, ROMEL G GERARMAN, JOEL JOHN P. AGUILAR, RAMIRO T. GAVIOLA, RESTITUTO D. AGSALUD, MARTIN E. CELIS, PATRICIO L. ARIOS, MICHAEL S. BELLO, LORENZO C. QUINLOG, JUNNE G. BLAYA, SANTIAGO B. TOLENTINO, JR., NESTOR A. MAGNAYE, ARNOLD S. POLVORIDO, ALLAN A. AGAPITO, ARIEL E. BAUMBAD, JOSE T. LUTIVA, EDGARDO G. TAPALLA, ROLDAN C. CADAYONA, REYNALDO V. ALBURO, RUDY C. ULTRA, MARCELO R. CABILI, ARNOLD B. ASIATEN, REYMUNDO R. MACABALLUG, JOEL R. DELEÑA, DANILO T. OQUIÑO, GREG B. CAPARAS AND ROMEO T. ESCARTIN, Petitioners, v. COCA-COLA BOTTLERS, PHILIPPINES, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 191087, June 29, 2016 - DELIA L. BELITA, SALVADOR ILARDE, JR., GENEVIEVE BELITA, MA. CHERYL DAVA, BRAULIO LEDESMA, JR., FLORENCE B. OLSEN, KATHY GERMENTIL, ROSITA ESTUART, ARDELIZA LIM, ELSA RAFANAN, ERLINDA V. GAERLAN, PERLA FERNANDEZ, DELBEN "NOY" BELITA AND JOSEPH AVACILLA, Petitioners, v. ANTONIO S. SY, ROBERTO CARONAN, WILFREDO CIRIACO, NORMA S. WONG, SONIA C. BENERO, MARIA L. PINEDA AND CRISTINA V. CARAMOL, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 204264, June 29, 2016 - JENNEFER FIGUERA, AS SUBSTITUTED BY ENHANCE VISA SERVICES, INC., REPRESENTED BY MA. EDEN R. DUMONT, Petitioner, v. MARIA REMEDIOS ANG, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 205544, June 29, 2016 - MUNICIPALITY OF CORDOVA, PROVINCE OF CEBU; THE SANGGUNIANG BAYAN OF CORDOVA; AND THE MAYOR OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF CORDOVA, Petitioners, v. PATHFINDER DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AND TOPANGA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 206484, June 29, 2016 - DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS (DOTC), Petitioner, v. SPOUSES VICENTE ABECINA AND MARIA CLEOFE ABECINA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 210761, June 28, 2016 - KILUSANG MAYO UNO, REPRESENTED BY ITS CHAIRPERSON, ELMER LABOG; NATIONAL FEDERATION OF LABOR UNIONS-KILUSANG MAYO UNO, REPRESENTED BY ITS VICE-PRESIDENTS, REDEN ALCANTARA AND ARNOLD DELA CRUZ, CENTER FOR TRADE UNION AND HUMAN RIGHTS (CTUHR), REPRESENTED BY ITS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR DAISY ARAGO, VIRGINIA FLORES AND VIOLETA ESPIRITU, Petitioners, v. HON. BENIGNO SIMEON C. AQUINO III, AND PHILIPPINE HEALTH INSURANCE CORPORATION (PHIC), Respondents; MIGRANTE INTERNATIONAL, REPRESENTED BY ITS CHAIRPERSON GARRY MARTINEZ, CONNIE BRAGAS-REGALADO, PARALUMAN CATUIRA, UNITED FILIPINOS IN HONGKONG (UNIFIL-HK), AND SOLEDAD PILLAS, Petitioners-in-Intervention.

  • G.R. No. 188020, June 27, 2016 - REN TRANSPORT CORP. AND/OR REYNALDO PAZCOGUIN III, Petitioners, v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION (2ND DIVISION), SAMAHANG MANGGAGAWA SA REN TRANSPORT-ASSOCIATION OF DEMOCRATIC LABOR ASSOCIATIONS (SMART-ADLO) REPRESENTED BY ITS PRESIDENT NESTOR FULMINAR, Respondents.; G.R. No. 188252 - SAMAHANG MANGGAGAWA SA REN TRANSPORT-ASSOCIATION OF DEMOCRATIC LABOR ASSOCIATIONS (SMART-ADLO) REPRESENTED BY NESTOR FULMINAR, Petitioner, v. REN TRANSPORT CORP. AND/OR REYNALDO PAZCOGUIN III, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 208759, June 22, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. DIONE BARBERAN AND DIONE DELOS SANTOS, Accused-Appellants.

  • G.R. No. 209714, June 21, 2016 - RAPHAEL C. FONTANILLA, Petitioner, v. THE COMMISSIONER PROPER, COMMISSION ON AUDIT, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 10465, June 08, 2016 - SPOUSES LAMBERTO V. EUSTAQUIO AND GLORIA J. EUSTAQUIO, Complainants, v. ATTY. EDGAR R. NAVALES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 203458, June 06, 2016 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Appellee, v. QUIRINO BALMES Y CLEOFE, Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 203924, June 29, 2016 - ROGER CABUHAT AND CONCHITA CABUHAT, Petitioners, v. DEVELOPMENT BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, REPRESENTED BY MANAGER PERLA L. FAVILA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 211141, June 29, 2016 - HILARIO DASCO, REYMIR PARAFINA, RICHARD PARAFINA, EDILBERTO ANIA, MICHAEL ADANO, JAIME BOLO, RUBEN E. GULA, ANTONIO CUADERNO AND JOVITO CATANGUI, Petitioners, v. PHILTRANCO SERVICE ENTERPRISES INC/CENTURION SOLANO, MANAGER, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 211526, June 29, 2016 - PMI-FACULTY AND EMPLOYEES UNION, Petitioner, v. PMI COLLEGES BOHOL, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 184666, June 27, 2016 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. MEGA PACIFIC ESOLUTIONS, INC., WILLY U. YU, BONNIE S. YU, ENRIQUE T. TANSIPEK, ROSITA Y. TANSIPEK, PEDRO O. TAN, JOHNSON W. FONG, BERNARD I. FONG, AND *LAURIANO A. BARRIOS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 208383, June 08, 2016 - FIRST MEGA HOLDINGS CORP., Petitioner, v. GUIGUINTO WATER DISTRICT, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 186050, June 21, 2016 - ARTHUR BALAO, WINSTON BALAO, NONETTE BALAO, JONILYN BALAO-STRUGAR, AND BEVERLY LONGID, Petitioners, v. EDUARDO ERMITA, GILBERTO TEODORO, RONALDO PUNO, NORBERTO GONZALES, GEN. ALEXANDER YANO, GEN. JESUS VERZOSA, BRIG. GEN. REYNALDO MAPAGU, LT. P/DIR. EDGARDO DOROMAL, MAJ. GEN. ISAGANI CACHUELA, COMMANDING OFFICER OF THE AFP-ISU BASED IN BAGUIO CITY, PSS EUGENE MARTIN, AND SEVERAL JOHN DOES, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 186059 - EDUARDO SECRETARY TEODORO, RONALDO SECRETARY GONZALES, SECRETARY ERMITA, GILBERTO SECRETARY PUNO, NORBERTO GEN. ALEXANDER YANO, P/DGEN. JESUS VERZOSA, BRIG. GEN. REYNALDO MAPAGU, MAJ. GEN. ISAGANI CACHUELA, AND POL. SR. SUPT. EUGENE MARTIN, Petitioners, v. ARTHUR BALAO, WINSTON JARDELEZA, AND BALAO, NONETTE BALAO, CAGUIOA, JJ. JONILYN BALAO-STRUGAR, AND BEVERLY LONGID, Respondents.**

  • G.R. No. 203538, June 27, 2016 - ARTEX DEVELOPMENT CO., INC., Petitioner, v. OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN, ATTY. MARISSA E. TIMONES, ERLINDA O. MARTEJA, ELIMAR N. JOSE, AND ATTY. LUIS Y. DEL MUNDO, JR., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 202830, June 20, 2016 - SPOUSES ADRIANO SALISE AND NATIVIDAD PAGUDAR, SPOUSES TEODORO VIRTUDAZO AND NECITAS SALISE, JEROME G. DIOLANTO, SPOUSES EULALIO D. DAMASING AND POTENCIANA LABIA, SPOUSES FRANCISCO AND SIMPLICIA BABAYA-ON, SPOUSES RUFINO BUTIHIN AND CECILIA CAGNO, SPOUSES EFITACIO G. PAMISA AND VIRGELIA VIRTUDAZO, DELFIN B. SARINAS, SPOUSES FELIPE C. VIRTUDAZO, JR. AND GRACE TUTO, SPOUSES ANGEL BARBOSA AND FLORENCIA SALISE, SPOUSES FRANKLIN AND LEONORA PAMISA, SPOUSES MARCELO MANIQUE AND CECILIA CARBON, LARRY PAMISA, SPOUSES ENRIQUE CARBON AND ERLINDA SOMO, SPOUSES WILFREDO A. JUANILO AND MINDA VILLARMIA, SPOUSES FELIX REQUILME AND CERINA SALVO, SPOUSES CARLITO FABE AND EMELITA MANGGANA, LUIBEN MAGTO, SPOUSES SERAFIN AND LILIA SURIGAO, SPOUSES HILARIO BACABIS AND RETIFICACION DABLO, SPOUSES REYNALDO S. SALUCOT AND ANECITA DESCALLAR, SPOUSES HAGENIO PAUG AND EVELITA VIRTUDAZO, SPOUSES MAXIMO BORREZ AND VILMA SALISE, SPOUSES FELIMON V. SALVO, JR., EVA MACATOL AND RITA V. SALVO, Petitioners, v. DEPARTMENT OF AGRARIAN REFORM ADJUDICATION BOARD REGION X ADJUDICATOR ABETO SALCEDO, JR. AND RICARDO GACULA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 202621, June 22, 2016 - ZAIDA R. INOCENTE, Petitioner, v. ST. VINCENT FOUNDATION FOR CHILDREN AND AGING, INC./VERONICA MENGUITO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 209384, June 27, 2016 - URBANO F. ESTRELLA, Petitioner, v. PRISCILLA P. FRANCISCO, Respondent.

  • G.R. Nos. 185857-58, June 29, 2016 - TRIFONIA D. GABUTAN, DECEASED, HEREIN REPRESENTED BY HER HEIRS, NAMELY: ERLINDA LLAMES, ELISA ASOK, PRIMITIVO GABUTAN, VALENTINA YANE; BUNA D. ACTUB, FELISIA TROCIO, CRISANTA D. UBAUB, AND TIRSO DALONDONAN, DECEASED, HEREIN REPRESENTED BY HIS HEIRS, NAMELY: MADELYN D. REPOSAR AND JERRY DALONDONAN, MARY JANE GILIG, ALLAN UBAUB, AND SPOUSES NICOLAS & EVELYN DAILO, Petitioners, v. DANTE D. NACALABAN, HELEN N. MAANDIG, SUSAN N. SIAO, AND CAGAYAN CAPITOL COLLEGE, Respondents.; G.R. NOS. 194314-15 - DANTE D. NACALABAN, HELEN N. MAANDIG, AND SUSAN N. SIAO, AS HEIRS OF BALDOMERA D. VDA. DE NACALABAN, Petitioners, v. TRIFONIA D. GABUTAN, BUNA D. ACTUB, FELISIA D. TROCIO, CRISANTA D. UBAUB, AND TIRSO DALONDONAN, DECEASED, HEREIN REPRESENTED BY HIS HEIRS, NAMELY: MADELYN D. REPOSAR AND JERRY DALONDONAN, MARY JANE GILIG, ALLAN UBAUB, AND SPOUSES NICOLAS & EVELYN DAILO, CAGAYAN CAPITOL COLLEGE, REPRESENTED BY ITS PRESIDENT, ATTY. CASIMIRO B. SUAREZ, JR., PRIVATE Respondent; HON. LEONCIA R. DIMAGIBA (ASSOCIATE JUSTICE), HON. PAUL L. HERNANDO (ASSOCIATE JUSTICE), HON. NINA G. ANTONIO-VALENZUELA (ASSOCIATE JUSTICE), HON. EDGARDO T. LLOREN (ASSOCIATE JUSTICE), HON. MICHAEL P. ELBINIAS (ASSOCIATE JUSTICE), AND HON. JANE AURORA C. LANTION (ASSOCIATE JUSTICE, ACTING CHAIRMAN), COURT OF APPEALS, CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY (FORMER SPECIAL TWENTY-SECOND DIVISION), PUBLIC Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 209794, June 27, 2016 - LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. SPOUSES JOSE AMAGAN AND AURORA AMAGAN, DOING BUSINESS UNDER THE TRADE NAME AND STYLE "A & J SEAFOODS AND MARINE PRODUCTS," AND JOHN DOE, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 163157, June 27, 2016 - SPOUSES BERNABE MERCADER, JR. AND LORNA JURADO MERCADER, OLIVER MERCADER, GERALDINE MERCADER AND ESRAMAY MERCADER, Petitioners, v. SPOUSES JESUS BARDILAS AND LETECIA GABUYA BARDILAS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 215950, June 20, 2016 - TRIDHARMA MARKETING CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. COURT OF TAX APPEALS, SECOND DIVISION, AND THE COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 216452, June 20, 2016 - TING TRUCKING/MARY VIOLAINE A. TING, Petitioner, v. JOHN C. MAKILAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 214399, June 28, 2016 - ARMANDO N. PUNCIA, Petitioner, v. TOYOTA SHAW/PASIG, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 166890, June 28, 2016 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. APOLONIO BAUTISTA, JR., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 218240, June 28, 2016 - ENGR. PABLITO S. PALUCA, IN HIS CAPACITY AS THE GENERAL MANAGER OF THE DIPOLOG CITY WATER DISTRICT, Petitioner, v. COMMISSION ON AUDIT, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 212186, June 29, 2016 - ARIEL LOPEZ, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 194065, June 20, 2016 - PHILIPPINE BANK OF COMMUNICATIONS, Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 213582, June 28, 2016 - NYMPHA S. ODIAMAR,1 Petitioner, v. LINDA ODIAMAR VALENCIA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 211269, June 15, 2016 - RUBEN E. TIU, Petitioner, v. HON. NATIVIDAD G. DIZON, ACTING CHAIRPERSON OF THE BOARD OF PARDONS AND PAROLE, HON. FRANKLIN JESUS BUCAYU, DIRECTOR OF THE BUREAU OF CORRECTIONS, HON. SECRETARY LEILA M. DE LIMA OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, HON. PAQUITO N. OCHOA JR., THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 190506, June 13, 2016 - CORAL BAY NICKEL CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 206528, June 28, 2016 - PHILIPPINE ASSET GROWTH TWO, INC. (SUCCESSOR-IN-INTEREST OF PLANTERS DEVELOPMENT BANK) AND PLANTERS DEVELOPMENT BANK, Petitioners, v. FASTECH SYNERGY PHILIPPINES, INC. (FORMERLY FIRST ASIA SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY, INC.), FASTECH MICROASSEMBLY & TEST, INC., FASTECH ELECTRONIQUE, INC., AND FASTECH PROPERTIES, INC., Respondents.