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This web page features the full text of the
Rules to Implement the Labor Code.




OMNIBUS RULES
IMPLEMENTING THE LABOR CODE


BOOK SIX
Post Employment

TITLE I
Termination of Employment

ARTICLE 278. Coverage. — The provisions of this Title shall apply to all establishments or undertakings, whether for profit or not.cralaw

ARTIXLE 279. Security of tenure. — In case of regular employment, the employer shall not terminate the services of an employee except for a just cause or when authorized by this Title. An employee who is unjustly dismissed from work shall be entitled to reinstatement without loss of seniority rights and to his backwages computed from the time his compensation was withheld from him up to the time of his reinstatement.cralaw

ARTICLE 280. Regular and casual employment. — The provisions of written agreement to the contrary notwithstanding and regardless of the oral agreements of the parties, an employment shall be deemed to be regular where the employee has been engaged to perform activities which are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer except where the employment has been fixed for a specific project or undertaking, the completion or termination of which has been determined at the time of the engagement of the employee or where the work or service to be performed is seasonal in nature and the employment is for the duration of the season.cralaw

An employment shall be deemed to be casual if it is not covered by the preceding paragraph: Provided, That any employee who has rendered at least one year of service, where the position no longer exists at the time of reinstatement for reasons not attributable to the fault of the employer, the employee shall be entitled to separation pay equivalent to at least one-month salary or to one-month salary for every year of service, whichever is higher, a fraction of at least six months being considered as one whole year. (Articles 278 to 280 and then Section 5, these are what appeared in the official version)

SECTION 5. Regular and casual employment. — (a) The provisions of written agreements to the contrary notwithstanding and regardless of the oral agreements of the parties, an employment shall be considered to be regular employment for purposes of Book VI of the Labor Code where the employee has been engaged to perform activities which are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer except where the employment has been fixed for a specific project or undertaking the completion or termination of which has been determined at the time of the engagement of the employee or where the work or service to be performed is seasonal in nature and the employment is for the duration of the season.cralaw

(b) Employment shall be deemed as casual in nature if it is not covered by the preceding paragraph; Provided, That any employee who has rendered at least one year of service, whether such service is continuous or not, shall be considered a regular employee with respect to the activity in which he is employed and his employment shall continue while such activity exists.cralaw

(c) An employee who is allowed to work after a probationary period shall be considered a regular employee.cralaw

SECTION 6. Probationary employment. — (a) Where the work for which an employee has been engaged is learnable or apprenticeable in accordance with the standards prescribed by the Department of Labor, the probationary employment period of the employee shall be limited to the authorized learnership or apprenticeship period, whichever is applicable.cralaw

(b) Where the work is neither learnable nor apprenticeable, the probationary employment period shall not exceed six (6) months reckoned from the date the employee actually started working.cralaw

(c) The services of an employee who has been engaged on probationary basis may be terminated only for a just cause or when authorized by existing laws, or when he fails to qualify as a regular employee in accordance with reasonable standards prescribed by the employer.cralaw

(d) In all cases involving employees engaged on probationary basis, the employer shall make known to the employee the standards under which he will qualify as a regular employee at the time of his engagement.cralaw

SECTION 7. Termination of employment by employer. — The just causes for terminating the services of an employee shall be those provided in Article 283 of the Code. The separation from work of an employee for a just cause does not entitle him to the termination pay provided in the Code, without prejudice, however, to whatever rights, benefits, and privileges he may have under the applicable individual or collective agreement with the employer or voluntary employer policy or practice.cralaw

SECTION 8. Disease as a ground for dismissal. — Where the employee suffers from a disease and his continued employment is prohibited by law or prejudicial to his health or to the health of his co-employees, the employer shall not terminate his employment unless there is a certification by competent public health authority that the disease is of such nature of at such a stage that it cannot be cured within a period of six (6) months even with proper medical treatment. If the disease or ailment can be cured within the period, the employee shall not terminate the employee but shall ask the employee to take a leave of absence. The employer shall reinstate such employee to his former position immediately upon the restoration of his normal health.cralaw

SECTION 9. Termination pay. — (a) An employee shall be entitled to termination pay equivalent to at least one month's salary for every year of service a fraction of at least six (6) months being considered as one whole year, in case of termination of his employment due to the installation of labor-saving devices or redundancy.cralaw

(b) Where the termination of employment is due to retrenchment to prevent losses and in case of closure or cessation of operations of establishment or undertaking not due to serious business losses or financial reverses, or where the employment is prohibited by law or is prejudicial to his health or to the health of his co-employees, the employee shall be entitled to termination pay equivalent to at least one-half month's pay for every year of service, a fraction of at least six months being considered as one whole year.cralaw

(c) The termination pay provided in the Section shall in no case be less than the employee's one month pay.cralaw

SECTION 10. Basis of termination pay. — The computation of the termination pay of an employee as provided herein shall be based on his latest salary rate, unless the same was reduced by the employer to defeat the intention of the Code, in which case the basis of computation shall be the rate before its deduction.cralaw

SECTION 11. Termination of employment by employee. — The just causes for putting an end to the employer-employee relationship by the employee shall be those provided in Article 286 of the Labor Code.cralaw

SECTION 12. Suspension of relationship. — The employer-employee relationship shall be deemed suspended in case of suspension of operation of the business or undertaking of the employer for a period not exceeding six (6) months, unless the suspension is for the purpose of defeating the rights of the employees under the Code, and in case of mandatory fulfillment by the employee of a military or civic duty. The payment of wages of the employee as well as the grant of other benefits and privileges while he is on a military or civic duty shall be subject to special laws and decrees and to the applicable individual or collective bargaining agreement and voluntary employer practice or policy.cralaw

SECTION 13. Retirement. — In the absence of any collective bargaining agreement or other applicable agreement concerning terms and conditions of employment which provides for retirement at an older age, an employee may be retired upon reaching the age of sixty (60) years.cralaw

SECTION 14. Retirement benefits. — (a) An employee who is retired pursuant to a bona-fide retirement plan or in accordance with the applicable individual or collective agreement or established employer policy shall be entitled to all the retirement benefits provided therein or to termination pay equivalent to at least one-half month salary for every year of service, whichever is higher, a fraction of at least six (6) months being considered as one whole year.cralaw

(b) Where both the employer and the employee contribute to the retirement plan, agreement or policy, the employer's total contribution thereto shall not be less than the total termination pay to which the employee would have been entitled had there been no such retirement fund. In case the employer's contribution is less than the termination pay the employee is entitled to receive, the employer shall pay the deficiency upon the retirement of the employee.cralaw

(c) This Section shall apply where the employee retires at the age of sixty (60) years or older.



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