Kingdom of Norway
as drafted on 17 May 1814
Assembly at Eidsvoll
latest of which was on July 23, 1995).
A. Form of
The Kingdom of Norway is
a free, independent, indivisible and inalienable Realm. Its form of
is a limited and hereditary monarchy.
All inhabitants of the Realm
shall have the right to free exercise of their religion.
religion shall remain the official religion of the State. The
professing it are bound to bring up their children in the same.
B. The Executive
and the Royal
The Executive Power is vested
in the King, or in the Queen if she has succeeded to the Crown pursuant
to the provisions of Article 6 or Article 7 or Article 48 of this
When the Executive Power is thus vested in the Queen, she has all the
and obligations which pursuant to this Constitution and the Law of the
Land are possessed by the King.
The King shall at all times
profess the Evangelical-Lutheran religion, and uphold and protect the
The King's person is sacred;
he cannot be censured or accused. The responsibility rests with his
The order of succession is
lineal, so that only a child born in lawful wedlock of the Queen or
or of one who is herself or himself entitled to the succession may
and so that the nearest line shall take precedence over the more remote
and the elder in the line over the younger.
An unborn child shall also
be included among those entitled to the succession and shall
take her or his proper place in the line of succession as soon as she
he is born into the world.
The right of succession shall
not, however, belong to any person who is not born in the direct line
descent from the last reigning Queen or King or a sister or brother
or is herself or himself a sister or brother thereof.
When a Princess or Prince
entitled to succeed to the Crown of Norway is born, her or his name and
time of birth shall be notified to the first Storting in session and be
entered in the record of its proceedings.
For those born before the
year 1971, Article 6 of the Constitution as it was passed on 18
1905 shall, however, apply. For those born before the year 1990 it
nevertheless be the case that a male shall take precedence over a
If there is no Princess or
Prince entitled to the succession, the King may propose his successor
the Storting, which has the right to make the choice if the King's
is not accepted.
The age of majority of the
King shall be laid down by law.
As soon as the King has attained
the age prescribed by law, he shall make a public declaration that he
As soon as the King, being
of age, accedes to the government, he shall take the following oath
the Storting: "I promise and swear that I will govern the Kingdom of
in accordance with its Constitution and Laws; so help me God, the
If the Storting is not in
session at the time, the oath shall be made in writing in the Council
State and be repeated solemnly by the King at the first subsequent
The King shall reside in
the Realm and may not, without the consent of the Storting, remain
the Realm for more than six months at a time, otherwise he shall have
for his person, the right to the Crown.
The King may not accept any
other crown or government without the consent of the Storting, for
two thirds of the votes are required.
The King himself chooses
a Council from among Norwegian citizens who are entitled to vote. This
Council shall consist of a Prime Minister and at least seven other
More than half the number
of the Members of the Council of State shall profess the official
of the State.
The King apportions the business
among the Members of the Council of State, as he deems appropriate.
extraordinary circumstances,besides the ordinary Members of the Council
of State, the King may summon other Norwegian citizens, although no
of the Storting, to take a seat in the Council of State.
Husband and wife, parent
and child or two siblings may never sit at the same time in the Council
During his travels within
the Realm, the King may delegate the administration of the Realm to the
Council of State. The Council of State shall conduct the government in
the King's name and on his behalf. It shall scrupulously observe the
of this Constitution, as well as such particular directives in
therewith as the King may instruct.
The matters of business shall
be decided by voting, where in the event of the votes being equal, the
Prime Minister, or in his absence the highest-ranking Member of the
of State who is present, shall have two votes.
The Council of State shall
make a report to the King on matters of business which it thus decides.
The King may appoint State
Secretaries to assist Members of the Council of State with their duties
outside the Council of State. Each State Secretary shall act on behalf
of the Member of the Council of State to whom he is attached to the
determined by that Member.
The King ordains all public
church services and public worship, all meetings and assemblies dealing
with religious matters, and ensures that public teachers of religion
the norms prescribed for them.
The King may issue and repeal
ordinances relating to commerce, customs tariffs, all economic sectors
and the police; although these must not conflict with the Constitution
or with the laws passed by the Storting (as hereinafter prescribed in
77, 78 and 79). They shall remain in force provisionally until the next
As a general rule the King
shall provide for the collection of the taxes and duties imposed by the
The King shall ensure that
the properties and prerogatives of the State are utilized and
in the manner determined by the Storting and in the best interests of
The King shall have the right
in the Council of State to pardon criminals after sentence has been
The criminal shall have the choice of accepting the King's pardon or
to the penalty imposed.
In proceedings which the
Odelsting causes to be brought before the Court of Impeachment, no
other than deliverance from the death penalty may be granted.
The King shall choose and
appoint, after consultation with his Council of State, all senior
ecclesiastical and military officials. Before the appointment is made,
such officials shall swear or, if by law exempted from taking the oath,
solemnly declare obedience and allegiance to the Constitution and the
although senior officials who are not Norwegian nationals may by law be
exempted from this duty. The Royal Princes must not hold senior civil
The Prime Minister and the
other Members of the Council of State, together with the State
may be dismissed by the King without any prior court judgment, after he
has heard the opinion of the Council of State on the subject. The same
applies to senior officials employed in government offices or in the
or consular service, to the highest-ranking civil and ecclesiastical
commanders of regiments and other military formations, commandants of
and officers commanding warships. Whether pensions should be granted to
senior officials thus dismissed shall be determined by the next
In the interval they shall receive two thirds of their previous pay.
Other senior officials may
only be suspended by the King, and must then without delay be charged
the Courts, but they may not, except by court judgment, be dismissed
against their will, transferred.
All senior officials may,
without a prior court judgment, be discharged from office upon
the statutory age limit.
The King may bestow orders
upon whomever he pleases, as a reward for distinguished services, and
orders must be publicly announced, but no rank or title other than that
attached to any office. The order exempts no one from the common duties
and burdens of citizens, nor does it carry with it any preferential
to senior official posts in the State. Senior officials honourably
from office retain the title and rank of their office. This does not
however, to Members of the Council of State or the State Secretaries.
No personal, or mixed, hereditary
privileges may henceforth be granted to anyone.
The King chooses and dismisses,
at his own discretion, his Royal Household and Court Officials.
The King is Commander-in-Chief
of the land and naval forces of the Realm. These forces may not be
or reduced without the consent of the Storting. They may not be
to the service of foreign powers, nor may the military forces of any
power, except auxiliary forces assisting against hostile attack, be
into the Realm without the consent of the Storting.
The territorial army and
the other troops which cannot be classed as troops of the line must
without the consent of the Storting, be employed outside the borders of
The King has the right to
call up troops, to engage in hostilities in defence of the Realm and to
make peace, to conclude and denounce conventions, to send and to
Treaties on matters of special
importance, and, in all cases, treaties whose implementation, according
to the Constitution, necessitates a new law or a decision by the
are not binding until the Storting has given its consent thereto.
All Members of the Council
of State shall, unless lawfully absent, attend the Council of State and
no decision may be adopted there unless more than half the number of
A Member of the Council of
State who does not profess the official religion of the State shall not
take part in proceedings on matters which concern the State Church.
Proposals regarding appointments
to senior official posts and other matters of importance shall be
in the Council of State by the Member under whose department they come,
and such matters shall be dealt with by him in accordance with the
adopted in the Council of State. However, matters strictly relating to
military command may, to the extent determined by the King, be excepted
from proceedings in the Council of State.
If a Member of the Council
of State is lawfully prevented from attending the meeting and from
the matters coming under his department, these may be presented by
member temporarily appointed by the King for the purpose.
If so many Members are lawfully
prevented from attending that not more than half of the stipulated
are present, the requisite number of other men or women shall be
appointed to take a seat in the Council of State.
All the proceedings of the
Council of State shall be entered in its records. Diplomatic matters
the Council of State decides to keep secret shall be entered in a
record. The same applies to military command matters which the Council
of State decides to keep secret.
Everyone who has a seat in
the Council of State has the duty frankly to express his opinion, to
the King is bound to listen. But it rests with the King to make a
according to his own judgment.
If any Member of the Council
of State is of the opinion that the King's decision conflicts with the
form of government or the laws of the Realm, or is clearly prejudicial
to the Realm, it is his duty to make strong remonstrances against it,
well as to have his opinion entered in the records. A member who has
thus protested is deemed to have been in agreement with the King, and
be answerable in such manner as may be subsequently decided, and may be
impeached by the Odelsting before the Court of Impeachment.
All decisions drawn up by
the King shall, in order to become valid, be countersigned. The
relating to military command are countersigned by the person who has
the matter, while other decisions are countersigned by the Prime
or, if he has not been present, by the highest-ranking Member of the
of State present.
The decisions adopted by
the Government during the King's absence shall be drawn up in the
name and be signed by the Council of State.
The King shall make provisions
concerning titles for those who are entitled to succeed to the Crown.
As soon as the heir to the
Throne has completed her or his eighteenth year, she or he is entitled
to take a seat in the Council of State, although without a vote or
A Princess or Prince entitled
to succeed to the Crown of Norway may not marry without the consent of
the King. Nor may she or he accept any other crown or government
the consent of the King and the Storting; for the consent of the
two thirds of the votes are required.
If she or he acts contrary
to this rule, they and their descendants forfeit their right to the
The Royal Princes and Princesses
shall not personally be answerable to anyone other than the King, or
he decrees to sit in judgment on them.
If the King dies and the
heir to the Throne is still under age, the Council of State shall
summon the Storting.
Until the Storting has assembled
and made provisions for the government during the minority of the King,
the Council of State shall be responsible for the administration of the
Realm in accordance with the Constitution.
If the King is absent from
the Realm unless commanding in the field, or if he is so ill that he
attend to the government, the person next entitled to succeed to the
shall, provided that he has attained the age stipulated for the King's
majority, conduct the government as the temporary executor of the Royal
Powers. If this is not the case, the Council of State will conduct the
administration of the Realm.
The choice of trustees to
conduct the government on behalf of the King during his minority shall
be undertaken by the Storting.
The Princess or Prince who,
in the cases mentioned in Article 41, conducts the government shall
the following oath in writing before the Storting: "I promise and swear
that I will conduct the government in accordance with the Constitution
and the Laws, so help me God, the Almighty and Omniscient".
If the Storting is not in
session at the time, the oath shall be made in the Council of State and
later be presented to the next Storting.
The Princess or Prince who
has once made the oath shall not repeat it later.
As soon as their conduct
of the government ceases, the trustees shall submit to the King and the
Storting an account of the same.
If the persons concerned
fail to summon the Storting immediately in accordance with Article 39,
it becomes the unconditional duty of the Supreme Court, as soon as four
weeks have elapsed, to arrange for the Storting to be summoned.
The supervision of the education
of the King during his minority should, if both his parents are dead
neither of them has left any written directions thereon, be determined
by the Storting.
If the Royal Line has died
out, and no successor to the Throne has been designated, then a new
or King shall be chosen by the Storting. Meanwhile, the Executive Power
shall be exercised in accordance with Article 40.
C. Rights of
and the Legislative Power
The people exercises the
Legislative Power through the Storting, which consists of two
the Lagting and the Odelsting.
Those entitled to vote are
Norwegian citizens, men and women, who, at the latest in the year when
the election is held, have completed their 18th year.
The extent, however, to which
Norwegian citizens, who on Election Day are resident outside the Realm
but who satisfy the aforementioned conditions, are entitled to vote
be determined by law.
Rules may be laid down by
law concerning the right to vote of persons, otherwise entitled to
who on Election Day are manifestly suffering from a seriously weakened
mental state or a reduced level of consciousness.
The rules on the keeping
of the poll list and on the registration in the poll list of persons
to vote shall be determined by law.
The right to vote is lost
a) sentenced for criminal
offences, in accordance with the relevant provisions laid down by law;
b) entering the service of
a foreign power without the consent of the Government;
d) demonstrably guilty of
having bought votes, of having sold their own vote, or of having voted
at more than one polling station.
The polls shall be held every
fourth year. They shall be concluded by the end of September.
The polls shall be conducted
in the manner prescribed by law. Disputes regarding the right to vote
be settled by the poll officials, whose decision may be appealed to the
The number of representatives
to be elected to the Storting shall be one hundred and sixty-five.
Each county constitutes a
One hundred and fifty-seven
of the Representatives of the Storting are elected as representatives
constituencies and the remaining 8 representatives are elected so as to
achieve a greater degree of proportionality.
Representatives of constituencies
are distributed among the constituencies of the Realm as follows: 8 are
elected from the county of Østfold, 15 from Oslo, 12 from the
of Akershus, 8 from the county of Hedmark, 7 from the county of
7 from the county of Buskerud, 7 from the county of Vestfold, 6 from
county of Telemark, 4 from the county of Aust-Agder, 5 from the county
of Vest-Agder, 10 from the county of Rogaland, 15 from the county of
5 from the county of Sogn og Fjordane, 10 from the county of
og Romsdal, 10 from the county of Sør-Trøndelag, 6 from
county of Nord-Trøndelag, 12 from the county of Nordland, 6 from
the county of Troms, and 4 from the county of Finnmark.
Each municipality constitutes
a separate polling district.
The polls shall be held separately
for each polling district. At the polls votes shall be cast directly
representatives to the Storting, together with their proxies, to
the entire constituency.
The election of representatives
of constituencies is based on proportional representation and the seats
are distributed among the political parties in accordance with the
The total number of votes
cast for each party within each separate constituency is divided by
3, 5, 7 and so on until the number of votes cast is divided as many
as the number of seats that the party in question may expect to obtain.
The party which in accordance with the foregoing obtains the largest
is allotted the first seat, while the second seat is allotted to the
with the second largest quotient, and so on until all the seats are
If several parties have the same quotient, lots are drawn to decide to
which party the seat shall be allotted. List alliances are not
The seats at large are distributed
among the parties taking part in such distribution on the basis of the
relation between the total number of votes cast for the individual
in the entire Realm in order to achieve the highest possible degree of
proportionality among the parties. The total number of seats in the
to be held by each party is determined by applying the rules concerning
the distribution of constituency seats correspondingly to the entire
and to the parties taking part in the distribution of the seats at
The parties are then allotted so many seats at large that these,
with the constituency seats already allotted, correspond to the number
of seats in the Storting to which the party in question is entitled in
accordance with the foregoing. If according to these rules two or more
parties are equally entitled to a seat, preference shall be given to
party receiving the greatest number of votes or, in the event of a tie,
the one which is chosen by drawing lots. If a party has already through
the distribution of constituency seats obtained a greater number of
than that to which it is entitled in accordance with the foregoing, a
distribution of the seats at large shall be carried out exclusively
the other parties, in such a way that no account is taken of the number
of votes cast for and constituency seats obtained by the said party.
No party may be allotted
a seat at large unless it has received at least 4 per cent of the total
number of votes cast in the entire Realm.
The seats at large obtained
by a party are distributed among that party's lists of candidates for
elections so that the first seat is allotted to the list left with the
largest quotient after the constituency's seats are distributed, the
seat to the list with the second largest quotient, and so on until all
the party's seats at large have been distributed.
Whether and in what manner
those entitled to vote may deliver their ballot papers, without
attendance at the polls, shall be determined by law.
No one is eligible as a representative
to the Storting unless he has resided for 10 years in the Realm, as
as being entitled to vote.
Officials who are employed
in government departments, except however the State Secretaries, or
and pensioners of the Court, may not be elected as representatives to
Storting. The same applies to officials employed in the diplomatic or
Members of the Council of
State may not attend meetings of the Storting as representatives while
holding a seat in the Council of State. Nor may the State Secretaries
as representatives while holding their appointments.
It is the duty of anyone
who is elected as a representative to accept such election, unless:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
a) He is elected outside
the constituency in which he is entitled to vote.
b) He has as a representative
attended all the sessions of the Storting following the previous
c) He has completed his sixtieth
year at the latest in the year when the General Election is held.
d) He is a member of a political
party and he is elected on a list of candidates which has not been
by that party.chanrobles virtualawlibrary
If anyone is elected as a
representative without being bound to accept such election, he must,
the time and in the manner prescribed by law, make a declaration
whether or not he accepts election.
It shall similarly be prescribed
by law by what date and in which manner anyone who is elected as
for two or more constituencies shall state which election he will
The representatives elected
shall be furnished with credentials, the validity of which shall be
by the Storting.
Every representative and
proxy called to the Storting shall be entitled to receive from the
such reimbursement as is prescribed by law for travelling expenses to
from the Storting, and from the Storting to his home and back again
vacations lasting at least fourteen days.
He shall further be entitled
to remuneration, likewise prescribed by law, for attending the Storting.
Representatives on their
way to and from the Storting, as well as during their attendance there,
shall be exempt from personal arrest, unless they are apprehended in
crimes, nor may they be called to account outside the meetings of the
for opinions expressed there. Every representative shall be bound to
to the rules of procedure therein adopted.
The representatives elected
in the aforesaid manner shall constitute the Storting of the Kingdom of
The Storting shall as a rule
assemble on the first weekday in October every year in the capital of
Realm, unless the King, by reason of extraordinary circumstances, such
as hostile invasion or infectious disease, designates another town in
Realm for the purpose. Such a decision must be publicly announced in
When the Storting is not
assembled, it may be summoned by the King if he finds it necessary.
The members of the Storting
function as such for four successive years.
The Storting nominates from
among its members one fourth to constitute the Lagting, the remaining
fourths to constitute the Odelsting. This nomination shall take place
the first session of the Storting that assembles after a new General
whereafter the Lagting shall remain unchanged at all sessions of the
assembled after the same election, except insofar as any vacancy which
may occur among its members has to be filled by special nomination.
Each Ting holds its meetings
separately and nominates its own President and Secretary. Neither Ting
may hold a meeting unless at least half of its Members are present.
Bills concerning amendments to the Constitution may not be dealt with
at least two thirds of the Members of the Storting are present.
As soon as the Storting is
constituted, the King, or whoever he appoints for the purpose, shall
its proceedings with a Speech, in which he shall inform it of the state
of the Realm and of the issues to which he particularly desires to call
the attention of the Storting. No deliberations may take place in the
of the King.
When the proceedings of the
Storting have been opened, the Prime Minister and the Members of the
of State have the right to attend the Storting, as well as both
of the Storting, and, like its Members, although without voting, to
part in any proceedings conducted in open session, while in matters
in closed session only insofar as permitted by the Ting concerned.
It devolves upon the Storting:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
a) to enact and repeal laws;
to impose taxes, dues, customs and other public charges, which shall
however, remain operative beyond 31 December of the succeeding year,
they are expressly renewed by a new Storting;
b) to raise loans in the
name of the Realm;
c) to supervise the monetary
affairs of the Realm;
d) to appropriate the moneys
necessary to meet government expenditure;
e) to decide how much shall
be paid annually to the King for the Royal Household, and to determine
the Royal Family's appanage which may not, however, consist of real
f) to have submitted to it
the records of the Council of State, and all public reports and
g) to have communicated to
it the conventions and treaties which the King, on behalf of the State,
has concluded with foreign powers;
h) to have the right to require
anyone, the King and the Royal Family excepted, to appear before it on
matters of State; the exception does not, however, apply to the Royal
if they hold any public office;
i) to review the provisional
lists of salaries and pensions and to make therein such alterations as
it deems necessary;
k) to appoint five auditors,
who shall annually examine the State Accounts and publish extracts of
same in print, for which purpose the Accounts shall be submitted to the
auditors within six months of the end of the year for which the
of the Storting have been made, and to adopt provisions concerning the
procedure for authorizing the accounts of government accounting
l) to appoint a person, not
a member of the Storting, in a manner prescribed by law, to supervise
public administration and all who work in its service, to assure that
injustice is done against the individual citizen;
m) to naturalize aliens.chanrobles virtualawlibrary
Every Bill shall first be
proposed in the Odelsting, either by one of its own Members, or by the
government through a Member of the Council of State.
If the Bill is passed, it
is sent to the Lagting, which either approves or rejects it, and in the
latter case returns it with appended comments. These are taken into
by the Odelsting, which either shelves the bill or again sends it to
Lagting,with or without alteration.
When a Bill from the Odelsting
has twice been presented to the Lagting and has been returned a second
time as rejected, the Storting shall meet in plenary session, and the
is then decided by a majority of two thirds of its votes.
Between each such deliberation
there shall be an interval of at least three days.
When a Bill passed by the
Odelsting has been approved by the Lagting or by the Storting in
session, it is sent to the King, with a request that it may receive the
If the King assents to the
Bill, he appends his signature, whereby it becomes law.
If he does not assent to
it, he returns it to the Odelsting with a statement that he does not
the time being find it expedient to sanction it. In that case the Bill
must not again be submitted to the King by the Storting then assembled.
If a Bill has been passed
unaltered by two sessions of the Storting, constituted after two
successive elections and separated from each other by at least two
sessions of the Storting, without a divergent Bill having been passed
any Storting in the period between the first and last adoption, and it
is then submitted to the King with a petition that His Majesty shall
refuse his assent to a Bill which, after the most mature deliberation,
the Storting considers to be beneficial, it shall become law even if
Royal Assent is not accorded before the Storting
goes into recess.
The Storting shall remain
in session as long as it deems it necessary and shall terminate its
when it has concluded its business.
In accordance with the rules
of procedure adopted by the Storting, the proceedings may be resumed,
they shall terminate not later than the last Sunday in the month of
Within this time the King
shall communicate his decision with regard to the Bills that have not
been decided (cf. Articles 77 to 79), by either confirming or rejecting
them. All those which he does not expressly accept are deemed to have
rejected by him.
All Acts (with the exception
of those mentioned in Article 79) are drawn up in the name of the King,
under the seal of the Realm of Norway, and in the following terms;
X, make it publicly known: that the decision of the Storting of the
stated has been laid before Us: (here follows the decision). In
whereof We have assented to and confirmed, as We hereby do assent to
confirm the same as Law under Our Hand and the Seal of the Realm.»
The Storting may obtain the
opinion of the Supreme Court on points of law.
The Storting shall meet in
open session, and its proceedings shall be published in print, except
those cases where a majority decides to the contrary.
Any person who obeys an order,
the purpose of which is to disturb the liberty and security of the
is thereby guilty of treason against the Country.
D. The Judicial Power
The Court of Impeachment
pronounces judgment in the first and last instance in such proceedings
as are brought by the Odelsting against Members of the Council of
or of the Supreme Court or of the Storting, for criminal offences which
they may have committed in their official capacity.
The specific rules concerning
indictment by the Odelsting in accordance with this Article shall be
by law. However, the limitation period for the institution of
proceedings before the Court of Impeachment may not be set at less than
The permanent Members of
the Lagting and the permanently appointed Members of the Supreme Court
are judges of the Court of Impeachment. The provisions contained in
87 shall apply to the composition of the Court of Impeachment in the
case. In the Court of Impeachment the President of the Lagting shall
Any person sitting in the
Court of Impeachment as a Member of the Lagting shall not resign from
Court if the period for which he is elected as a representative to the
Storting expires before the Court of Impeachment has concluded the
of the case. If he ceases, for any other reason, to be a Member of the
Storting, he shall resign as a judge of the Court of Impeachment. The
applies if a Justice of the Supreme Court, who is a Member of the Court
of Impeachment, retires as a Member of the Supreme Court.
The accused and the person
acting on behalf of the Odelsting in the proceedings have the right to
challenge as many Members of the Lagting and of the Supreme Court as
leave remaining fourteen Members of the Lagting and seven Members of
Supreme Court as judges in the Court of Impeachment. Each party in the
proceedings may challenge an equal number of the Members of the
although the accused has the preferential right to challenge one more,
if the number to be challenged is not divisible by two. The same shall
apply to the challenging of the Members of the Supreme Court. If there
are several accused in such proceedings,
they exercise the right of challenge collectively in accordance with
prescribed by law. If the right of challenge is not exercised to the
permitted, as many Members of the Lagting and of the Supreme Court as
in excess of fourteen and seven respectively retire following the
When the case comes up for
judgment, as many judges of the Court of Impeachment shall retire
the drawing of lots that the Court due to render judgment is left with
fifteen Members, of whom at most ten are Members of the Lagting and
Justices of the Supreme Court.
The President of the Court
of Impeachment and the President of the Supreme Court shall in no case
retire following the drawing of lots.
If the Court of Impeachment
cannot be composed of as many Members of the Lagting or of the Supreme
Court as prescribed above, the case may nevertheless be tried and
rendered, provided that the Court numbers at least ten judges.
Specific provisions as to
the procedure to be followed in the composition of the Court of
shall be laid down by law.
The Supreme Court pronounces
judgment in the final instance. Nevertheless, limitations on the right
to bring a case before the Supreme Court may be prescribed by law.
The Supreme Court shall consist
of a President and at least four other Members.
The judgments of the Supreme
Court may in no case be appealed.
No one may be appointed a
member of the Supreme Court before reaching 30 years of age.
To senior official posts
in the State may be appointed only Norwegian citizens, men or women,
speak the language of the Country, and who at the same time
a) either were born in the
Realm of parents who were then subjects of the State;
b) or were born in a foreign
country of Norwegian parents who were not at that time subjects of
c) or hereafter have resided
for ten years in the Realm;
d) or have been naturalized
by the Storting.chanrobles virtualawlibrary
Others may, however, be appointed
as teachers at the university and institutions of higher learning, as
practitioners and as consuls in places abroad.
In order to safeguard international
peace and security or to promote the international rule of law and
between nations, the Storting may, by a three-fourths majority, consent
that an international organization to which Norway adheres or will
shall have the right, within objectively defined fields, to exercise
which in accordance with this Constitution are normally vested in the
authorities, although not the power to alter this Constitution. For the
Storting to grant such consent, at least two thirds of the Members of
Storting shall be present, as required for proceedings for amending the
The provisions of this Article
do not apply in cases of membership in an international organization,
decisions only have application for Norway purely under international
The first, or if this is
not possible, the second ordinary Storting, shall make provision for
publication of a new general civil and criminal code. However the
applicable laws of the State shall remain in force, provided they do
conflict with this Constitution or with such provisional ordinances as
may be issued in the meantime.
The existing permanent taxes
shall likewise remain operative until the next Storting.
No dispensations, protection
from civil arrest, moratoriums or redresses may be granted after the
general code has entered into force.
No one may be convicted except
according to law, or be punished except after a court judgment.
by torture must not take place.
No law must be given retroactive
When special fees are paid
to officials of the Courts of Justice, no further payment shall be made
to the Treasury in respect of the same matter.
No one may be taken into
custody except in the cases determined by law and in the manner
by law. For unwarranted arrest, or illegal detention, the officer
is accountable to the person imprisoned.
The Government is not entitled
to employ military force against citizens of the State, except in
with the forms prescribed by law, unless any assembly disturbs the
peace and does not immediately disperse after the Articles of the
Book relating to riots have been read out clearly three times by the
There shall be liberty of
the Press. No person may be punished for any writing, whatever its
which he has caused to be printed or published, unless he wilfully and
manifestly has either himself shown or incited others to disobedience
the laws, contempt of religion, morality or the constitutional powers,
or resistance to their orders, or has made false and defamatory
against anyone. Everyone shall be free to speak his mind frankly on the
administration of the State and on any other subject whatsoever.
New and permanent privileges
implying restrictions on the freedom of trade and industry must not in
future be granted to anyone.
Search of private homes shall
not be made except in criminal cases.
Asylum for the protection
of debtors shall not be granted to such persons as hereafter become
Land and goods may in no
case be made subject to forfeiture.
If the welfare of the State
requires that any person shall surrender his movable or immovable
for the public use, he shall receive full compensation from the
The purchase money, as well
as the revenues of the landed property constituting ecclesiastical
shall be applied solely to the benefit of the clergy and to the
of education. The property of charitable institutions shall be applied
solely to the benefit of the institutions themselves.
Allodial right and the right
of primogeniture shall not be abolished. The specific conditions under
which these rights shall continue for the greatest benefit of the State
and to the best advantage of the rural population shall be determined
the first or second subsequent Storting.
No earldoms, baronies, entailed
estates or fideicommissa may be created in the future.
As a general rule every citizen
of the State is equally bound to serve in the defence of the Country
a specific period, irrespective of birth or fortune.
The application of this principle,
and the restrictions to which it shall be subject, shall be determined
It is the responsibility
of the authorities of the State to create conditions enabling every
capable of work to earn a living by his work.
Specific provisions concerning
the right of employees to co-determination at their work place shall be
laid down by law.
Article 110 a
It is the responsibility
of the authorities of the State to create conditions enabling the Sami
people to preserve and develop its language, culture and way of life.
Article 110 b
Every person has a right
to an environment that is conducive to health and to natural
whose productivity and diversity are preserved. Natural resources
be made use of on the basis of comprehensive long-term considerations
this right will be safeguarded for future generations as well.
In order to safeguard their
right in accordance with the foregoing paragraph, citizens are entitled
to be informed of the state of the natural environment and of the
of any encroachments on nature that are planned or commenced.
The State authorities shall
issue further provisions for the implementation of these principles.
Article 110 c
It is the responsibility
of the authorities of the State to respect and ensure human rights.
provisions for the implementation of treaties hereof shall be
The form and colours of the
Norwegian Flag shall be determined by law.
If experience shows that
any part of this Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway ought to be
the proposal to this effect shall be submitted to the first, second or
third Storting after a new General Election and be publicly announced
print. But it shall be left to the first, second or third Storting
the following General Election to decide whether or not the proposed
shall be adopted. Such amendment must never, however, contradict the
embodied in this Constitution, but solely relate to modifications of
provisions which do not alter the spirit of the Constitution, and such
amendment requires that two thirds of the Storting agree thereto.
An amendment to the Constitution
adopted in the manner aforesaid shall be signed by the President and
Secretary of the Storting, and shall be sent to the King for public
in print, as an applicable provision of the Constitution of the Kingdom