the country's accelerating economic and physical development, coupled
with urbanization and population growth, makes imperative the
formulation and adoption of a uniform building code which shall embody
up-to-date and modern technical knowledge on building design,
construction, use, occupancy and maintenance;
WHEREAS, while there is Republic Act No. 6541, entitled "An Act to
Ordain and Institute a National Building Code of the Philippines", the
same does not conform with the developmental goals and infrastructure
program of the Government and does not adequately provide for all the
technological requirements of buildings and structures, in terms of
up-to-date design and construction standards and criteria;
WHEREAS, in the formulation of a new national building code, it is
desire and policy of the Government to avail of and harness the
technical expertise and professional know-how to men not only in the
public but in the private sectors as well.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines,
by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby
order and decree the revision of Republic Act. No. 6541 to read as
Section 101. Title. —
This Decree shall be known as the "National Building Code of the
Philippines" and shall hereinafter be referred to as the "Code".
Section 102. Declaration of Policy. —
It is hereby declared to be the policy of the State to safeguard life,
health, property, and public welfare, consistent with the principles of
sound environmental management and control; and to this end, make it
the purpose of this Code to provide for all buildings and structures, a
framework of minimum standards and requirements to regulate and control
their location, site, design quality of materials, construction, use,
occupancy, and maintenance.
Section 103. Scope and Application. —
(a) The provisions of this Code shall apply to the
design, location, sitting, construction, alteration, repair,
conversion, use, occupancy, maintenance, moving, demolition of, and
addition to public and private buildings and structures, except
traditional indigenous family dwellings as defined herein.
(b) Building and/or structures constructed before the
approval of this Code shall not be affected thereby except when
alterations, additions, conversions or repairs are to be made therein
in which case, this Code shall apply only to portions to be altered,
added, converted or repaired.
Section 104. General Building Requirements. —
(a) All buildings or structures as well as accessory
facilities thereto shall conform in all respects to the principles of
the safe construction and must be suited to the purpose for which they
(b) Buildings or structures intended to be used for
the manufacture and/or production of any kind of article or product
shall observe adequate environmental safeguards.
(c) Buildings or structures and all parts thereof as
well as all facilities found therein shall be maintained in safe,
sanitary and good working condition.
Section 105. Site Requirements. —
The land or site upon which will be constructed any building or
structure, or any ancillary or auxiliary facility thereto, shall be
sanitary, hygienic or safe. In the case of sites or buildings intended
for use as human habitation or abode, the same shall be at a safe
distance, as determined by competent authorities, from streams or
bodies of water and/or sources ofr considered to be polluted; from a
volcano or volcanic site and/or any other building considered to be a
potential source of fire or explosion.
Section 106. Definitions. —
As used in this Code, the words, terms and phrases enumerated in Annex
"A" hereof shall have the meaning or definition, correspondingly
ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT
Sec. 201. Responsibility for Administration and
The administration and enforcement of the provisions of this Code
including the imposition of penalties for administrative violations
thereof is hereby vested in the Secretary of Public Works,
Transportation and Communications, hereinafter referred to as the
Sec. 202. Technical Staff . —
The Secretary is hereby authorized to constitute and provide in his
Department a professional staff composed of highly qualified
architects, engineers and technicians who possess diversified and
professional experience in the field of building design and
Sec. 203. General Powers and Functions of the
Secretary under this Code. —
For purposes of carrying out the provisions of this Code, the Secretary
shall exercise the following general powers and functions:
(1) Formulate policies, plans, standards and
guidelines on building design, construction, use occupancy and
maintenance, in accordance with this Code.
(2) Issue and promulgate rules and regulations to
implement the provisions of this Code and ensure compliance with
policies, plans, standards and guidelines formulated under paragraph 1
of this Section.
(3) Evaluate, review, approve and/or take final
action on changes and/or amendments to existing Referral Codes as well
as on the incorporation of other referral codes which are not yet
expressly made part of this Code.
(4) Prescribe and fix the amount of fees and other
charges that the Building Official shall collect in connection with the
performance of regulatory functions.
Sec. 204. Professional and Technical Assistance. —
The Secretary with the assistance of his technical staff shall provide
such professional, technical, scientific and other services including
testing laboratories and facilities as may be required to carry out the
provisions of this Code; Provided that the Secretary may secure such
services as he may deem necessary from other agencies of the National
Government and may make arrangement for the compensation of such
services. He may also engage and compensate within appropriations
available therefor, the services of such number of consultants, experts
and advisers on full or part-time basis, as may be necessary, coming
from the government or private businesses, entities or associations to
carry out the provisions of this Code.
Sec. 205. Building Officials. —
Except as otherwise provided herein, the Building Official shall be
responsible for carrying out the provisions of this Code in the field
as well as the enforcement of orders and decisions made pursuant
Due to the exigencies of the service, the Secretary may designate
incumbent Public Works District Engineers, City Engineers and Municipal
Engineers act as Building Officials in their respective areas of
The designation made by the Secretary under this Section shall continue
until regular positions of Building Official are provided or unless
sooner terminated for causes provided by law or decree.
Sec. 206. Qualifications of Building Officials. —
No person shall be appointed as a Building Official unless he possesses
the following qualifications:
1. A Filipino citizen and of good moral character.
2. A duly registered architect or civil engineer.
3. A member of good standing of a duly accredited
organization of his profession for not less than two years.
4. Has at least five years of diversified and
professional experience in building design and construction.
Sec. 207. Duties of a Building Official. —
In his respective territorial jurisdiction, the Building Official shall
be primarily responsible for the enforcement of the provisions of this
Code as well as of the implementing rules and regulations issued
therefor. He is the official charged with the duties of issuing
In the performance of his duties, a Building Official may enter any
building or its premises at all reasonable times to inspect and
determine compliance with the requirements of this Code, and the terms
and conditions provided for in the building permit as issued.
When any building work is found to be contrary to the provisions of
this Code, the Building Official may order the work stopped and
prescribe the terms and/or conditions when the work will be allowed to
resume. Likewise, the Building Official is authorized to order the
discontinuance of the occupancy or use of any building or structure or
portion thereof found to be occupied or used contrary to the provisions
of this Code.
Sec. 208. Fees. —
Every Building Official shall keep a permanent record and accurate
account of all fees and other charges fixed and authorized by the
Secretary to be collected and received under this Code.
Subject to existing budgetary, accounting and auditing rules and
regulations, the Building Official is hereby authorized to retain not
more than twenty percent of his collection for the operating expenses
of his office.
The remaining eighty percent shall be deposited with the provincial,
city or municipal treasurer and shall accrue to the General Fund of the
province, city or municipality concerned.
Sec. 209. Exemption. —
Public buildings and traditional indigenous family dwelling shall be
exempt from payment of building permit fees.
As used in this Code, the term "additional indigenous family dwelling"
means a dwelling intended for the use and occupancy by the family of
the owner only and constructed of native materials such as bamboo,
nipa, logs, or lumber, the total cost of which does not exceed fifteen
Sec. 210. Use of Income from Fees. —
Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding, the Secretary is
hereby authorized to prescribe the procedures for the use of all net
income realized by the office of the Building Official from the
collection of fees and charges not exceeding twenty percent thereof in
accordance with Sec. 208.
Such income may be used to cover necessary operating expenses including
the purchase of equipment, supplies and materials, travelling expenses,
obligation expenses and sheriff's fees and payment of other prior
years' obligations not adequately funded, subject to existing budgetary
and auditing rules and regulations.
Sec. 211. Implementing Rules and Regulations. —
In the implementation of the provisions of this Code, the Secretary
shall formulate necessary rules and regulations and adopt design and
construction standards and criteria for buildings and other structures.
Such standards, rules and regulations shall take effect after their
publication once a week for three consecutive weeks in a newspaper of
Sec. 212. Administrative Fines. —
For the violation of any of the provisions of this Code or any of the
rules or regulations issued thereunder the Secretary is hereby
empowered to prescribe and impose fines not exceeding ten thousand
Sec. 213. Penal Provisions. —
It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation, to erect,
construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, improve, remove, convert,
demolish, equip, use, occupy, or maintain any building or structure or
cause the same to be done contrary to or in violation of any provision
of this Code.
Any person, firm or corporation who shall violate any of the provisions
of this Code and/or commit any act hereby declared to be unlawful shall
upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than twenty thousand
pesos or by imprisonment of not more than two years or by both such
fine and imprisonment: Provided, that in the case of a corporation
firm, partnership or association, the penalty shall be imposed upon its
officials responsible for such violation and in case the guilty party
is an alien, he shall immediately be deported after payment of the fine
and/or service of his sentence.
Sec. 214. Dangerous and Ruinous Buildings or
Dangerous buildings are those which are herein declared as such or are
structurally unsafe or not provided with safe egress, or which
constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life, or
which in relation to existing use, constitute a hazard to safety or
health or public welfare because of inadequate maintenance,
dilapidation, obsolescence, or abandonment; or which otherwise
contribute to the pollution of the site or the community to an
Sec. 215. Abatement of Dangerous Buildings. —
When any building or structure is found or declared to be dangerous or
ruinous, the Building Official shall order its repair, vacation or
demolition depending upon the degree of danger to life, health, or
safety. This is without prejudice to further action that may be taken
under the provisions of Articles 482 and 694 to 707 of the Civil Code
of the Philippines.
Sec. 216. Other Remedies. —
The rights, actions and remedies provided in this Code shall be in
addition to any and all other rights of action and remedies that may be
available under existing laws.
PERMITS AND INSPECTION
Sec. 301. Building Permits. —
No person, firm or corporation, including any agency or instrumentality
of the government shall erect, construct, alter, repair, move, convert
or demolish any building or structure or cause the same to be done
without first obtaining a building permit therefor from the Building
Official assigned in the place where the subject building is located or
the building work is to be done.
Sec. 302. Application for permits. —
In order to obtain a building permit, the applicant shall file an
application therefor in writing and on the prescribed form from the
office of the Building Official. Every application shall provide at
least the following information:
(1) A description of the work to be covered by the
permit applied for;
(2) Certified true copy of the TCT covering the lot
on which the proposed work is to be done. If the applicant is not the
registered owner, in addition to the TCT, a copy of the contract of
lease shall be submitted;
(3) The use or occupancy for which the proposal work
(4) Estimated cost of the proposed work.
To be submitted together with such application are at least five sets
of corresponding plans and specifications prepared, signed and sealed
by a duly mechanical engineer in case of mechanical plans, and by a
registered electrical engineer in case of electrical plans, except in
those cases exempted or not required by the Building Official under
Sec. 303. Processing of Building Permits. —
The processing of building permits shall be under the overall
administrative control and supervision of the Building Official and his
technical staff of qualified professionals.
In processing an application for a building permit, the Building
Official shall see to it that the applicant satisfies and conforms with
approved standard requirements on zonings and land use, lines and
grades, structural design, sanitary and sewerage, environmental health,
electrical and mechanical safety as well as with other rules and
regulations promulgated in accordance with the provisions of this Code.
Sec. 304. Issuance of Building Permits. —
When satisfied that the work described in an application for building
permit and the plans and specifications submitted therewith, conform to
the requirements of this Code and other pertinent rules and
regulations, the Building Official shall, within fifteen days from
payment of the required fees by the applicant, issue the building
permit applied for.
The Building Official may issue a permit for the construction of only a
part or portion of a building or structure whenever the plans and
specifications submitted together with the application do not cover the
entire building or structure.
Approved plans and specifications shall not be changed, modified or
altered without the approval of the Building Official and the work
shall be done strictly in accordance thereto.
Sec. 305. Validity of Building Permits. —
The issuance of a building permit shall not be construed as an approval
or authorization to the permittee to disregard or violate any of the
provisions of this Code.
Whenever the issuance of a permit is based on approved plans and
specifications which are subsequently found defective, the Building
Official is not precluded from requiring permittee to effect the
necessary corrections in said plans and specifications or from
preventing or ordering the stoppage of any or all building operations
being carried on thereunder which are in violation of this Code.
A building permit issued under the provisions of this Code shall expire
and become null and void if the building or work authorized therein is
not commenced within a period of one year from the date of such permit,
or if the building or work so authorized is suspended or abandoned at
any time after it has been commenced, for a period of 120 days.
Sec. 306. Non-Issuance, Suspension or Revocation
of Building Permits. —
The Building Official may order or cause the non-issuance, suspension
or revocation of building permits on any or all of the following
reasons or grounds:
(a) Errors found in the plans and specifications;
(b) In correct or inaccurate data or information
(c) Non-compliance with the provisions of this Code
or of any rule or regulation.
Notice of non-issuance, suspension or revocation of building permits
shall always be made in writing, stating the reason or grounds therefor.
Sec. 307. Appeal. —
Within fifteen (15) days from the date of receipt of advice of the
non-issuance, suspension or revocation of permits, the
applicant/permittee may file an appeal with the Secretary who shall
render his decision within fifteen days from date of receipt of notice
of appeal. The decision of the Secretary shall be final subject only to
review by the Office of the President.
Sec. 308. Inspection and Supervision of Work. —
The owner of the Building who is issued or granted a building permit
under this Code shall engage the services of a duly licensed architect
or civil engineer to undertake the full time inspection and supervision
of the construction work.
Such architect or civil engineer may or may not be the same architect
or civil engineer who is responsible for the design of the building.
It is understood however that in either case, the designing architect
or civil engineer is not precluded from conducting inspection of the
construction work to check and determine compliance with the plans and
specifications of the building as submitted.
There shall be kept at the jobsite at all times a logbook wherein the
actual progress of construction including tests conducted, weather
conditions and other pertinent data are to be recorded.
Upon completion of the construction, the said licensed architect or
civil engineer shall submit the logbook, duly signed and sealed, to the
Building Official. He shall also prepare and submit a Certificate of
Completion of the project stating that the construction of building
conforms to the provisions of this Code as well as with the approved
plans and specifications.
Sec. 309. Certificate of Occupancy. —
No building or structure shall be used or occupied and no change in the
existing use or occupancy classification of a building or structure or
portion thereof shall be made until the Building Official has issued a
Certificate of Occupancy therefor as provided in this Code.
A certificate of Occupancy shall be issued by the Building Official
within thirty (30) days if after final inspection and submittal of a
Certificate of Completion referred to in the preceding section, it is
found that the building or structure complies with the provisions of
The Certificate of Occupancy shall be posted or displayed in a
conspicuous place on the premises and shall not be removed except upon
order of the Building Official.
The non-issuance, suspension and revocation of Certificates of
Occupancy and the procedure for appeal therefrom shall be governed in
so far as applicable, by the provisions of Sec. 306 and 307 of this
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
Sec. 401. Types of Construction. —
For purposes of this Code, all buildings proposed for construction
shall be classified or identified according to the following
(1) Type I — Type I buildings shall be a wood
construction. The structural elements may be any of the materials
permitted by this Code.
(2) Type II — Type II buildings shall be of wood
construction with protective fire-resistant materials and one-hour
fire-resistive throughout: Except, that permanent non-bearing
partitions may use fire-retardant treated wood within the framing
(3) Type III — Type III buildings shall be of masonry
and wood construction. Structural elements may be any of the materials
permitted by this Code: Provided, that the building shall be one-hour
fire-resistive throughout. Exterior walls shall be of incombustible
(4) Type IV — Type IV buildings shall be of steel,
iron, concrete, or masonry construction. Walls, ceiling, and permanent
partitions shall be of incombustible fire-resistive construction:
Except, that permanent non-bearing partitions of one-hour
fire-resistive construction may use fire-retardant treated wood within
the framing assembly.
(5) Type V — Type V buildings shall be
fire-resistive. The structural elements shall be of steel, iron,
concrete, or masonry construction. Walls, ceilings, and permanent
partitions shall be of incombustible fire-resistive construction.
Sec. 402. Changes in Types. —
No change shall be made in the type of construction of any building
which would place the building in a different sub-type or type of
construction unless such building is made to comply with the
requirements for such sub-type of construction: Except, when the
changes is approved by the Building Official upon showing that the new
or proposed construction is less hazardous, based on life and fire
risk, than the existing construction.
Sec. 403. Requirements on Type of Construction. —
Subject to the provisions of this Chapter, the Secretary shall
prescribe standards for each type of construction, and promulgate rules
and regulations therefor, relating to structural framework, exterior
walls and openings, interior walls and enclosures, floors, exists, and
stairs construction, and roofs.
REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE ZONES
Sec. 501. Fire Zones Defined. —
Fire zones are areas within which only certain types of buildings are
permitted to be constructed based on their use or occupancy, type of
construction, and resistance to fire.
Sec. 502. Buildings located in more than One Fire
A building or structure which is located partly in one fire zone and
partly in another shall be considered to be in the more highly
restrictive fire zone, when more than one-third of its total floor area
is located in such zone.
Sec. 503. Moved Building. —
Any building or structure moved within or into any fire zone shall be
made to comply with all the requirements for buildings in that fire
Sec. 504. Temporary Buildings. —
Temporary building such as reviewing stands and other miscellaneous
structures conforming to the requirements of this Code, and sheds,
canopies and fences used for the protection of the public around and in
conjunction with construction work, may be erected in the fire zones by
special permit from the Building Official for a limited period of time,
and such buildings or structures shall be-completely removed upon the
expiration of the time limit stated in such permits.
Sec. 505. Center Lines of Streets. —
For the purpose of this Chapter, the center line of an adjoining street
or alley may be considered an adjacent property line. Distances shall
be measured at right angles to the street or alley.
Sec. 506. Restrictions on Existing Buildings. —
Existing buildings or structures in fire zones that do not comply with
the requirements for a new building erected therein shall not hereafter
be enlarged, altered, remodeled, repaired or moved except as follows:
(a) Such building is entirely demolished;
(b) Such building is to be moved outside the limits
of the more highly restrictive Fire Zone to a zone where the building
meets the minimum standards;
(c) Changes, alterations and repairs may be made
provided that in any 12-month period, the value of the work does not
exceed twenty percent of the value of the existing building, and
provided that, such changes do not add additional combustible material,
and do not, in the opinion of the Building Official, increase the fire
(d) Additions thereto are separated from the existing
building by fire walls, as set forth in Sub-section 604 (b);
(e) Damage from fire or earthquake, typhoons or any
fortuitous event may be repaired, using the same kind of materials of
which the building or structure was originally constructed, provided
that, the cost of such repair shall not exceed twenty percent of the
replacement cost of the building or structure.
Sec. 507. Designation of Fire Zones. —
The Secretary shall promulgate specific restriction for each type of
Fire Zone. Cities and municipalities shall be divided into such Fire
Zones in accordance with local, physical, and spatial framework plans
submitted by city or municipal planning and/or development bodies.
FIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS IN CONSTRUCTION
Sec. 601. Fire-Resistive Rating Defined. —
Fire-resistive rating means the degree to which a material can
withstand fire as determined by generally recognized and accepted
Sec. 602. Fire-Resistive Time Period Rating. —
Fire-resistive time period rating is the length of time a material can
withstand being burned which may be one-hour, two-hours, three-hours,
Sec. 603. Fire-Resistive Standards. —
All materials of construction, and assemblies or combinations thereof
shall be classified according to their fire-retardant or flame-spread
ratings as determined by general accepted testing methods and/or by the
Sec. 604. Fire-Resistive Regulations. —
The Secretary shall prescribe standards and promulgate rules and
regulations on the testing of construction materials for flame-spread
characteristics, tests on fire damages, fire tests of building
construction and materials, door assemblies and tinclad fire doors and
window assemblies, the installation of fire doors and windows and smoke
and fire detectors for fire protective signaling system, application
and use of controlled interior finish, fire-resistive protection for
structural members, fire-resistive walls and partitions, fire-resistive
floor or roof ceiling, fire-resistive assemblies for protection of
openings and fire-retardant roof coverings.
CLASSIFICATION AND GENERAL REQUIREMENT OF ALL BUILDINGS BY USE OF
Sec. 701. Occupancy Classified. —
(a) Buildings proposed for construction shall be
identified according to their use or the character of its occupancy and
shall be classified as follows:
(1) Group A — Residential Dwellings
Group A Occupancies shall be dwellings.
(2) Group B — Residentials, Hotels and Apartments
Group B Occupancies shall be multiple dwelling units including boarding
or lodging houses, hotels, apartment buildings, row houses, convents,
monasteries, and other similar building each of which accommodates more
than ten persons.
(3) Group C — Education and Recreation
Group C Occupancies shall be buildings used for school or day-care
purposes, involving assemblage for instruction, education, or
recreation, and not classified in Group I or in Division 1 and 2 or
Group H Occupancies.
(4) Group D — Institutional
Group D Occupancies shall include:
Division 1 — Mental hospitals, mental sanitaria, jails, prisons,
reformatories, and buildings where personal liberties of inmates are
similarly restrained.sa d
Division 2 — Nurseries for full-time care of children under
kindergarten age, hospitals, sanitaria, nursing homes with
non-ambulatory patients, and similar buildings each accommodating more
than five persons.
Division 3 — Nursing homes for ambulatory patients, homes for children
of kindergarten age or over, each accommodating more than five persons:
Provided, that Group D Occupancies shall not include buildings used
only for private or family group dwelling purposes.
(5) Group E — Business and Mercantile
Group E Occupancies shall include:
Division 1 — Gasoline filling and service stations, storage garages and
boot storage structures where no work is done except exchange of parts
and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of highly
Division 2 — Wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, drinking
and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than one
hundred persons, printing plants, police and fire stations, factories
and workshops using not highly flammable or combustible materials and
paint stores without bulk handlings.
Division 3 —rcraft hangers and open parking garage with no repair work
is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open
flame, welding or the use of highly flammable liquids.
(6) Group F — Industrial
Group F Occupancies shall include: ice plants, power
plants, pumping plants, cold
storage, and creameries, factories and workshops using incombustible
and non-explosive materials, and storage and sale rooms for
incombustible and non-explosive materials.
(7) Group G — Storage and Hazardous
Group G Occupancies shall include:
Division 1 — Storage and handling of hazardous and highly flammable
Division 2 — Storage and handling of flammable materials, dry cleaning
plants using flammable liquids; paint stores with bulk handling, paint
shops and spray painting rooms.
Division 3 — Wood working establishments, planning mills and box
factories, shops, factories where loose combustible fibers or dust are
manufactured, processed or generated; warehouses where highly
combustible material is store.
Division 4 — Repair garages.
Division 5 —rcraft repair hangers.
(8) Group H — Assembly Other Than Group 1
Group H Occupancies shall include:
Division 1 — Any assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of
less than 1000 in the building.
Division 2 — Any assembly building without stage and having an occupant
load of 300 or more in the building.
Division 3 — Any assembly building without a stage and having an
occupant load of less than 300 in the building.
Division 4 — Stadia, reviewing stands, amusement park structures not
included within Group I or in Division 1, 2, and 3 of this Group.
(9) Group I — Assembly Occupant Load 1000 or More
Group I Occupancies shall be any assembly building
with an age and an occupant
load of 1000 or more in the building.
(10) Group J — Accessory
Group J Occupancies shall include:
Division 1 — Private garage, carports, sheds and agriculture buildings.
Division 2 — Fences over 1.80 meters high, tanks, and towers.
(b) Other subgroupings or divisions within Groups A
to J may be determined by the Secretary. Any other occupancy not
mentioned specifically in this Section, or about which there is any
question shall be included in the Group which it most nearly resembles
based on the existing or proposed life and fire hazard.
Sec. 702. Change in Use. —
No change shall be made in the character of occupancy or use of any
building which would place the building in a different division of the
same group of occupancy or in a different group of occupancies, unless
such building is made to comply with the requirements of this code for
such division or group of occupancy. The character of occupancy of
existing buildings may be changed subject to the approval of the
Building Official and the building may be occupied or purposes set
forth in other Groups: Provided the new or proposed use is less
hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than the existing use.
Sec. 703. Mixed Occupancy. —
(a) General Requirements
When a building is of mixed occupancy or used for more than one
occupancy, the whole building shall be subject to the most restrictive
requirement pertaining to any of the type of occupancy found therein
except in the following:
(1) When a one-storey building houses more than one
occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the
requirement of the particular occupancy housed therein and;
(2) Where minor accessory uses do not occupy more
than ten percent of the area of any floor or a building, nor more than
ten percent of the basic area permitted in the occupancy requirements,
in which case, the major use of the building determine the occupancy
(b) Forms of Occupancy Separation
Occupancy separations shall be vertical or horizontal or both, or when
necessary, of such other forms as may be required to afford a complete
separation between the various occupancy divisions in the building.
(c) Types of Occupancy Separation
Occupancy separation shall be classified as "One-Hour Fire-Resistive",
"Two-Hour Fire Resistive", "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive" and "Four-Hour
(1) A "One-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation"
shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction. All
openings in such separation shall be protected by a fire-assembly
having a one-hour fire-resistive rating.
(2) A "Two-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation"
shall be of not less than two-hour fire-resistive construction. All
openings in such separation shall be protected by a fire-assembly
having a two-hour fire-resistive rating.
(3) A "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy
Separation" shall be of not less than three-hour fire-resistive
construction. All openings in walls forming such separation shall be
protected by a fire assembly having a three-hour fire-resistive rating.
The total width of all openings in any three-hour fire-resistive
occupancy separation wall in any one-storey shall not exceed 25 per
cent of the length of the wall in that storey and no single opening
shall have an area greater than 10.00 square meters. All openings in
floors forming a "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" shall
be protected by vertical enclosures extending above and below such
openings. The walls of such vertical enclosures shall be of not less
than two-hour fire-resistive construction, and all openings therein
shall be protected by a fire-assembly having a three-hour
(4) A "Four-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation"
shall have no openings therein and shall be of not less than four-hour
fire resistive construction.
(d) Fire-Rating for Occupancy Separation
Occupancy Separations shall be provided between groups, subgroupings,
or divisions of occupancies. The Secretary shall promulgate rules and
regulations for appropriate occupancy separations in buildings of mixed
occupancy: Provided, that, where any occupancy separation is required,
the minimum shall be a "One-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation";
and where the occupancy separation is horizontal, structural member
supporting the separation shall be protected by an equivalent
Sec. 704. Location of Property. —
No Building shall be constructed unless it adjoins or has direct access
to a public space yard or street on at least one of its sides.
For the purpose of this Section, the center line of an adjoining street
or alley shall be considered an adjacent property line.
Eaves over required windows shall not be less than 750 millimeters from
the side and rear property lines.
(b) Fire Resistance of Walls.
Exterior walls shall have fire resistance and opening protection in
accordance with the requirements set forth by the Secretary.
Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not exceed beyond a point
one-third the distance from an assumed vertical plane located where the
fire-resistive protection of openings is first required to the location
on property whichever is the least restrictive. Distance shall be
measured at right angles from the property line. When openings in
exterior walls are required to be protected due to distance from
property line, the sum of the areas of such openings in any storey
shall not exceed 50 percent of the total area of the wall in that
(c) Buildings on Same Property and Buildings
For the purpose of determining the required wall and opening
protection, buildings on the same property and court walls shall be
assumed to have a property line between them. When a new building is to
be erected on the same property with an existing building, the assume
property line from the existing building shall be the distance to the
property line for each occupancy as set forth by the Secretary.
Provided, that two or more buildings on the same property may be
considered as one building if the aggregate area of such building is
within the limits of allowable floor areas for a single building, and
when the buildings so considered, house different occupancies or are of
different types of construction, the area shall be that allowed for the
most restrictive occupancy or construction.
Sec. 705. Allowable Floor Areas. —
The allowable floor areas for one-storey building and buildings over
one-storey shall not exceed the limits prescribed by the Secretary for
each occupancy groups and/or types of construction.
For purposes of this Section, each portion of a building separation by
one or more area separation walls may be considered a separate building
provided the area separation walls meet the requirements prescribed
therefor by the Secretary.
Sec. 706. Allowable Floor Area Increases. —
The floor areas hereinabove provided may be increased in certain
specific instances and under appropriate conditions, based on the
existence of public space, streets or yards extending along and
adjoining two or more sides of the building or structure subject to the
approval of the Building Official.
Sec. 707. Maximum Height of Buildings. —
The maximum height and number of storeys of every building shall be
dependent upon the character of occupancy and the type of construction
as determined by the Secretary considering population density, building
bulk, widths of streets and car parking requirements. The height shall
be measured from the highest adjoining sidewalk or ground surface:
Provided, that the height measured from the lowest adjoining surface
shall not exceed such maximum height by more than 3.00 meters: Except,
that towers, spires, and steeples, erected as part of a building and
not used for habitation or storage are limited as to height only by
structural design if completely of incombustible materials, or may
extend not to exceed 6.00 meters above the height limits for each
occupancy group if of combustible materials.
Sec. 708. Minimum Requirements for Group A
(a) Dwelling Location and Lot Occupancy.
The dwelling shall occupy not more than ninety percent of a corner lot
and eighty percent of an inside lot, and subject to the provisions on
Easement on Light and View of the Civil Code of the Philippines, shall
be at least 2 meters from the property line.
(b) Light and Ventilation.
Every dwelling shall be so constructed and arranged as to provide
adequate light and ventilation as provided under Sec. 805, of this
Every dwelling shall be provided with at least one sanitary toilet and
adequate washing and drainage facilities.
Footing shall be of sufficient size and strength to support the load of
the dwelling and shall be at least 250 millimeters thick and 600
millimeters below the surface of the ground.
The dimensions of wooden post shall be those found in Table 708-A
Dimensions of Wooden Posts (Annex B-1). Each post shall be anchored to
such footing by strap and bolts of adequate size.
The live load of the first floor shall be at least 200 kilograms per
square meter and for the second floor, at least 150 kilograms per
(g) Roof .
The wind load for roofs shall be at least 120 kilograms per square
meter for vertical projection.
Stairs shall be at least 750 millimeters in clear width, with a rise of
200 millimeters and a minimum run of 200 millimeters.
(i) Entrance and Exit.
There shall be at least one entrance and another one for exit.
(j) Electrical Requirements.
All electrical installation shall conform to the requirements of the
Philippine Electrical Code.
(k) Mechanical Requirements.
Mechanical systems and/or equipment installation shall be subject to
the requirement of the Philippine Mechanical Engineering Code.
Sec. 709. Requirements for Other Group
Subject to the provisions of this Code, the Secretary shall promulgate
rules and regulations for each of the other Group Occupancies covering:
allowable construction, height, and area; location on property, exit
facilities, light, ventilation, and sanitation; enclosures of vertical
openings; fire extinguishing systems; and special hazards.
LIGHT AND VENTILATION
Sec. 801. General Requirements of Light and
(a) Subject to the provisions of the Civil Code of
the Philippines on Basement of Light and View and to the provisions of
this part of the Code, every building shall be designed, constructed,
and equipped to provide adequate light and ventilation.
(b) All buildings shall face a street or public alley
or a private street which has been duly approved.
(c) No building shall be altered nor arranged so as
to reduce the size of any room or the relative area of windows to less
than that provided for buildings under this Code, or to create an
additional room, unless such additional room conforms to the
requirements of this Code.
(d) No building shall be enlarged so that the
dimensions of the required court or yard would be less than that
prescribed for such building.
Sec. 802. Measurement of Site Occupancy. —
(a) The measurement of site occupancy or lot
occupancy shall be taken at the ground level and shall be exclusive of
courts, yards, and light wells.
(b) Courts, yards, and light wells shall be measured
clear of all projections from the walls enclosing such wells or yards
with the exception of roof leaders, wall copings, sills, or steel fire
escapes not exceeding 1.20 meters in width.
Sec. 803. Percentage of Site Occupancy. —
(a) Maximum site occupancy shall be governed by the
use, type of construction, and height of the building and the use,
area, nature, and location of the site; and subject to the provisions
of the local zoning requirements and in accordance with the rules and
regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
Sec. 804. Size and Dimensions of Courts. —
(a) Minimum size of courts and their least dimensions
shall be governed by the use, type of construction, and height of the
building as provided in the rules and regulations promulgated by the
Secretary, provided that the minimum horizontal dimension of court
shall be not less than 2.00 meters.
(b) All inner courts shall be connected to a street
or yard, either by a passageway with a minimum width of 1.20 meters or
by a door through a room or rooms.
Sec. 805. Ceiling Heights. —
(a) Habitable rooms provided with artificial
ventilation have ceiling heights not less than 2.40 meters measured
from the floor to the ceiling; Provided that for buildings of more than
one-storey, the minimum ceiling height of the first storey shall be
2.70 meters and that for the second storey 2.40 meters and succeeding
storeys shall have an unobstructed typical head-room clearance of not
less than 2.10 meters above the finished floor. Above stated rooms with
a natural ventilation shall have ceiling height not less than 2.70
(b) Mezzanine floors shall have a clear ceiling
height not less than 1.80 meters above and below it.
Sec. 806. Size and Dimensions of Rooms.—
(a) Minimum sizes of rooms and their least horizontal
dimensions shall be as follows:
1. Rooms for Human Habitations — 6.00 square meters
with at least dimensions of 2.00
2. Kitchens — 3.00 square meters with at least
dimension of 1.50 meters;
3. Bath and toilet — 1.20 square meters with at least
dimension of 0.90 meters.
Sec. 807. Air Space Requirements in Determining
the Size of Rooms. —
(a) Minimumr space shall be provided as follows:
1. School Rooms — 3.00 cubic meters with 1.00 square
meter of floor area per person;
2. Workshops, Factories, and Offices — 12.00 cubic
meters ofr space per person;
3. Habitable rooms — 14.00 cubic meters ofr space per
Sec. 808. Window Openings. —
(a) Every room intended for any use, not provided
with artificial ventilation system as herein specified in this Code,
shall be provided with a window or windows with a total free area of
openings equal to at least ten percent of the floor area of room, and
such window shall open directly to a court, yard, public street or
alley, or open water courses.
Sec. 809. Vent Shafts. —
(a) Ventilation or vent shafts shall have a
horizontal cross-sectional area of not less than 0.10 square meter for
every meter of height of shaft but in no case shall the area be less
than 1.00 square meter. No vent shaft shall have its least dimension
less than 600 millimeters.
(b) Skylights — Unless open to the outerr at the top
for its full area, vent shaft shall be covered by a skylight having a
net free area or fixed louver openings equal to the maximum required
(c) Air ducts shall open to a street or court by a
horizontal duct or intake at a point below the lowest window opening.
Such duct or intake shall have a minimum unobstructed cross-sectional
area of not less than 0.30 square meter with a minimum dimension of 300
millimeters. The openings to the duct or intake shall not be less than
300 millimeters above the bottom of the shaft and the street surface or
level of court at the respective ends of the duct or intake.
Sec. 810. Ventilation Skylights. —
(a) Skylights shall have glass area not less than
that required for the windows that are replaced. They shall be equipped
with movable sashes or louvers with an aggregate net free area not less
than that required for openable parts in the window that are replaced
or provided with approved artificial ventilation of equivalent
Sec. 811. Artificial Ventilation. —
(a) Rooms or spaces housing industrial or heating
equipment shall be provided with artificial means of ventilation to
prevent excessive accumulation of hot and/or pollutedr;
(b) Whenever artificial ventilation is required, the
equipment shall be designed and constructed to meet the following
minimum requirements inr changes:
1. For rooms entirely above grade and used for
office, clerical, or administrative purposes, or as stores, sales
rooms, restaurants, markets, factories, workshops, or machinery rooms,
not less than three changes ofr per hour shall be provided.
2. For rooms entirely above grade and used as
bakeries, hotel or restaurant kitchens, laundries other than accessory
to dwellings, and boiler rooms — not less than ten changes ofr per hour
shall be provided.
3. For auditorium and other rooms used for assembly
purposes, with seats or other accommodations — not less than 0.03 cubic
meter ofr per minute shall be supplied for each person.
4. For wards and dormitories of institutional
buildings — not less than 0.45 cubic meter ofr per minute shall be
supplied for each person accommodated.
5. For other rooms or spaces not specifically covered
under this Section of the Code, applicable provisions of the Philippine
Mechanical Engineering Code, shall be followed.
Sec. 901. General. —
Subject to the provisions of Book II of the Civil Code of the
Philippines on Property, Ownership, and its Modification, all buildings
hereafter erected, altered, remodeled, relocated or repaired for human
habitation shall be provided with adequate and potable water supply,
plumbing installation, and suitable wastewater treatment or disposal
system, storm water drainage, pest and vermin control, noise abatement
device, and such other measures required for the protection and
promotion of health of persons occupying the premises and other living
Sec. 902. Water Supply System. —
(a) Whenever available, the potable water
requirements for a building used for human habitation shall be supplied
from existing municipal or city waterworks system.
(b) The quality of drinking water from meteoric,
surface or underground sources shall conform to the criteria set in the
latest approved National Standards for Drinking Water.
(c) The design, construction and operation of
deepwells for the abstraction of groundwater shall be subject to the
provisions of the Water Code of the Philippines.
(d) The design, construction and operation of
independent waterworks, systems of private housing subdivisions or
industrial estates shall be governed by existing laws relating to local
(e) The water piping installations inside buildings
and premises shall conform to the provisions of the National Plumbing
Code of the Philippines.
Sec. 903. Wastewater Disposal System. —
(a) Sanitary sewage from buildings and neutralized or
pre-treated industrial wastewater shall be discharged directly into the
nearest street sanitary sewer main of existing municipal or city
sanitary sewerage system in accordance with the criteria set by the
Code on Sanitation and the National Pollution Control Commission.
(b) All buildings located in areas where there are no
available sanitary sewerage system shall dispose their sewage "Imhoff"
or septic tank and subsurface absorption filed.
(c) Sanitary and industrial plumbing installations
inside buildings and premises shall conform to the provisions of the
National Plumbing Code.
Sec. 904. Storm Drainage System. —
(a) Rain water drainage shall not discharge to the
sanitary sewer system.
(b) Adequate provisions shall be made to drain low
areas in buildings and their premises.
Sec. 905. Pest and Vermin Control. —
(a) All buildings with hollow and/or wood
construction shall be provided with rat proofing.
(b) Garbage bins and receptacles shall be provided
with ready means for cleaning and with positive protection against
entry of pest and vermins.
(c) DINING rooms for public use without artificial
ventilation shall be properly screened.
Sec. 906. Noise Pollution Control. —
Industrial establishments shall be provided with positive noise
abatement devices to tone down the noise level of equipment and
machineries to acceptable limits set down by the Department of Labor
and the National Pollution Control Commission.
Sec. 907. Pipe Materials. —
All pipe materials to be used in buildings shall conform to the
Standard Specifications of the Philippine Standard Council.
BUILDING PROJECTION OVER PUBLIC STREETS
Section 1001. General Requirements. —
(a) No part of any building or structure or any of
its appendages shall project beyond the property line of the building
site, except as provided in this Code.
(b) The projection of any structure or appendage over
a public property shall be the distance measured horizontally from the
property line to the outermost point of the projection.
Section 1002. Projection into Alleys or Streets. —
(a) No part of any structure or its appendage shall
project into any alley or street, national road or public highway
except as provided in this Code.
(b) Footings located at least 2.40 meters below grade
along national roads or public highway may project not more than 300
millimeters beyond the property line.
(c) Foundations may be permitted to encroach into
public sidewalk areas to a width not exceeding 500 millimeters;
provided, that the top of the said foundations is not less than 600
millimeters below the established grade; and provided further, that
said projections does not obstruct any existing utility such as power,
communication, gas, water, or sewer lines, unless the owner concerned
shall pay the corresponding entities for the rerouting of the parts of
the affected utilities.
Section 1003. Projection of Balconies and Appendages
Over Streets. —
(a) The extent of any projection over an alley or
street shall be uniform within a block and shall conform to the
limitations set forth in Table 1003-A; Projection of Balconies and
Appendages (Annex B-2);
(b) The clearance between the established grade of
the street and/or sidewalk and the lowest under surface of any part of
the balcony shall not be less than 3.00 meters.
Section 1004. Arcades. —
(a) Whenever required by existing building and zoning
regulations, arcades shall be constructed on sidewalks of streets. The
width of the arcade and its height shall be uniform throughout the
street provided, that in no case, shall an arcade be less than 3.00
meters above the established sidewalk grade.
Section 1005. Canopies (Marquees). —
(a) Definition. — A canopy or marquee is a permanent
roofed structure above a door attached to and supported by the building
and projecting over a wall or sidewalk. This includes any object or
decoration attached thereto.
(b) Projection and Clearance. — The horizontal
clearance between the outermost edge of the marquee and the carb line
shall be not less than 300 millimeters. The vertical clearance between
the pavement or ground line and the under surface of any part of the
marquee shall not be less than 3.00 meters.
(c) Construction. — A marquee shall be constructed of
incombustible material or materials of not less than two-hours
fire-resistive construction. It shall be provided with necessary
(d) Location. — Every marquee shall be so located as
not to interfere with the operation of any exterior standpipe
connection or to obstruct the clear passage from stairway exits from
the building or the installation or maintenance of electroliers.
Section 1006. Movable Awnings or Hoods. —
(a) Definition. — An awning is a movable shelter
supported entirely from the exterior wall of a building and of a type
which can be retracted, folded, or collapsed against the face of a
(b) Clearance. — The horizontal clearance between the
awning and the curb line shall not be less than 300 millimeters. The
vertical clearance between the undermost surface of the awning and the
pavement or ground line shall be not less than 2.40 meters. Collapsible
awnings shall be so designated that they shall not block a required
exit when collapsed or folded.
Section 1007. Doors, Windows, and the like. —
Doors, windows and the like less than 2.40 meters above the pavement or
ground line shall not, when fully opened or upon opening, project
beyond the property line except fire exit doors.
Section 1008. Corner Buildings with Chaflans. —
(a) Every corner building or solid fence on a public
street or alley less than 3.60 meter in width shall be truncated at the
corner. The face of the triangle so formed shall be at right angles to
the bisector of the angle of the intersection of the street lines;
provided, that in no case, the Secretary shall determine the size and
form of the chaflan.
(b) If the building is arcaded, no chaflan is
required notwithstanding the width of the public street or alley, less
than 12.00 meters.
PROTECTION OF PEDESTRIANS DURING CONSTRUCTION OR DEMOLITION
Section 1101. General
(a) No person shall use or occupy a street, alley or
public sidewalk for the performance of work covered by a building
permit except in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.
(b) No person shall perform any work on any building
or structure adjacent to a public way in general use for pedestrian
travel, unless the pedestrians are protected as specified in this
(c) Any material or structure temporarily occupying
public property, including fence, canopies, and walkways, shall be
adequately lighted, between sunset and sunrise.
Section 1102. Storage in Public Property. —
Materials and equipment necessary for work to be done under a permit
when placed or stored on public property shall not obstruct free and
convenient approach to and used of any fire hydrant, fire or police
alarm box, utility box, catch basin, or manhole and shall not interfere
with any drainage of any street or alley gutter.
Section 1103. Mixing Mortar or Public Property. —
The mixing of mortar, concrete, or similar materials on public streets
shall not be allowed.
Section 1104. Protection of Utilities. —
All public or private utilities above or below the ground shall be
protected from any damage by any work being done under the permit. The
protection shall be maintained while such work is being done and shall
not obstruct the normal functioning of any such utility.
Section 1105. Walkway. —
(a) When the Building Official authorizes a sidewalk
to be fenced or closed, or in case there is no sidewalk in front of the
building site during construction or demolition, a temporary walkway of
not less than 1.20 meters wide shall be provided.
(b) The walkway shall be capable of supporting a
uniform live load of 650 kilograms per square meter. A durable wearing
surface shall be provided throughout the construction period.
Section 1106. Pedestrian Protection. —
(a) Protection Required. — Pedestrian traffic shall
be protected by a railing on the street side when the walkway extends
into the roadway, by a railing when adjacent to excavations, and by
such as set forth in Table 1106-A: Type of Projection Required for
Pedestrians (Annex B-2)
(b) Railings. — Adequate railings when required shall
be built substantially strong and should be at least 1.00 meter in
(c) Fences. — Fences shall be built of an approved
material, not less than 2.40 meters in height above grade, and be
placed on the side of the walkway nearest to the building site. Fences
shall enclose entirely the building site. Openings in such fences shall
be provided with doors which shall be keep closed at all times.
(d) Canopies. — The protective canopy shall have a
clear height of 2.40 meters above the railway, and shall be
structurally safe. Every canopy shall have a solid fence built along
its entire length on the construction side. If materials are stored or
work is done on top of the canopy, the edge along the street shall be
protected by a tight curb board not less than 300 millimeters high and
an railing not less than 1.00 meter high shall be provided. The entire
structure shall be designed to carry the loads imposed upon it:
Provided, that the live load shall be not less than 600 kilograms per
Section 1107. Maintenance and Removal of Protective
(a) Maintenance. — All protective devices shall be
properly maintained in place and kept in good order for the entire
length of time pedestrians may be endangered.
(b) Removal. — Every protective fence or canopy shall
be removed within 30 days after such protection is no longer required
as determined by the Building Official.
Section 1108. Demolition. —
(a) The work of demolishing any building shall not be
commended until all the necessary pedestrian protective structures are
(b) The Building Official may require the permittee
to submit plans, specifications and complete schedule of demolition.
When so required, no work shall be done until such plans,
specifications and schedule are approved by the Building Official.
GENERAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
Section 1201. General Requirements. —
Buildings proposed for construction shall comply with all the
regulations and specifications herein set forth governing quality,
characteristics and properties of materials, methods of design and
construction, type of occupancy and classification.
All other matters relative to the structural design of all buildings
and other structures not provided for in this Chapter shall conform
with the provisions of the National Structural Code of Buildings, as
adopted and promulgated by the Board of Civil Engineering pursuant to
the Republic Act Number 544, as amended, other wise known as the "Civil
Section 1202 Excavation, Foundation and Retaining
(a) Subject to the provisions of Articles 684 to 686
of the Civil Code of the Philippines on lateral and subjacent support,
the design and quality of materials used structurally in excavation,
footings, and in foundations shall conform to accepted engineering
(b) Excavation and Fills
(1) Excavation or fills for buildings or structures
shall be so constructed or protected that they do not endanger life or
(2) Whenever the depth of excavation for any
construction is such that the lateral and subjacent support of the
adjoining property or existing structure thereon would be affected in a
manner that the stability or safety of the same is endangered, the
person undertaking or causing the excavation to be undertaken shall be
responsible for the expense of underpinning or extending the foundation
or footings of the aforementioned property or structure.
(3) Excavation and other similar disturbances made on
public property shall, unless otherwise excluded by the Building
Official, be restored immediately to its former condition within 48
hours from the start of such excavation and disturbances by whosoever
caused such excavation or disturbance.
(c) Footings, Foundations, and Retaining Walls
(1) Footings and foundations shall be of the
appropriate type, of adequate size, and capacity in order to safely
sustain the superimposed loads under seismic or any conditions of
external forces that may affect the safety or stability of the
structure. It shall be the responsibility of the architect and/or
engineer to adopt the type and design of the same in accordance with
the standards set forth by the Secretary.
(2) Whenever or wherever there exists in the site of
the construction an abrupt change in the ground levels or level of the
foundation such that instability of the soil could result, retaining
walls shall be provided and such shall be of adequate design and type
of construction as prescribed by the Secretary.
Section 1203. Veneer. —
(a) Definition. — Veneer is a non structural facing
of brick, concrete, tile, metal, plastic, glass, or other similar
approved materials attached to a backing or structural components of
the building for the purpose of ornamentation, protection, or enclosure
that may be adhered, integrated, or anchored either on the interior or
exterior of the building or structure.
(b) Design Requirements. — The design of all veneer
shall comply with the following:
(1) Veneer shall support no load other than its own
weight and the vertical dead load of veneer immediately above.
(2) Surfaces to which veneer is attached shall be
designed to support the additional vertical and lateral loads imposed
by the veneer.
(3) Consideration shall be given to differential
movements of the supports including those caused by temperature
changes, shrinkage, creep, and deflection.
(4) Adhered veneer and its backing shall be designed
to have a bond to the supporting elements sufficient seismic effects on
the total assemblage.
(5) Anchored veneer and its attachment shall be
designed to resist horizontal forces equal to twice the weight of the
(6) Anchors supports and ties shall be
non-combustible and corrosion-resistant.
Section 1204. Enclosure of Vertical Openings. —
(a) General. — Vertical openings shall be enclosed
depending upon the fire-resistive requirements of a particular type of
construction as set forth in this Code.
(b) Elevator Enclosures. — Walls and partitions
enclosing elevators and escalators shall be of not less than the
fire-resistive construction required under the Types of Construction.
Enclosing Walls of elevator shafts may consist of wire glass set in
metal frames on the entrance side only. Elevator shafts extending
through more than two storeys shall be equipped with an approved means
of adequate ventilation to and through the main roof of the building:
Provided, that in those buildings housing Groups F and G Occupancies
equipped with automatic fire-extinguishing systems throughout,
enclosures shall not be required for escalators: Provided, further that
the top of the escalator opening at each storey shall be provided with
a draft curtain. Such draft curtain shall enclose the perimeter of the
unenclosed opening and shall extend from the ceiling downward at least
300 millimeters on all sides. Automatic sprinkles shall be provided
around the perimeter of the opening and within a 600 millimeters of the
draft curtain. The distance between the sprinkles shall not exceed 1.80
(c) Other Vertical Openings. — All shafts, ducts,
chutes, and other vertical openings not covered in paragraph (b) above
shall have enclosing walls conforming to the requirements specified
under the type of construction of the building in which they are
located. In other than Group A Occupancies rubbish and linen chutes
shall terminate in rooms separated from the remainder of the building
by a One-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation. Openings into the
chutes shall not be located in required exit corridors or stairways.
(d) Air Ducts. —r ducts passing through a floor shall
be enclosed in a shaft. The shaft shall be as required in this Code for
vertical openings. Dampers shall be installed where ducts pierce the
shaft enclosure walls.r ducts in Group A Occupancies need not be
enclosed in a shaft if conforming to the mechanical provisions of this
Section 1205. Floor Construction. —
(a) Floors shall be of such materials and
construction as specified under Chapter 5 —
(b) Fire Zones and Fire-Resistive Standards and under
Chapter 6 — Types of Construction.
(b) All floors shall be so framed and secure into the
framework and supporting walls as to form an integral part of the whole
(c) The types of floor construction used shall
provide means to keep the beam and girders from lateral buckling.
Section 1206. Roof Construction and Covering. —
(a) Roof Covering. — Roof covering for all buildings
shall be either fire-retardant or ordinary depending upon the
fire-resistive requirements of the particular type of construction. The
use of combustible roof insulation shall be permitted in all types of
construction provided it is covered with approved roof covering applied
(b) Roof Trusses. — All roofs shall be so framed and
tied into the framework and supporting walls so as to form an integral
part of the whole building. Roof trusses shall have all joints well
fitted and shall have all tension members well tightened before any
load is placed in the truss. Diagonal and sway bracing shall be used to
brace all roof trusses. The allowable working stresses of materials in
trusses shall conform to this Code. Camber shall be provided to prevent
(1) Access. — An attic access opening shall be
provided in the ceiling of the top floor of buildings with a
combustible ceiling or roof construction. The opening shall be located
in a corridor or hallway of buildings of three or more storeys in
height, and readily accessible in buildings of any height. An opening
shall not be less than 600 millimeters square or 600 millimeters in
diameter. The minimum clear headroom of 800 millimeters shall be
provided above the access opening. For ladder requirements, refer to
the Philippine Mechanical Engineering Code.
(2) Area Separation. — Enclosed attic spaces of
combustible construction shall be divided into horizontal areas not
exceeding 250 square meters by fire-resistive partitions extending from
the ceiling to the roof. Except, that where the entire attic is
equipped with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system, the
attic space may be divided into areas not to exceed 750 square meters.
Openings in the partitions shall be protected by self-closing doors.
(3) Draft Stops. — Regardless of the type of
construction, draft stops shall be installed in trusses roofs, between
roof and bottom chords or trusses, in all buildings exceeding 2000
square meters. Draft stops shall be constructed as for attic area
(4) Ventilation. — Enclosed attics including rafter
spaces formed where ceilings are applied direct to the underside or
roof rafters, shall be provided with adequate ventilation protected
against the entrance of rain.
(d) Roof Drainage System.
(1) Roof Drains. — Roof drains shall be installed at
low points of the roof and shall be adequate in size to discharge all
(2) Overflow Drains and Scuppers. — Where roof drains
are required, adequate overflow drains shall be provided.
(3) Concealed Piping. — Roof drains and overflow
drains, when concealed within the construction of the building, shall
be installed in accordance with the provisions of the National Plumbing
(4) Over Public Property. — Roof drainage water from
a building shall not be permitted to flow over public property, except
for Group A and J Occupancies.
(e) Flashing. — Flashing and counter flashing shall
be provided at the juncture of the roof and vertical surfaces.
Section 1207. Stairs, Exits and Occupant Loads. —
(a) General. — The construction of stairs and exits
shall conform to the occupant load requirements of buildings, reviewing
stands, bleachers and grandstands:
(1) Determinations of Occupant Loads. — The Occupant
load permitted in any building or portion thereof shall be determined
by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the unit area
allowed per occupant as determined by the Secretary.
(2) Exit Requirements. — Exit requirements of a
building or portion thereof used for different purposes shall be
determined by the occupant load which gives the largest number of
persons. No obstruction shall be placed in the required width of an
exit except projections permitted by this Code.
(3) Posting of Room Capacity. — Any room having an
occupant load of more than 50 where fixed seats are not installed, and
which is used for classroom, assembly, or similar purpose shall have
the capacity of the room posted in a conspicuous place near the main
exit from the room.
(4) Changes in Elevation. — Except in Groups A
Occupancies, changes in floor elevations of less than 300 millimeters
along any exit serving a tributary occupant load of 10 or more shall be
by means of ramps.
(1) Number of Exits. — Every building or usable
portion thereof shall have at least one exit. In all occupancies,
floors above the first storey having an occupant load of more than 10
shall not have less than two exits. Each mezzanine floor used for other
than storage purposes, if greater in area than 185 square meters or
more than 18.00 meters in any dimension, shall have at least than two
stairways to an adjacent floor. Every storey or portion thereof, having
an occupant load of 500 to 999 shall have at least three exits. Every
storey or portion thereof having an occupant load of 1000 or more shall
have at least four (4) exits. The number of exits required from any
storey of a building shall be determined by using the occupant loads of
floors which exit through by using the occupant loads of floors which
exit through the level under consideration as follows: 50 percent of
the occupant load in the first adjacent storey above (and the first
adjacent storey below, when a storey below exits through the level
under consideration) and 25 percent of the occupant load in the storey
immediately beyond the first adjacent storey. The maximum number of
exits required for any storey shall be maintained until egress is
provided from the structures. For purposes of this Section basement or
cellars and occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for
storeys. Floors above the second storey, basements and cellars used for
other than service of the building shall have not less than two exits.
(2) Width. — The total width of exits in meters shall
not be less than the total occupant load served divided by 165. Such
width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the
separate exits. The total exit width required from any storey of a
building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that storey
plus the percentage of the occupant loads of floors which exits through
the level under consideration as follows: fifty (50) per cent of the
occupant load in the first adjacent storey above (and the first
adjacent storey below when a storey below exits through the level under
consideration) and twenty five per cent of the occupant load in the
storey immediately beyond the first adjacent storey. The maximum exit
width from any storey of a building shall be maintained.
(3) Arrangement of Exits. — If only two exits are
required they shall be placed a distance apart to not less than
one-fifth of the perimeter of the area served measured in a straight
line between exits. Where three or more exits are required they shall
be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked,
the others will be available.
(4) Distance to Exits. — No point in a building
without a sprinkle system shall be more than 45.00 meters from an
exterior exit door, a horizontal exit, exit passageway, or an enclosed
stairway, measured along the line of travel. In a building equipped
with a complete automatic fire extinguishing system the distance from
exits may be increased to 60.00 meters.
(c) Doors. — The provisions herein shall apply to
every exit door serving an area having an occupant load of more than 10
or serving hazardous rooms or areas.
(1) Swing. — Exit door shall swing in the direction
of exit travel when serving any hazardous areas or when serving an
occupant load of 50 or more. Double acting doors shall not be used as
exits serving a tributary occupant load of more than 100; nor shall
they be used as a part of fire assembly, nor equipped with public
hardware. A double acting door shall be provided with a view panel of
not less than 1,300 square centimeters.
(2) Type of Lock or Latch. — Exit door shall be
openable from the inside without the use of a key or any special
knowledge or effort: Except, that this requirement shall not apply to
exterior exit doors in a Group E or F Occupancy if there is a
conspicuous, readily visible and durable sign on or adjacent to the
door, stating that the door is to remain unlocked during business
hours. The locking device must be of a type that will readily be
distinguishable as locked. Flush bolts or surface bolts are prohibited.
(3) Width and Height. — Every required exit doorway
shall be of a size as to permit the installation of a door not less
than 900 millimeters in width and not less than 2.00 meters in height.
When installation in exit doorways, exit doors shall be capable of
openings at least 90 decrees and shall be so mounted that the clear
width of the exit way is not less than 700 millimeters. In computing
the required exit width the net dimension of the exitway shall be used.
(4) Door Leaf Width. — No leaf of an exit door shall
exceed 1.20 meters in width.
(5) Special Doors. — Revolving, sliding, and overhead
doors shall not be used as required exits.
(6) Egress from Door. — Every required exit door
shall give immediate access to an approved means of egress from the
(7) Change in Floor Level at Doors. — Regardless of
the occupant load there shall be a floor or landing on each side of an
exit door. The floor or landing shall be leveled with, or not more than
50 millimeters lower than the threshold of the doorway: Except, that in
Group A and B occupancies, a door may open on the top step of a flight
of stairs or an exterior landing provided the door does not swing over
the top step or exterior landing and the landing is not more than 200
millimeters below the floor level.
(8) Door Identification. — Glass doors shall conform
to the requirements in Section 1005. Other exit doors shall be so
marked that they are already distinguishable from the adjacent
(9) Additional Doors. — When additional doors are
provided for egress purposes, they shall conform to all provisions in
the following cases: Approved revolving doors having leaves which will
collapse under opposing pressures may be used in exit situations:
Provided: That such doors have a minimum width of 2.00 meters or they
are not used in occupancies where exits are required to be equipped
with panic hardware or at least one conforming exit door is located
adjacent to each revolving doors installed in a building and the
revolving door shall not be considered to provide any exit width.
(d) Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies. — The
provisions herein shall apply to every corridor and exterior exit
balcony serving as required exit for an occupant load of more than ten.
(1) Width. — Every corridor or exit balcony shall not
be less than 1.10 meters in width.
(2) Projections. — The required width of corridors
and exterior exit balconies shall be an obstructed: Except that trim
handrails, and doors when fully opened shall not reduce the required
width by more than 200 millimeters. Doors in any position shall not
reduce the required width of the corridor by more than one-half.
(3) Access to Exits. — When more than one exit is
required, they shall be arranged to allow going to either direction
from any point dead ends permitted by this Code.
(4) Dead Ends. — Corridors and exterior exit
balconies with dead ends are permitted when the dead end does not
exceed 6.00 meters in length.
(5) Construction. — Walls and ceilings of corridors
shall not be less than one-hour fire-resistive construction. Provided,
that this requirement shall not apply to exterior exit balconies,
railings, and corridors of one-storey building housing a Group E and F
Occupancy occupied by one tenant only and which serves an occupant load
of 30 or less, nor to corridors, formed by temporary partitions.
Exterior exit balconies cannot project into an area where protected
openings are required.
(6) Openings. — When corridor wall are required to be
one-hour fire-resistive construction, every interior door opening shall
be protected as set forth in generally recognized and accepted
requirements for dual purpose fire exit doors. Other interior openings
except ventilation louvers equipped with approved automatic fire
shutter shall be 7 millimeters thick fixed wire glass set in steel
frames. The total area of all openings other than doors, in any portion
of an interior corridor wall shall not exceed twenty-five percent of
the area of the corridor wall of the room being separated from the
(e) Stairways. — Except stairs or ladders used only
to access, equipment, every stairway serving any building or portion
thereof shall conform to the following requirements:
(1) Width. — Stairways serving an occupant load of
more than 50 shall not be less than 1.10 meters. Stairways serving an
occupant load of 50 or less may be 900 millimeters wide. Private
stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 may be 750
millimeters. Trim and handrails shall not reduce the required width by
more than 100 millimeters.
(2) Rise and Run. — The rise of every step in a
stairway shall not exceed 200 millimeters and the run shall not less
than 250 millimeters. The maximum variations in the height of risers
and the width of treads in any one flight shall be 5 millimeters:
Except, in case of private stairways serving an occupant load of less
than 10, the rise may be 200 millimeters and the run may be 250
millimeters, except as provided in sub-paragraph (3) below.
(3) Winding Stairways. — In Group A Occupancy and in
private stairways in Group B Occupancies, winders may be used if the
required width of run is provided at a point not more than 300
millimeters from the side of the stairway where the treads are narrower
but in no case shall any width of run be less than 150 millimeters at
(4) Circular Stairways. — Circular stairs may be used
as an exit provided the minimum width of run is not less than 250
millimeters. All treads in any one flight between landings shall have
identical dimensions within a 5 millimeter tolerance.
(5) Landing. — Every landing shall have a dimension
measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway.
Such dimension need not exceed 1.20 meters when the stairs has a
straight run. Landings when provided shall not be reduced in width by
more than 100 millimeters by a door when fully open.
(6) Basement Stairways. — Where a basement stairway
and a stairway to an upper storey terminate in the same exit enclosure,
an approved barrier shall be provided to prevent persons from
continuing on to the basements. Directional exit signs shall be
provided as specified in this Code.
(7) Distance Between Landings. — There shall be not
more than 3.60 meters vertical distance between landings.
(8) Handrails. — Stairways shall have handrails on
each side and every stairway required to be more than 3.00 meters in
width shall be provided with not less than one intermediate handrail
for each 3.00 meters of required width. Intermediate handrail shall be
spaced approximately equal within the entire width of the stairway.
Handrails shall be placed not less than 800 millimeters nor more than
900 millimeters above the nosing of treads and ends of handrails shall
be returned or shall terminate in nowel posts or safety terminals:
Except, in the following cases: Stairways 1.10 meters or less in width
and stairway serving one individual dwelling unit in Group A or B
Occupancies may have one handrail, except that such stairway open on
one or both sides shall have handrails provided on the open side or
sides: or stairway having less than four risers need not have handrails.
(9) Exterior Stairway Protection. — All openings in
the exterior wall below or within 3.00 meters, measured horizontally of
an exterior exit stairway serving a building over two storeys in height
shall be protected by a self-closing fire assembly having a
three-fourths hour fire-resistive rating: Except, that opening may be
unprotected when two separated exterior stairways serve an exterior
(10) Stairway Construction-Exterior. — Exterior
stairway shall be of incombustible material: Except, that on Type III
buildings which do not exceed two storeys in height, which are located
in less fire-restrictive Fire Zones, as well as on Type I buildings may
be of wood not less than 50 millimeters in nominal thickness. Exterior
stairs shall be protected as required for exterior walls due to
location on property as specified in this Code. Exterior stairways
shall not project into an area where openings are required to be
protected. Where there is enclosed usable space under stairs, the walls
and soffits of the enclosed space shall be protected on the enclosed
side as required for one-hour fire-resistive construction.
(11) Stairway to Roof . — In every building four or
more storeys in height, one stairway shall extend to the roof unless
the roof has C slope greater than 1 in 3.
(12) Headroom. — Every required stairway shall have a
headroom clearance of not less than 2.00 meters. Such clearance shall
be established by measuring vertically from a plane parallel and
tangent to the stairway tread nosing to the soffit above all points.
(f) Ramps. — A ramp conforming to the provisions of
this Code may be used as an exit. The width of ramps shall be as
required for corridors.
(g) Horizontal Exit. — If conforming to the
provisions of this Code, a horizontal exit may be considered as the
required exit. All openings in a separation wall shall be protected by
a fire assembly having a fire-resistive rating not less than the
occupant load served by such exit. The capacity shall be determined by
allowing 0.30 square meter of net floor area per ambulatory occupant
and 1.90 square meters per non-ambulatory occupant. The dispersal area
into which the horizontal exit loads shall be provided with exits as
required by this Code.
(h) Exit Enclosures. — Every interior stairway,
ramp, or escalator shall be enclosed as specified in this Code: Except,
that in other than Group D Occupancies, as an enclosure will not be
required for stairway, ramp, or escalator serving only one adjacent
floor and not connected with corridors or stairways serving other
floors. Stairs in Group A Occupancies need not be enclosed.
(1) Enclosure walls shall not be less than two-hour
fire-resistive construction. There shall be no openings into exit
enclosures except exit doorways and openings in exterior walls. All
exit doors in an exit enclosure shall be appropriately protected.
(2) Stairway and ramp enclosures shall include
landings and parts of floors connecting stairway flights and shall
include a corridor on the ground floor leading from the stairway to the
exterior of the building. Enclosed corridors of passageways are not
required from unenclosed stairways.
(3) A stairway in an exit enclosure shall not
continue below the grade level exit unless an approved barrier is
provided at the ground floor level to prevent persons from accidentally
continuing into the basement.
(4) There shall be no enclosed usable space under
stairways in an exit enclosure, nor shall the open space under such
stairways be used for any purpose.
(i) Smokeproof Enclosures
A smokeproof enclosure shall consist of a vestibule and a continuous
stairway enclosed from the highest point to the lowest point by walls
of two-hour fire-resistive construction. In building five storeys or
more height, one of the required exits shall be a smokeproof enclosure.
(1) Stairs in smokeproof enclosures shall be of
(2) There shall be no openings in smokeproof
enclosures, except exit doorways and openings in exterior walls. There
shall be no openings directly into the interior of the building. Access
shall be through a vestibule with one wall at least fifty percent open
to the exterior and having an exit door from the interior of the
building and exit door leading to the smokeproof enclosure. In lieu of
a vestibule, access may be by way of an open exterior balcony of
(3) The opening from the building to the vestibule or
balcony shall be protected with a self-closing fire assembly having
one-hour fire-resistive rating. The opening from the vestibule or
balcony to the stair tower shall be protected by a self-closing fire
assembly having a one-hour fire-resistive rating.
(4) A smokeproof enclosure shall exit into a public
way or into an exit passageway leading to a public way. The exit
passageway shall be without other openings and shall have walls,
floors, and ceilings of two-hour fire-resistance.
(5) A stairway in a smokeproof enclosure shall not
continue below the grade level exit unless an approved barrier is
provided at a ground floor level to prevent persons from accidentally
walking into the basement.
(j) Exit Outlets, Courts, and Passageways
Every exit shall discharge into a public way, exit court, or exit
passageway. Every exit court shall discharge into a public way or an
exit passageway. Passageways shall be without openings other than
required exits and shall have walls, floors, and ceilings of the same
period of fire-resistance as the walls, floors and ceilings of the
building but shall not be less than one-hour fire-resistive
Every exit court and exit passageway shall be at least as wide as the
required total width of the tributary exits, such required width being
based on the occupant load served. The required width of exit courts or
exit passageway shall be unobstructed except as permitted in corridors.
At any point where the width of an exit court is reduced from any
cause, the reduction in width shall be affected gradually by a
guardrail at least 900 millimeters in height. The guardrail shall make
an angle of not more than 30 degrees with the axis of the exit court.
The slope of exit courts shall not exceed 1 in 10. The slope of exit
passageway shall not exceed 1 in 8.
(3) Number of Exits
Every exit court shall be provided with exits as required in this Code.
All openings into an exit court less than 3.00 meters wide shall be
protected by fire assemblies having not less than three-fourth hour
fire-resistive rating. Except, that openings more than 3.00 meters
above the floor of the exit court may be unprotected.
(k) Exit Signs and Illuminations
Exits shall be illuminated at any time the building is occupied with
light having an intensity of not less than 10.7 lux at floor level:
Except, that for Group A Occupancies, the exit illumination shall be
provided with separate circuits or separated sources of power (but not
necessarily separate from exit signs when these are required for exit
Every portion of every building in which are installed seats, tables,
merchandise, equipment, or similar materials shall be provided withsles
leading to an exit.
Everysles shall be not less than 800 millimeters wide if serving only
one side, and not less than 1 meter wide if serving both sides. Such
minimum width shall be measured at the point farthest from an exit,
crosssle, or foyer and shall be increased by 30 millimeters for every
meters in length towards the exit, crosssle or foyer.
(2) Exit Distance
In areas occupied by seats and in Groups H and I Occupancies without
seats, the line travel to an exit door by ansle shall be not more than
45.00 meters. With standard spacing, as specified in this Code,sles
shall be so located that there will be not more than seven seats
between the wall and ansle and not more than fourteen seats
betweensles. The number of seats betweensle may be increased to 30
where exit doors are provided along each sidesle of the row of seats at
the rate of one pair of exit doors for every five rows of seats,
provided further that the distance between seats back to back is at
least one meter. Such exit doors shall provide a minimum clear width of
Aisles shall terminate in a crosssle, foyer, or exit. The width of the
crosssle shall be not less than the sum of the required width of the
widestsle plus fifty percent of the total required width of the
remainingsle leading thereto. In Groups C, H and E Occupancies,sle
shall not be provided a dead end greater than 6.00 meters in length.
Vomitories connecting the foyer or main exit with the crosssles shall
have a total width not less than the sum of the required width of the
widestsles leading thereto plus fifty percent of the total required
width of the remainingsles leading thereto.
The slope portion ofsle shall not exceed a fall 1 in 8.
(1) Seat Spacing
With standard seating, the spacing of rows of seats from back-to-back
shall not less than 840 millimeters. With continental seating, the
spacing of rows of unoccupied seat shall provide a clear width measured
horizontally, as follows: 450 millimeters clear for rows of 18 seats or
less; 500 millimeters clear for rows of 35 seats or less; 525
millimeters clear for rows of 45 seats or less; and 550 millimeters
clear for rows of 46 seats or more.
The width if any seat be not less than 450 millimeters.
(n) Reviewing Stands, Grandstands, and Bleachers.
(1) Height of Stands
Stands made of combustible framing shall be limited to 11 rows or 2.70
meters in height.
(2) Design Requirements
The minimum unit live load for reviewing stands, grandstands, and
bleachers shall be 500 kilograms per square meter of horizontal
projection for the structure as a whole. Seat and footboards shall be
180 kilograms per linear meter. The sway force, applied to seats, shall
be 35 kilograms per linear meter parallel to the seats and 15 kilograms
per linear meter perpendicular to the seats. Sway forces need not to be
applied simultaneously with other lateral forces.
(3) Spacing Seats
(3.1) Row spacing
The minimum spacing of rows of seats measured from back-to-back shall
be: 600 millimeters for seats without backrests in openr stands; 750
millimeters for seats with backrests, and 850 millimeters for chair
There shall be a space of not less than 300 millimeters between the
back of each seat and the front of the seat immediately behind it.
(3.2) Rise Between Rows
The maximum rise from one row of seats to the next shall not exceed 400
(3.3) Seating Capacity
For determining the seating capacity of a stand the width of any seat
shall not be less than 450 millimeters nor more than 480
(3.4) Number of Seats Betweensles
The number of seats between any seat and ansle shall not be greater
than 15 for openr stands with seats without backrests in buildings.
(4.1) Aisles Required
Aisles shall be provided in all stands: except, thatsles may be omitted
when all the following conditions exists; Seats are without backrests;
the rise from row to row does not exceed 300 millimeters per row; the
number of rows does not exceed 11 in height; the top seating board is
not over 3.00 meters above grade; and the first seating board is not
more than 500 millimeters above grade.
No obstruction shall be placed in the required width of anysle or
(4.3) Stairs Required
When ansle is elevated more than 200 millimeters above grade, thesle
shall be provided with a stairway or ramp whose width is not less than
the width of thesle.
(4.4) Dead End
No verticalsle shall have a dead end more than 16 rows in depth
regardless of the number of exits required.
Aisles shall have a minimum width of 1.10 meters.
(5) Stairs and Ramps
The requirements in this Code shall apply to all stairs and ramps
except for portions that pass through the seating area.
(5.1) Stair Rise and Run
The maximum rise of treads shall not exceed 200 millimeters and the
minimum width of the run shall be 280 millimeters. The maximum
variation in the width of treads in any one flight shall not be more
than 5 millimeters and the maximum variation in one height of two
adjacent rises shall not exceed 5 millimeters.
(5.2) Ramp Slope
The slope of a ramp shall not exceed 1 in 8. Ramps shall be roughened
or shall be of approved nonslip material.
A ramp with a slope exceeding 1 in 10 shall have handrails. Stairs for
stands shall have handrails. Handrails shall conform to the
requirements of this Code.
(6.1) Guardrails shall be required in all locations
where the top of a seat plank is more than 1.20 meters above the grade
and at the front of stands elevated more than 600 millimeters above
grade. Where only sections of stands are used, guardrails shall be
provided as required in this Code.
(6.2) Railings shall be 1.10 meters above the rear of
a seat plank or 1.10 meters above the rear of the steps in thesle when
the guardrail is parallel and adjacent to thesle: Except, that the
height may be reduced to 900 millimeters for guardrails located in
front of the grandstand.
(6.3) A midrail shall be placed adjacent to any seat
to limit the open distance above the top of any part of a seat to 250
millimeters where the seat is at the extreme end or at the extreme rear
of the bleachers or grandstand. The intervening space shall have one
additional rail midway in the opening: Except, that railings may be
omitted when stands are placed directly against a wall or fence giving
equivalent protection; stairs and ramps shall be provided with
guardrails. Handrails at the front of stands and adjacent to ansle
shall be designed to resist a load of 75 kilograms per linear meter
applied at the top rail. Other handrails shall be designed to resist a
load of 40 kilograms per linear meter.
(7) Foot Boards
Footboards shall be provided for all rows of seats above the third row
or beginning at such point where the seating plank is more than 600
millimeters above grade.
(8.1) Distance to Exit
The line of travel to an exit shall not be more than 45.00 meters. For
stands with seats without backseats this distance may be measured by
direct line from a seat to the exit from the stand.
(8.2) Aisle Used as Exit
Ansle may be considered as only one exit unless it is continuous at
both ends to a legal building exit or to a safe dispersal area.
(8.3) Two Exits Required
A stand with the first seating board not more than 500 millimeters
above grade of floor may be considered to have two exits when the
bottom of the stand is open at both ends. Every stand or section of a
stand within a building shall have at least two means of egress when
the stand accommodates more than 50 persons. Every openr stand having
seats without backrest shall have at least two means of egress when the
stand accommodates more than 300 persons.
(8.4) Three Exits Required
Three exits shall be required for stands within a building when there
are more than 300 occupants within a stand and for openr stands with
seats without backrests where a stand or section of a stand
accommodates more than 1000 occupants.
(8.5) Four Exits Required
Four exits shall be required when a stand or section of a stand
accommodates more than 1000 occupants: Except, that for an openr stand
with seats without backrests four exits need not be provided unless
there are accommodations for more than 3000 occupants.
The total width of exits in meters shall not be less than the total
occupant load served divided by 165: Except, that for openr stands with
seats without backrests the total width of exits in meter shall not be
less than the total occupant load served divided by 500 when existing
by stairs, and divided by 650 when existing by ramps or horizontally.
When both horizontal and stair exits are used, the total width of exits
shall be determined by using both figures as applicable. No exit shall
be less than 1.10 meters in width. Exits shall be located at a
reasonable distance apart. When only two exits are provided, they shall
be spaced not less than one-fifth of the perimeter apart.
(9) Securing of Chairs
Chairs and benches used on raised stands shall be secured to the
platforms upon which they are placed: Except, that when less than 25
chairs are used upon single raised platform the fastening of seat to
the platform may be omitted. When more than 500 loose chairs are used
in connection with athletic events, chairs shall be fastened together
in groups of not less than three, and shall be tied or staked to the
(10) Safe Dispersal Area
Each safe dispersal area shall have at least two exits. If more than
6000 persons are to be accommodated within such an area, there shall be
a minimum of three exits, and for more than 9000 persons there shall be
a minimum of four exits. The aggregate clear width of exits from a safe
dispersal area shall be determined on the bases of not less than one
exit unit of 600 millimeters for each 500 persons to be accommodated
and not exit shall be less than 1.10 meters in width, a reasonable
distance apart that shall be spaced not less than one-fifth of the
perimeter of the area apart from each other.
(o) Special Hazards
(1) Boiler Rooms
Except in Group A Occupancies, every boiler room and every room
containing an incinerator or liquified petroleum gas or liquid
fuel-fired equipment shall be provided with at least two means of
egress, one of which may be a ladder. All interior openings shall be
protected as provided for in this Code.
(2) Cellulose Nitrate Handling
Film laboratories, projection rooms, and nitro-cellulose processing
rooms shall have not less than two exits.
Section 1208. Skylights. —
(a) All skylights shall be constructed with metal
frames except those for Groups A and J Occupancies. Frames of skylights
shall be designed to carry loads required for roofs. All skylights, the
glass of which is set at an angle of less than 45 degrees from the
horizontal, if located above the first storey, shall be set at least
100 millimeters above the roof. Curbs on which the skylights rest shall
be constructed of incombustible materials except for Types 1 or 11
(b) Spacing between supports in one direction for
flat wired glass in skylights shall not exceed 625 millimeters.
Corrugated wired glass may have supports 1.50 meters apart in the
direction of the corrugation. All glass in skylights shall be wired
glass: Except, that skylights over vertical shafts extending through
two or more storeys shall be glazed with plain glass as specified in
this Code: Provided, that wire glass may be used in ventilation equal
to not less than one-eight the cross-sectional area of the shaft but
never less than 1.20 meters is provided at the top of such shaft. Any
glass not wire glass shall be protected above and below with a screen
constructed of wire not smaller than 2.5 millimeters in diameter with a
mesh not larger than 25 millimeters. The screen shall be substantially
supported below the glass.
(c) Skylights installed for the use of photographers
may be constructed of metal frames and plate glass without wire netting.
(d) Ordinary glass may be used in the roof and
skylights for greenhouses, Provided, that height of the greenhouses at
the ridge does not exceed 6.00 meters above the grade. The use of wood
in the frames of skylights will be permitted in greenhouses outside of
highly restrictive Fire Zones if the height of the skylight does not
exceed 6.00 meters above the grade, but in other cases metal frames and
metal sash bars shall be used.
(e) Glass used for the transmission of light, if
placed in floors or sidewalks, shall be supported by metal or
reinforced concrete frames, and such glass shall not be less than 12.5
millimeters in thickness. Any such glass over 100 square centimeters in
area shall have wire mesh embedded in the same or shall be provided
with a wire screen underneath as specified for skylights in this Code.
All portions of the floor lights or sidewalk lights shall be of the
same strength as required for floor is surrounded by a railing not less
than 1.10 meters in height, in which case the construction shall be
calculated for not less than roof loads.
Section 1209. Bays, Porches, and Balconies. —
(a) Walls and floors in bay and oriel windows shall
conform to the construction allowed for exterior walls and floors of
the type of construction of the building to which they are attached.
The roof covering of a bay or oriel window shall conform to the
requirements of the roofing of the main roof. Exterior balconies
attached to or supported by wall required to be of masonry, shall have
brackets or beams constructed of incombustible materials. Railings
shall be provided for balconies, landings, or porches which are more
than 750 millimeters above grade.
Section 1210. Penthouses and Roof Structures. —
No penthouse or other projection above the roof in structures of other
than Type V construction shall exceed 8.40 meters above the roof when
used as an enclosure for tanks or for elevators which run to the roof
and in all other cases shall not extend more than 3.60 meters in height
with the roof.
The aggregate area of all penthouses and other roof structures shall
not exceed one third of the area of the supporting roof.
(c) Prohibited Uses
No penthouse, bulkhead, or any other similar projection above the roof
shall be used for purposes other than shelter of mechanical equipment
or shelter of vertical shaft openings in the roof. A penthouse or
bulkhead used for purposes other than that allowed by this Section
shall conform to the requirements of this Code for an additional storey.
Roof structures shall be constructed with walls, floors, and roof as
required for the main portion of the building except in the following
(1) On Types III and IV constructions, the exterior
walls and roofs of penthouses which are 1.50 meters or more from an
adjacent property line may be of one-hour fire-resistive incombustible
(2) Walls not less than 1.50 meters from an exterior
wall of a type iv construction may be of one-hour fire-resistive
The above restriction shall not prohibit the placing of wood flagpoles
or similar structures on the roof of any building.
(e) Towers and Spires
Towers and spires when enclosed shall have exterior walls as required
for the building to which they attached. Towers not enclosed and which
extend more than 20.00 meters above the grade shall have their
framework constructed of iron, steel, or reinforced concrete. No tower
or spire shall occupy more than one-fourth of the street frontage of
any building to which it is attached and in no case shall the base area
exceed 150 square meters unless it conforms entirely to the type of
construction requirements of the building to which it is attached and
is limited in height as main part of the building. If the area of the
tower and spire exceeds 10.00 square meters any horizontal cross
section, its supporting frames shall extend directly to the ground. The
roof covering of the spires shall be as required for the main room of
the rest of the structure. Skeleton towers used as radio masts, neon
signs, or advertisement frames and placed on the roof of any building
shall be constructed entirely of incombustible materials when more than
7.50 meters in height, and shall be directly supported on an
incombustible framework to the ground. No such skeleton towers shall be
supported on roofs of combustible framings. They shall be designed to
withstand a wind load from any direction in addition to any other loads.
Section 1211. Chimneys, Fireplaces, and Barbecues. —
(1) Structural Design
Chimneys shall be designed, anchored, supported, reinforced,
constructed, and installed in accordance with generally accepted
principles of engineering. Every chimney shall be capable of producing
a draft at the appliance not less than that required for the safe
operation of the appliance connected thereto. No Chimney shall support
any structural load other than its own weight unless it is designed to
act as a supporting member. Chimneys in a wood-framed building shall be
anchored laterally at the ceiling line and at each floor line which is
more than 1.80 meters above grade, except when entirely within the
framework or when designed to be free standing.
Every masonry chimney shall have walls of masonry units, bricks,
stones, listed masonry chimney units, reinforced concrete or equivalent
solid thickness of hollow masonry and lined with suitable liners in
accordance with the following requirements:
(2.1) Masonry Chimneys for Residential Type Appliances
Masonry chimneys shall be constructed of masonry units or reinforced
concrete with walls not less than 100 millimeters thick; or of rubble
stone masonry not less than 300 millimeters thick. The chimney liner
shall be in accordance with this Code.
(2.2) Masonry Chimneys for Low Heat Appliances
Masonry chimneys shall be constructed of masonry units or reinforced
concrete with walls not less than 200 millimeters thick: Except, that
rubble stone masonry shall be not less than 300 millimeters thick. The
chimney liner shall be in accordance with this Code.
(2.3) Masonry Chimneys for Medium-Heat Appliances
Masonry chimneys for medium-heat appliances shall be constructed of
solid masonry units of reinforced concrete not less than 200
millimeters thick, Except, that stone masonry shall be not less than
300 millimeters thick and, in addition shall be lined with not less
than 100 millimeters of firebrick laid in a solid bed of fire clay
mortar with solidly filled head, bed, and wall joints, starting not
less than 600 millimeters below the chimney connector entrance.
Chimneys extending 7.50 meters or less above the chimney connector
shall be lined to the top.
(2.4) Masonry Chimneys for High-Heat Appliances
Masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall be constructed with
double walls of solid masonry units or reinforced concrete not less
than 200 millimeters in thickness, with anr space of not less than 50
millimeters between walls. The inside of the interior walls shall be of
fire-brick not less than 100 millimeters in thickness laid in a solid
bed of fire clay mortar with solidly filled head, bed, and wall joints.
(2.5) Masonry Chimneys for Incinerators Installed in
Multi-Storey Buildings (Apartment-Type Incinerators)
Chimneys for incinerators installed in multi-storey building using the
chimney passageway as a refuse chute where the horizontal grate area of
combustion chamber does not exceed 0.80 square meter shall have walls
of solid masonry or reinforced concrete, not less than 100 millimeters
thick with a chimney lining as specified in this Code. If the grate
area of such an incinerator exceeds 0.80 square meter, the walls shall
not be less than 100 millimeters of firebrick except that higher than
9.00 meters above the roof of the combustion chamber, common brick
alone 200 millimeters in thickness, may be used.
(2.6) Masonry Chimneys for Commercial and Industrial
Masonry chimneys for commercial and industrial type incinerators of a
size designed for not more than 110 kilograms of refuse per hour and
having a horizontal grate area not exceeding 0.50 square meter shall
have walls of solid masonry or reinforced concrete not less than 100
millimeters thick with lining of not less than 100 millimeters of
firebrick, which lining shall extend for not less than 12.00 meters
above the roof of the combustion chamber. If the design capacity of
grate area of such an incinerator exceeds 110 kilograms per hour and
0.80 square meter respectively, walls shall not be less than 200
millimeters thick, lined with not less than 100 millimeters of
firebrick extending the full height of the chimney.
Fire clay chimney lining shall not be less than 15 millimeters thick.
The lining shall extend from 200 millimeters below the lowest inlet,
or, in the case of fireplace, from the throat of the fireplace to a
point above enclosing masonry walls. Fire clay chimney linings shall be
installed ahead of the construction of the chimney as it is carried up,
carefully bedded one on the other in fire clay mortar, with
close-fitting joints left smooth on the inside. Firebrick not less than
500 millimeters thick may be used in place of fire clay chimney.
No chimney passageway shall be smaller in area than the vent connection
of the appliance attached thereto.
Every masonry chimney shall extend at least 600 millimeters above the
part of the roof through which it passes and at least 600 millimeters
above the highest elevation of any part of a building within 3.00
meters to the chimney.
No masonry chimney shall be corbeled from a wall more than 150
millimeters nor shall a masonry chimney be corbeled from a wall which
is less than 300 millimeters in thickness unless it projects equally on
each side of the wall. In the second storey of a two-storey building of
Group A Occupancy, corbeling of masonry chimneys on the exterior of the
enclosing walls may equal the wall thickness. In every case the
corbeling shall not exceed 25 millimeters protection for wach course of
(7) Change in Size or Shape
No change in the size or shape of a masonry chimney shall be made
within a distance of 150 millimeters above or below the roof joints or
rafters where the chimney passes through the roof.
When more than one passageway is contained in the same chimney, masonry
separation at least 100 millimeters thick bonded into the masonry wall
of the chimney shall be provided to separate passageways.
Every inlet to any masonry chimney shall enter the side thereof and
shall be of not less than 3 millimeters thick metal or 16 millimeters
Combustible materials shall not be placed within 50 millimeters of
smoke chamber or masonry chimney walls when built within a structure,
or within 25 millimeters when the chimney is built entirely outside the
All incinerator chimneys shall terminate in a substantially constructed
spark arrester having a mesh not exceeding 20 millimeters.
Cleanout openings shall be provided at the base of every masonry
(b) Fireplaces and Barbecues
Fireplaces, barbecues, smoke chambers and fireplace Chimneys shall be
of solid masonry or reinforced concrete and shall conform to the
minimum requirements specified in this Code.
(1) Fireplace Walls
Walls of fireplaces shall not be less than 200 millimeters in
thickness. Walls of fireboxes shall not be less than 250 millimeters in
thickness: Except, that where a lining of firebrick is used, such walls
shall not be less than 200 millimeters in thickness. The firebox shall
not be less than 200 millimeters in thickness. The firebox shall not be
less than 500 millimeters in depth. The maximum thickness of joints in
firebrick shall be 10 millimeters.
Metal hoods used as part of a fireplace or barbecue shall not be less
than No. 18 gauge copper, galvanized iron, or other equivalent
corrosion-resistant ferrous metal with all swams and connections of
smokeproof unsoldered construction. The goods shall be sloped at an
angle of 45 degrees or less from the vertical and shall extend
horizontally at least 150 millimeters beyond the limits of the firebox.
Metal hoods shall be kept a minimum from combustible materials.
Approved metal heat circulators may be installed in fireplaces.
(4) Smoke Chamber
Front and side walls shall not be less than 200 millimeters in
thickness. Smoke chamber back walls shall not be less than 150
millimeters in thickness.
(5) Fireplace Chimneys
Walls of chimneys without flue lining shall not be less than 200
millimeters in thickness. Walls of chimneys with flue lining shall not
be less than 100 millimeters in thickness and shall be constructed in
accordance with the requirements of this Code.
(6) Clearance of Combustible Materials
Combustible materials shall not be placed within 50 millimeters of
fireplace, smoke chamber, or chimney walls when built entirely within a
structure, or within 25 millimeters when the chimney is built entirely
outside the structure. Combustible materials shall not be placed within
150 millimeters of the fireplace opening. No such combustible material
within 300 millimeters of the fireplace opening shall project more than
3 millimeters for each 25 millimeters clearance from such opening. No
part of metal hoods used as part of a fireplace, barbecue or heating
stoves shall be less than 400 millimeters from combustible material.
This clearance may be reduced to the minimum requirements set forth in
(7) Area of Flues, Throats, and Dampers
The net cross-sectional area of the flue and of the throat between the
firebox and the smoke chamber of a fireplace shall not be less than the
requirements to be set forth by the Board. Where dampers are used, they
shall be of not less than No. 12 gauge metal. When fully opened, damper
opening shall be not less than ninety percent of the required flue
area. When fully open, damper blades shall not extend beyond the line
of the inner face of the flue.
(8) Linte — Masonry over the fireplace opening shall
be supported by a non-combustible lintel.
(9) Hearth — Every fireplace shall be provided with a
brick, concrete, stone, or other approved non-combustible hearth slab
at least 300 millimeters wider on each side than the fireplace opening
and projecting at least 450 millimeters therefrom. This slab shall not
be less than 100 millimeters thick and shall be supported by a
non-combustible material or reinforced to carry its own weight and all
Section 1212. Fire-Extinguishing Systems. —
(a) Fire-Extinguishing Systems — When required,
standard automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in the
following places, and in the manner provided in this Code.
(1) In every storey, basement or cellar with an area
of 200 square meters or more which is used for habitation, recreation,
dining, study, or work, and which has an occupant load of more than 20.
(2) In all dressing rooms, rehearsal rooms, workshops
or factories, and other rooms with an occupant load of more than 10 or
assembly halls under Group H and I occupancies with occupant load of
more than 500, and if the next doors of said rooms are more than 30.00
meters from the nearest safe fire dispersal area of the building or
opening to an exit court or street.
(3) In all rooms used for storage or handling of
photographic x-ray nitrocellulose films and other inflammable articles.
(b) Dry Standpipes — Every building four or more
storeys in height shall be equipped with one or more dry standpipes.
(1) Construction and Tests — Dry standpipes shall be
of wrought iron or galvanized steel and together with fittings and
connections shall be of sufficient strength to withstand 20 kilograms
per square centimeter of water pressure when ready for service, without
leaking at the joints, valves, or fittings. Tests shall be conducted by
the owner of the building contractor in the presence of a
representative of the Building Official whenever deemed necessary for
the purpose of certification of its proper function.
(2) Size — Dry standpipes shall be of such size as to
be capable of delivering 900 liters of water per minute from each of
any three outlets simultaneously under the pressure created by one fire
engine or pumper based on the standard equipment available.
(3) Number Required — Every building four or more
storeys in height where the area of any floor above the third floor is
950 square meters or less, shall be equipped with at least one dry
standpipes and an additional standpipe shall be installed for each
additional 950 square meters or fraction thereof.
(4) Location — Standpipes shall be located within
enclosed stairway landings or near such stairways as possible or
immediately inside of an exterior wall and within 300 millimeters of an
opening in a stairway enclosure of the balcony or vestibule of a
smokeproof tower or an outside exit stairway.
(5) Siamese Connections — Subject to the provisions
of subparagraph (2) all 100 millimeters dry standpipes shall be
equipped with a two-way Siamese fire department connection. All 125
millimeter dry standpipes shall be equipped with a three-way Siamese
fire department connection and 150 millimeters dry standpipes shall be
equipped with a four-way Siamese fire department connections. All
Siamese inlet connections shall be located on a street-front of the
building and not less than 300 millimeters nor more than 1.20 meters
above the grade and shall be equipped with a clapper-checks and
substantial plugs. All Siamese inlet connections shall be recessed in
the wall or otherwise substantially protected.
(6) Outlets — All dry standpipes shall extend from
the ground floor to and over the roof and shall be equipped with a 63
millimeters outlet nor more than 1.20 meters above the floor level at
each storey. All dry standpipes shall be equipped with a two-way 63
millimeters outlet above the roof. All outlets shall be equipped with
(7) Signs — An iron or bronze sign with raised
letters at least 25 millimeters high shall be rigidly attached to the
building adjacent to all Siamese connections and such signs shall read
; CONNECTION TO DRY STANDPIPE".
(c) Wet Standpipes — Every Group H and I Occupancy of
any height, and every Group C Occupancy of two more storeys in height
and every Group D, D, E, F, and G Occupancy of three or more storeys in
height and every Group G and E Occupancy over 1800 square meters in
area shall be equipped with one or more interior wet standpipes
extending from the cellar or basement into the topmost storey:
Provided, that Group H buildings having no stage and having a seating
capacity of less than 500 need to be equipped with interior wet
(1) Construction — Interior wet standpipes shall be
constructed of the same materials as those required for dry standpipes.
(2.1) Interior wet standpipes shall have an internal
diameter sufficient to deliver 190 liters of water per minute under 2.0
kilograms per square centimeter pressure at the hose connections.
Buildings of Group Hand I Occupancy shall have wet standpipes systems
capable of delivering the required quantity and pressure from any two
outlets simultaneously; for all other occupancies only one outlet need
be figured to be opened at one time. In no case shall the internal
diameter of a wet standpipe be less than 50 millimeters, except when
the standpipe is attached to an automatic fire-extinguishing system.
(2.2) Any approved formula which determined pipe
sizes on a pressure drop basis may be used to determine pipe size for
wet standpipe systems. The Building Official may require discharge
capacity and pressure tests on completed wet standpipe systems.
(3) Number required — The number of wet standpipe
when required in this Code shall be so determined that all portions of
the building are within 6.00 meters of a nozzle attached to a hose
23.00 meters in length.
(4) Location — In Group H and I Occupancies, outlets
shall be located as follows: one on each side of the stage, one at the
rear of the auditorium and one at the rear of the balcony. Where
occupant loads are less than 500 the above requirements may be waived:
Provided, that portable fire-extinguishers of appropriate capacity and
type are installed within easy access from the said locations. In Group
B, C, D, E, F, and G Occupancies location of all interior wet
standpipes shall be in accordance with the requirement for dry
standpipes: Provided, that at least one standpipe is installed to cover
not more than 650 square meters.
(5) Outlets — All interior wet standpipes shall be
equipped with a 38 millimeter valve in each storey, including the
basement or cellar of the building, and located not less than 300
millimeters nor more than 1.20 meters above the floor.
(6) Threads — All those threads used in connection
with the installation of such standpipes, including valves and reducing
fittings shall be uniform with that prescribed by the Secretary.
(7) Water Supply — All interior wet standpipes shall
be connected to a street main not less than 100 millimeters in
diameter, or when the water pressure is insufficient, to a water tank
or sufficient size as provided in subparagraph (8). When more
than one interior wet standpipe is required in the building, such
standpipe shall be connected at their bases or at their tops by pipes
of equal size.
(8) Pressure and Gravity Tanks — Tanks shall have a
capacity sufficient to furnish at least 1,500 litters per minute for
period of not less than 10 minutes. Such tanks shall be located so as
to provide not less than 2 kilograms per sq. cm. pressure at the
topmost base outlet for its entire supply. Discharge pipes from
pressure tanks extend 50 millimeters into and above the bottom of such
tanks. All tanks shall be tested in place after installation and proved
tight at a hydrostatic pressure fifty percent in excess of the working
pressure required. Where such tanks are used for domestic purposes the
supply pipe for such purposes shall be located at or above the center
line of such tanks. Incombustible supports shall be provided for all
such supply tanks and not less than a 900 millimeters clearance shall
be maintained over the top and under the bottom of all pressure tanks.
(9) Fire pumps — Fire pumps shall have a capacity of
not less than 1,000 liters per minute with a pressure of not less than
2 kilograms per sq. cm. at the topmost hose outlet. The source of
supply for such pump shall be a street water main of not less than 100
mm, diameter or a well or cistern containing a one-hour supply. Such
pumps shall be supplied with an adequate source of power and shall be
automatic in operation.
(10) Hose and Hose Reels — Each hose outlet of all
interior wet standpipe shall be supplied with a hose not less than 38
millimeters in diameter. Such hose shall be equipped with a suitable
brass or bronze nozzle and shall be not over 23.00 meters in length. An
approved standard form of wall hose reel or rack shall be provided for
the hose and shall be located so as to make the hose readily accessible
at all times and shall be recessed in the walls or protected by
(d) Basement Pipe Inlets — Basement pipe inlets shall
be installed in the first floor of every store, warehouse, or factory
where there are cellars or basements under same: Except, wherein such
cellars or basements there is installed a fire-extinguishing system as
specified in this Code or where such cellars or basement are used for
banking purposes, safe deposit vaults, or similar uses.
(1) Material — All basement pipe inlets shall be of
cast iron, steel, brass, or bronze with lids of cast brass or bronze
and shall consist of a sleeve not less than 200 millimeters in diameter
through the floor extending to and flush with the ceiling below and
with a top flange, recessed with an inside shoulder, to receive the lid
and flush with the finished floor surface. The lid shall be a solid
casting and shall have a ring lift recessed on the top thereof, so as
to flushed. The lid shall have the words "FOR FIRE DEPARTMENT ONLY, DO
NOT COVER UP" cast on the top thereof. The lid shall be installed in
such a manner as to permit its removal readily from the inlet.
(2) Location — Basement pipe inlets shall be
strategically located and kept readily accessible at all times to the
(e) Approval — All fire-extinguishing systems,
including automatic sprinklers, wet and dry standpipes, automatic
chemical extinguishers, basement pipe inlets, and the appurtenances
thereto shall meet the approval of the fire Department as to
installation and location and shall be subject to such periodic test as
it may require.
Section 1213. Stages and Platform. —
(a) Stage Ventilators — There shall be one or more
ventilators constructed of metal or other incombustible material near
the center and above the highest part of any working stage raised above
the stage roof and having a total ventilation area equal to at least
five percent of the floor area within the stage walls. The entire
equipment shall conform to the following requirements:
(1) Opening Action — Ventilators shall open by spring
action or force of gravity sufficient to overcome the effects of
neglect, rust, dirt, or expansion by heat or wrapping of the framework.
(2) Glass — Glass, if used in ventilators must be
protected against falling on the stage. A wire screen, if used under
the glass, must be so placed that if clogged it cannot reduce the
required ventilating area or interfere with the operating mechanism or
obstruct the distribution of water from the automatic fire
(3) Design — Ventilators, penthouses, and supporting
framework shall be designed in accordance with this Code.
(4) Spring Actuation — Springs, when employed to
actuate ventilator doors, shall be capable of maintaining full required
tension indefinitely. Springs shall be no stressed more than fifty
percent of their rated capacity and shall not be located directly in
ther stream, nor exposed to elements.
(5) Location of Fusible Links — A fusible link shall
be placed in the cable control system on the underside of the
ventilator at or above the roof line or as approved by the Building
Official, and shall be so located as not to be affected by the
operation of fire-extinguishing systems.
(6) Control — Remote, manual, or electrical control
shall provide for both opening and closing of the ventilator doors for
periodic testing and shall be located at a point on the stage
designated by the Building Official. When remote control of ventilator
is electrical, power failure shall not affect its instant operation in
the event of fire. Hand winches may be employed to facilitate operation
of manually controlled ventilators.
(b) Gridirons —
(1) Gridirons, fly galleries, and pin-rails shall be
constructed of incombustible materials and fire protection of steel and
iron may be omitted. Gridirons and fly galleries shall be designed to
support a live load of not less than 367 kilograms per square meter.
Each loft block well shall be designed to support 373 kilograms per
linear meter and the head block well shall be designed to support the
aggregate weight of all the loft block wells served. The head block
well must be provided with an adequate strengback or lateral brace to
(2) The main counterweight sheave beam shall be
designed to support a horizontal and vertical uniformly distributed
live load sufficient to accommodate the weight imposed by the total
number of loft blocks in the gridiron. The sheave blocks shall be
designed to accommodate the maximum load for the loft or head blocks
served with a safety factor of five.
(c) Rooms Accessory to Stage — In a building having a
stage, the dressing room sections, workshops, and store rooms shall be
located on the stage side of the proscenium wall and shall be separated
from each other and from the stage by not less than a One-hour Fire
Resistive Occupancy Separation.
(d) Proscenium Walls — A stage shall be completely
separated from the auditorium by a proscenium wall or not less than
two-hour incombustible construction. The proscenium wall shall extend
not less than 1.20 meters above the roof over the auditorium.
Proscenium walls may have the addition to the main proscenium openings,
one opening at the orchestra pit level and not more than two openings
at the stage floor level, each of which shall be not more than 2.00
square meters in area. All openings in the proscenium walls of stage
shall be protected by a fire assembly having a one and one-half
fire-resistive rating. The proscenium opening, which shall be the main
opening for viewing performances, shall be provided with a self closing
fire-resistive curtain as specified in this Code.
(e) Stage Floor — The type of construction for
storage floors shall depend upon the requirements based on the type of
Occupancy and the corresponding fire-resistive requirements. All parts
of the stage floor shall be designed to support not less than 620
kilograms per square meters. Openings through stage floor shall be
equipped with tight-fitting trap doors of wood of not less than 5
millimeters nominal thickness.
(f) Platforms — The type of construction for
platforms shall depend upon the requirements based on the type of
Occupancy and corresponding fire-resistive requirements. Enclosed
platforms shall be provided with one or more ventilators conforming to
the requirements of stage ventilators: Except, that the total area
shall be equal to five percent of the area of the platform. When more
than one ventilator is provided, they shall be so spaced as to provide
proper exhaust ventilation. Ventilators shall not be required for
enclosed platform having a floor area of 45.00 square meters or less.
(g) Stage Exits — At least one exit not less than 900
millimeters wide shall be provided from each side of the stage opening
directly or by means of a passageway not less than 900 millimeters in
width to a street or exit court. An exit stair not less than 750
millimeters wide shall be provided for egress from each fly gallery.
Each tier of dressing rooms shall be provided with at least two means
of egress each not less than 750 millimeters wide and all such stairs
shall be constructed in accordance with the requirement specified in
this Code. The stairs required in this sub-section need not be enclosed.
Section 1214. Motion Picture Projection Rooms. —
(a) General — The provisions of this Section shall
apply only where ribbon type motion picture films in excess of
22-millimeters width and electric projection equipment are used. Every
motion picture machine using ribbon type film in excess of 22
millimeter width and electric arc projections equipment, together with
all electrical devices, rheostats, machines, and all such films present
in any Group C, I, or H Occupancy, shall be enclosed in a projection
room large enough to permit the operator to walk freely on either side
and back of the machine.
(b) Construction — Every projection room shall be of
not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction throughout and the
walls and ceiling shall be finished with incombustible materials. The
ceiling shall not be less than 2.40 meters from the finished floor. The
room shall have a floor area of not less than 7.00 square meters and
3.50 square meters for each additional machine.
(c) Exit — Every projection room shall have at least
two doorways separated by not less than one-thirds the perimeter of the
room, each at least 750 millimeters wide and 2.00 meters high. All
entrances to a projection room shall be protected by a self-closing
fire assembly having a three-fourths hour fire-resistive rating. Such
doors shall open outward and lead to proper exits as required in this
Code and shall not be equipped with any latch. The maximum width of
such door shall be 750 millimeters.
(d) Ports and Openings — Ports in projection room
walls shall be of three kinds: projection ports; observation ports; and
combination ports used for both observation and for stereoption, spot
or floodlight machines.
(1) Ports Required — There shall be provided for each
motion picture projector not more than one projection port, which shall
be limited in area to 750 square centimeters, and not more than one
observation port, which shall be limited in area to 1,300 square
centimeters. There shall be not more than three combination ports, each
of which shall not exceed 750 millimeters by 600 millimeters. Each port
opening shall be completely covered with a pane of glass; Except, that
when acetate safety film is used, projection ports may be increased in
size to an area not to exceed 4,500 square centimeters.
(2) Shutters — Each port and every other opening in
projection room walls, including, any fresh-air inlets but excluding
exit doors and exhaust ducts, shall be provided with a shutter of not
less than 2.4 millimeters thick sheet metal or its equivalent large
enough to overlap at least 25 millimeters on all sides of such
openings. Shutters shall be arranged to slide without binding in gudes
constructed or material equal to the shutters in strength and
fire-resistance. Each shutter shall be equipped with a 74º fusible
link, which when fused by heat will cause closure of the shutter by
gravity. Shutters of a size greater than 1,300 square centimeters shall
be equipped with a counter-balance. There shall also be a fusible link
located over the upper magazine of each projector, which upon
operating, will close all the shutters. In addition, there shall be
provided suitable means for manually closing all shutters
simultaneously from any projector head and from a point within the
projection room near each exit door. Shutters may be omitted when only
acetate safety film is used.
(e) Ventilation —
(1) Inlet — A fresh-air inlet from the exterior of
the building not less than 900 square centimeters and protected with
wire netting, shall be installed within 50 millimeters of the floor in
every projection room, the source of which shall be remote from other
outside vents or flues.
(2) Outlets — Ventilation shall be provided by one or
more mechanical exhaust systems which shall drawr from each are lamps
housing to out-doors either directly or through an incombustible flue
used for no other purpose. Exhaust capacity shall not be less than 0.50
cubic meter nor more than 1.40 cubic meter per minute for each arc lamp
plus 5.60 cubic meters for the room itself. Systems shall be controlled
from within the enclosure and shall have pilot lights to indicate
operation. The exhaust systems serving the projection room may be
extended to cover rooms associated therewith such as rewind rooms. No
dampers shall be installed in such exhaust systems. Ventilation of
these rooms, shall not connected in any way with ventilating
orr-conditioning systems serving other portions of the building.
Exhaust ducts shall be of incombustible material and shall either be
kept 25 millimeters from combustible material or covered with 10
millimeters of incombustible heat-insulating material.
(f) Regulation of Equipment — All shelves, fixtures,
and fixed equipment in a projection room shall be constructed of
incombustible materials. All films not in actual use shall be stored in
metal cabinets having individual compartments for reels or shall be in
generally accepted shipping containers. No solders shall be used in the
construction of such cabinets.
Section 1215. Lathing, Plastering, and Installation
of Wall Boards. —
The installation of lath, plaster and gypsum wall board shall conform
to the fire-resistive rating requirements and the type of construction
ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL REGULATIONS
Section 1301. Electrical Regulations. —
All electrical systems equipment and installation mentioned in this
Code shall conform to the provisions of the Philippine Electrical Code,
as adopted by the board of Electrical Engineering pursuant to Republic
Act No. 184 otherwise known as the electrical Engineering Law.
Section 1302. Mechanical Regulations. —
All mechanical systems, equipment and installations mentioned in this
Code shall conform to the provisions of the Philippine Mechanical
Engineering Code, as adopted by the Board of Mechanical Engineering
pursuant to Commonwealth Act No. 294 as amended, otherwise known as the
Mechanical Engineering Law.
PHOTOGRAPHIC AND X-RAY FILMS
Section 1401. Storage and Handling. —
(a) Storage rooms of unexposed photographic and x-ray
films shall be provided with automatic fire extinguishing systems in
the following cases:
(1) When unexposed films in generally accepted safety
shipping containers exceed the aggregate 14.00 cubic meters.
(2) Where shelving used for storage of individual
packages not in said shipping containers exceed 1.40 cubic meters in
(3) Storage is not in generally accepted safety
shipping containers in any section exceeding 14.00 cubic meters.
(b) Film negatives in storage or in process of
handling shall be kept in heavy manila envelopes, not exceeding 12
films to an envelope. Expanding envelopes shall not be used.
(c) Film negatives shall be kept in properly
insulated vented cabinets, vented storage vaults or outside storage
houses. Not more than 110 kilograms shall be stored in any single
cabinet. Where the film stored exceeds 450 kilograms, it shall be in
vented storage vault or in a detached structure or roof vault. Door
openings in vault shall be of four-hour fire-resistive construction and
shall be kept closed except when in use.
(d) Only incandescent electric light shall be
permitted: protected with substantial wire guards or vapor roof globes
or both. Portable lights on extension cords are prohibited. Conspicuous
"NO SMOKING" signs shall be posted.
(e) No films shall be stored within 600 millimeters
of steam pipes, chimneys, or other sources of heat.
(f) There shall be firstd provisions of types using
water or water solutions. Discarded films shall be stored and handled
in the same manner as other films until removed from the premises.
Section 1402. Classes of Film Exempted. —
(a) The provisions of this Section do not apply to
the following: film for amateur photographic use in original packages
or "roll" and "film pack" films in quantities of less than 1.40 cubic
meters; safety film; dental X-ray film; establishments manufacturing
photographic films and their storage incidental thereto and films
stored or being used in standard motion picture booths.
(b) Safety photographic X-ray film may be identified
by the marking on the edge of the film.
Section 1403. Fire Extinguishing System. —
Unless otherwise provided in this Code, all fire extinguishing system
when so required shall be of a type, specifications, and methods of
installation as prescribed in accordance with the requirements of the
Section 1501. Prefabricated Assembly. —
(a) Prefabricated assembly is a structural unit, the
integral parts of which have built up or assembled prior to
incorporation in the building.
(b) The Secretary shall prescribe special tests to
determine the structural adequacy, durability, soundness, weather and
fire resistance of the prefabricated assemblies.
(c) Every device or system to connect prefabricated
assemblies shall be capable of developing the strength of the different
members as an integral structure, Except, in the case of members
forming part of a structural frame as specified in this Code.
Anchorages and connections between members and the supporting elements
of the structure or walls shall be capable of withstanding all probable
external and internal forces or other conditions for structurally
adequate construction. In structural design, proper allowances shall be
made for any material to be displaced or removed for the installation
of pipes, conduits, or other equipment.
(d) Placement of prefabricated assemblies shall be
inspected to determine compliance with this Code.
Section 1601. Approved Plastics. —
Approved plastic materials shall be those which have a flame-spread
rating of 225 or less and a smoke density not greater than that
obtained from the burning of untreated wood under similar conditions
when tested in accordance with generally accepted engineering
practices. The products of combustion shall be no more toxic than the
burning of untreated wood under similar conditions.
Section 1602. Installation. —
(a) Structural Requirements — All plastic materials
shall be of adequate strength and durability to withstand the
prescribed design loads. Sufficient and substantial technical data
shall be submitted to establish stresses, maximum unsupported spans,
and such other information as may be deemed necessary for the various
thicknesses and forms used.
(b) Fastenings — Fastenings shall be adequate to
withstand design loads and internal and external stresses required of
the assembly. Proper allowances of plastic materials in conjunction
with other materials with which it is assembled or integrated shall be
Section 1603. Glazing of Openings. —
(a) Doors, sashes and framed openings in exterior
walls of all buildings except Types IV and V Constructions may be
glazed or equipped with approved plastics: Provided, that:
(1) The wall in which such glazing is installed is so
located that openings are not required to be fire-protected.
(2) Except for Type I Construction, the location
size, and spacing of such glazed openings do not exceed the values set
forth by the Secretary.
(3) Plastic used in glazed openings for Type II
Construction shall be materials appropriate for use according to
flame-spread characteristics and the location, size, and spacing of the
openings do not exceed the values set forth by the Secretary.
Section 1604. Skylights. —
(a) General — Approved plastics may be used in
skylights installed on roofs of Types I, II, or III constructions and
all buildings in these categories shall be equipped with an approved
automatic fire-extinguishing system in Groups A, B, C, E, F, J, H-3 and
H-4 Occupancies: Except, that:
(1) Approved plastics may be used in any type of
construction or occupancy as a fire venting system when approved by the
(2) Plastic may be used in approved skylights in Type
II one-hour fire-resistive construction which are located 300
millimeters or more above the lower place of the ceiling. The walls of
the skylight well shall be no less fire-resistive than the adjacent
(3) Where fire-resistive ceiling is not required in
one-storey buildings, approved plastics may be used in skylights.
(b) Installation Requirements.
(1) Except in Group A Occupancies, no skylight shall
be installed within 3.00 meters of a property line.
(2) The edges of dome-type skylights shall be
(3) Plastic skylights shall be separated from each
other by at least 2.50 meters laterally and 3.00 meters along the slope
of the roof.
(c) Allowable areas — The area of individual plastic
skylights shall not exceed 10.00 square meters. The total aggregate
area of plastics used in skylights, monitors, and sawtooth glazing
shall not exceed twenty percent of the floor area of the room or
(d) Curb Requirements — Plastic skylights in roofs
having a slope of less than 1 in 3 shall have a 100 millimeters high
curb. The curb may be omitted where a wire screen not smaller than No.
12 U.S. gauge with a mesh not larger than 25 millimeters is provided
immediately below the skylight. The screen shall be substantially
mounted below the skylight.
Section 1605. Light-Transmitting Panels in Monitors
and Sawtooth Roofs. —
(a) General — Where a fire-resistive rating is not
required for the roof structure, and in all buildings provided with an
approved automatic fire-extinguishing system, approved plastics may be
used with or without such as the light-transmitting medium in monitors
and sawtooth: Except, that plastics used in monitors or sawtooth roofs
of Type II Construction shall be of materials appropriate to be used
according to flame-spread characteristics.
(b) Allowable Area — The area of individual plastic
glazing used in monitors and sawtooth glazing shall not exceed 15.00
square meters. The total aggregate area of plastics used in skylights,
monitors, and sawtooth glazing shall not exceed twenty percent of the
floor area of the room or occupancy sheltered.
(c) Area Separation — The area of such plastic panels
shall be separated from each other by a section of incombustible
material or by a section of the roofing material of the structure not
less than 1.50 meters in length. The lower edge of the plastic material
shall be at least 150 millimeters above the surface of the adjoining
Section 1606. Plastic Light Diffusers in Ceilings. —
(a) General — Ceiling light diffusers having an area
greater than ten percent of any 10.00 square meters of room area shall
be of approved plastics conforming to the requirements specified in
(b) Installation — Plastic light diffusers shall be
installed in such a manner that they will not readily become detached
when subjected to room temperature of 80ºC for 15 minutes,
Excepts, for the plastic light diffusers which are installed in the
first floor area of Group C Occupancies having egress directly to the
exterior of the building; and plastic light diffusers which are located
between an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system and the area to
be protected other than public corridors for Group A, B, C, D, E, G, H
and I Occupancies if tests required by the Secretary have established
that such installation will not interfere with the efficient operation
of such automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Section 1607. Partitions. —
Where partitions are not required to be of fire-resistive or
incombustible construction, approved plastics conforming to the
requirements specified in this Code may be used.
Section 1608. Exterior Veneer. —
Exterior veneer may be of approved plastic materials, and shall conform
to the provisions of this Section.
Plastic veneer shall not be attached to any exterior wall above the
first storey: Provided, that plastic veneer may be attached to exterior
walls above the first storey of buildings located outside of highly
restrictive Fire Zones: Provided, further that the height of the veneer
is not in excess of 10.00 meters above the adjacent of elevation.
Sections of plastic veneer shall not exceed 15.00 square meters in
area, Except, that in less restrictive Fire Zones, the area may be
increased by fifty percent.
Sections of plastic veneer shall be separated by a minimum of 1.20
meters vertically and 600 millimeters horizontally.
Section 1609. Awnings and Canopies. —
(a) Plastic materials appropriate for use according
to Flame Spread characteristics may be utilized in awnings and
canopies, provided such awnings and canopies are constructed in
accordance with provisions governing projections and appendages as
specified in this Code.
(b) Approved plastics may be used in awnings where
untreated canvass is permitted.
(c) Approved plastics may be used in lieu of plain
glass in green-houses in less restrictive Fire Zones.
SHEET METAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTHS
Section 1701. Sheet Metal Paint Spray Booths. —
Paint spray booths shall be constructed of steel of not less than No.
18 U.S. guage in thickness and shall be designed in accordance with
The area of a paint spray booth shall not exceed 150 square meters not
ten percent of the basic area permitted for the major of the building
according to its Occupancy Group.
(c) Floor Construction
The floor shall be constructed of incombustible material.
(d) Interior Surface.
Paint spray booths shall be designed to permit the free passage of the
exhaustr from all parts of the interior and all interior surface shall
be smooth and continuous without outstanding edges.
Section 1702. Fire Protection. —
Every spray booth having an open front elevation larger than 1.00
square meter and which is not equipped with doors, shall have a fire
curtain or metal deflector not less than 100 millimeters deep installed
at the upper outer edge of the booth opening.
Section 1703. Light. —
Paint spray booths shall be illuminated through hammered wire or
heat-treated glass panels. The glass panels shall be located in such a
manner as to reduce the hazard of ignition caused by paint spray
Section 1704. Ventilation. —
Mechanical ventilation shall be provided direct to the exterior of the
building. The mechanical exhaust system shall be designed to move ther
through any portion of the paint spray area at the rate of not less
than 30.00 lineal meters per minute. The blades of exhaust fans shall
be constructed of non-ferrous material and shall be mounted in such a
manner as to prevent contact with the exhaust duct. The motor shall not
be mounted in the spray booth or the duct system and belts shall be
enclosed where they enter the booth or duct system.
(b) Exhaust Ducts.
Exhaust ducts shall be constructed of steel having a thickness not less
than the values set by the Secretary. The discharge point for ducts in
a paint spray booth shall be not less than 2.00 meters from the
adjoining combustible construction nor less than 8.00 meters from
adjoining exterior wall openings: Except, that the discharge point for
exhaust ducts is not regulated in a waterwash spray booth.
GLASS AND GLAZING
Section 1801. General Requirements —
(a) This Chapter shall apply to exterior glass and
glazing in all Occupancies except Groups A, B, and J Occupancies not
over three storeys in height, and to interior and exterior glass and
glazing in all occupancies subject to human impact as specified in this
(b) Standards for materials shall conform to the
provisions set by the Secretary on glass dimensional tolerances,
breaking stress levels, and design safety factors.
(c) Each light shall bear the manufacturer's label
designating the type and thickness of glass. Each light with special
performance characteristics such as laminated, heat strengthened fully
tempered or insulated, shall bear the manufacturer's identification
showing the special characteristics and thickness by etching or other
permanent identification that shall be visible after the glass is
Section 1802. Area Limitation. —
Exterior glass and glazing shall be capable of safely withstanding the
load due to wind pressures for various height zones above ground acting
inward or outward. The area of individual lights shall not be more than
the maximum allowable area of glass according to the wind load
multiplied by the appropriate adjustment factor.
Section 1803. Glazing. —
Glass firmly supported on all four edges shall be glazed with minimum
laps and edge clearances in accordance with Section 1801 paragraph (b),
Provided, that glass edge clearance in fixed openings shall be not less
than what is required for wind and earthquake drift. For glass not
firmly supported on all four edges and design shall be submitted for
approval of the Building Official. Glass supports shall be considered
firm when deflection of the support at design load does not exceed
1/175 of the span.
Section 1804. Louvered Windows. —
Regular plate, sheet, or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered
windows shall not be thinner than 5.6 millimeters minimal and not
longer than 1.20 meters. Exposed glass edges shall be smooth.
Section 1805. Impact. —
Frameless glass doors, glass in doors, fixed glass panels, and similar
glazed openings which may be subject to accidental human impact shall
conform with the requirements set forth by the Secretary on impact
loads of glass: Except in the following cases:
(1) Bathtub and shower enclosures shall be
constructed from approved shatter-resistant materials, such as: wire
reinforced glass not less than 5.6 millimeters thick; fully tempered
glass not less than 4.8 millimeters thick: or laminated safety glass
not less than 6.4 millimeters thick.
(2) Glass lights located not less than 450
millimeters above the adjacent finished floor or walking surface.
(3) Glass lights when the least dimension is not
greater than 450 millimeters.
(4) Glass lights 1.50 square meters or less in area.
THE USE OF COMPUTERS
Section 1901. General Rule. —
The use of computers for all or any part of the design of buildings
under this Code is permitted provided that all programs to be used are
Section 1902. Program Documentation. —
Documenting a program under this Code consists of filing with the
Building Official a reference to a publication or publications
accessible to him were the detailed description of the program or a
brief statement of the theoretical background of the program including
a description of the algorithms used are found.
Section 1903. Submission of Computer-Generated
A copy of the output sheets for computer-generated computations shall
be submitted as a part of the design computations. The out sheets shall
be accompanied by a certification of a designer and/or consultant that
the output sheets are the results obtained through the use of
documented programs. The certification should include the
identification of the specific program used for each portion of the
computer-generated computations being submitted.
Sec. 2001. General Requirements. —
(a) No sign or signboard shall be erected in such
manner as to confuse or obstruct the view or interpretation of any
official traffic sign, signal, or device.
(b) No sign or signboard shall be constructed as to
unduly obstruct the natural view of the landscape, distract or obstruct
the view of the public as to constitute a traffic hazard, or otherwise
defile, debase or offend aesthetic and cultural values and traditions.
Sec. 2002. Maintenance. —
All signs, together with all of their supports, braces, guys and
anchors, shall be kept in repair and in proper state of preservation.
The display of all signs shall be kept nearly painted and secured at
Sec. 2003. Design and Construction. —
Sign structures shall be designed and constructed to resist all forces
in accordance with the National Structural Code for Buildings. For
signs on buildings, the dead and lateral loads shall be transmitted
through structural frame of the building to the ground in such a manner
as not to overstress any of the elements of the building. The weight of
earth superimposed over footings may be used in determining the dead
load resisting moment. Such earth shall be carefully placed and
Sec. 2004. Supports and Anchorages. —
The supports and anchorage of all signs or sign structures shall be
placed in or upon private property and shall be constructed in
conformity with the requirements of this Code.
(b) Materials — Materials for construction of signs
or sign structures shall be of the quality and grade as specified in
(c) Restrictions on Combustible Materials — All signs
or sign structures erected in highly restrictive Fire Zones shall have
structural members of incombustible materials. Ground signs may be
constructed of any material meeting the requirements of this Code.
Combinations signs, roof signs, wall signs, projecting signs, and signs
on marquees shall be constructed of incombustible materials. No
combustible material other than approved plastics shall be used in the
construction of electrical signs.
(d) Non-Structural Trim — Non-structural trim and
portable display surfaces may be of wood, metal, approved plastics, or
any combination thereof.
(e) Display Surfaces — Display surfaces in all types
of signs may be made of metal, glass, or approved plastics.
Sec. 2005. Projections and Clearances. —
(a) Clearances from High Voltage Power Lines —
Clearances of signs from high voltage power lines shall be in
accordance with the Philippine Electrical Code.
(b) Clearances from Fire Escapes, Exits, or
Standpipes — No signs or sign structures shall be erected in such a
manner than any portion to its surface or supports will interfere in
any way with the free use of any fire escape, exit, or standpipe.
(c) Obstruction of Openings — No sign shall obstruct
any opening to such an extent that light ventilation is reduced to a
point below that required by this Code. Signs erected within 1.50
meters of an exterior wall in which there are openings within the area
of the sign shall be constructed of incombustible material or approved
(d) Projection Over Alleys — No sign or sign
structure shall project into any public alley below a height of 3.00
meters above established sidewalk grade, nor project more than 300
millimeters where the sign structure is located 3.00 meters to 4.5
meters above established sidewalk grade. The sign or sign structure
must not project more than 1.00 meter into the public alley where the
sign or sign structure is located more than 4.50 meters above
established sidewalk grade.
Sec. 2006. Lighting. —
Signs shall be illuminated only by electrical means in accordance with
the Philippine Electrical Code.
TRANSITORY AND FINAL PROVISIONS
Sec. 2101. Existing Buildings and Structures. —
All buildings or structures constructed under R.A. 6541 or existing
city or municipal building codes or ordinances, if legally done in
accordance therewith, shall be respected subject to such limitations
established in this Code.
However, alterations, additions, conversions, and/or repairs to be made
in such building or structures shall be subject to the provisions of
Sec. 2102. Interim Rules and Regulations. —
Interim rules and regulations on buildings promulgated by the Secretary
before the adoption of this Code pursuant to existing laws or decrees
shall continue to have binding force and effect, when not in conflict
with the provisions of this Code.
Sec. 2103. Separability Clause. —
If any provision of this Decree or the application thereof is to any
person or circumstance declared unconstitutional or invalid for any
reason, the same shall not affect the validity of the other provisions.
Sec. 2104. Repealing Clause. —
All laws, decrees, provisions of charters, executive orders,
ordinances, rules and regulations or parts thereof contrary to or
inconsistent with the provision of this Decree are hereby repealed,
amended, or modified accordingly.
Sec. 2105. Effectivity. —
This Decree shall take effect upon its promulgation.
Done in the City of Manila,
this 19th of February, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and
WORDS, TERMS AND PHRASES
ACCESSORIA OR ROW HOUSE
A house of not more than two storeys, composed of a row or dwelling
units entirely separated from one another by partly wall or walls and
with an independent entrance for each dwelling units.
A building subordinate to the main building on the same lot and used
for purposes customarily incidental to those of the main building such
as servants quarters, garage, pump house, laundry, etc.
A building designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay,
grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. This
structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of
employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or
packaged; nor shall it be placed used by the public.
Any building space or thoroughfare which has been dedicated or deeded
to the public or for public use as a passageway with a width of not
more than three meters.
ALTER OR ALTERATION
Any change, addition, or modification in construction of occupancy.
A room or suite of two or more rooms, designed and intended for, or
occupied by one family for living, sleeping, and cooking purposes.
Any building or portion thereof, which is designed, built, rented,
leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or which is occupied as the
home or residence of three or more families living independently of
each other and doing their own cooking in the building, and shall
include flats and apartments.
Any portion of a building above the first floor projecting over the
sidewalk beyond the first storey wall used as protection for
pedestrians against rain or sun.
ASSEMBLY BUILDING OR HALL
A building or a portion of a building used for the gathering together
of fifty or more persons for such purposes as deliberation, workshop,
entertainment, amusement, or awaiting transportation or of a hundred or
more persons in drinking and dining establishments.
Any storey situated wholly or partly in a roof, so designed, arranged,
or built as to be used for business, storage, or habitation.
A movable shelter supported entirely from the exterior wall of a
building and of a type which can be retracted, folded, or collapsed
against the face of a supporting building.
The surface or assembly to which veneer is attached.
A portion of the seating space of an assembly room, the lowest part of
which is raise 1.20 meters or more above the level of the main
BALCONY EXTERIOR EXIT
A landing or porch projecting from the wall of a building, and which
serves as a required means of egress. The long size shall be at least
fifty percent open, and the open area above the guardrail shall be so
distributed as to prevent the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.
A stationary open hearth or brazier, either fuel-fired or electric,
used for floor preparation.
A portion of a building between floor and ceiling which is partly below
and partly above grade but so located that the vertical distance from
grade to the floor is less than the vertical distance from grade to
BAY OR PANEL
One of the intervals or spaces into which the building front is divided
by columns, butteresses, or division walls.
A house with five or more sleeping rooms where the boarders are
provided with lodging, and meals for fixed sum paid by the month, or
week, in accordance with previous arrangement.
Any room containing a stream or hotwater boiler.
The remaining space in a lot after deducting the required minimum open
Any structure built for the support, shelter, or enclosure of persons,
animals, chattels, or property of any kind.
The vertical distance from the established grade elevation to the
highest point of the coping of a flat roof, to the average height of
the highest gable or a pitch or hip roof, or to the top of the parapet
if the roof is provided with a parapet. In case of sloping ground, the
average ground level of the buildable area shall be considered the
established grade elevation.
Its general lineal dimensions usually measured in the direction of the
bearing wall for girders.
Its shortest linear dimensions usually measured in the direction of the
floor, beams, or joints.
The portion of a building between floor and ceiling which is wholly or
partly below grade and so located that the vertical distance from grade
to the floor below is equal to or greater than the vertical distance
from grade to ceiling.
(a) RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCE TYPE
A factory-built or masonry chimney suitable for removing products of
combustion from residential type appliance producing combustion gases
not in excess of 538ºC measured at the appliance flue outlet.
(b) LOW-HEAT APPLIANCE TYPE
A factory-built masonry or metal chimney suitable for removing the
product of combustion from fuel-burning low-heat appliances producing
combustion gases not in excess of 538ºC under normal operating
conditions but capable of producing combustible gases of 760ºC
during intermittent forced firing for periods up to one hour. All
temperatures are measured at the appliance flue outlet.
(c) MEDIUM-HEAT APPLIANCE TYPE
A factory built masonry or metal chimney suitable for removing the
products of combustion from fuel-burning medium-heat appliances
producing combustion gases not in excess of 1093ºC measured at the
appliance flue outlet.
The pipe which connects a flue burning appliance to a chimney.
The lining materials of fire clay or other approved material.
The chimney of solid masonry units bricks, stones, listed hollow unit
masonry units, or reinforced concrete.
A hollow or solid concrete masonry unit made from portland cement and
suitable aggregates such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, bituminous or
anthracite cinders, burned clay, pumice, volcanic scoria,r cooled or
expanded blast furnace slags.
The material or units used to form a cap of finish on top of a wall,
pier, or pilaster.
The non-ferrous metal, or any metal having an unbroken surface of
non-ferrous metal, or steel with not less than 10 percent chromium or
with less than 0.20 percent copper.
Materials that are inherently rust-resistant or materials to which an
approved rust-resistive coating has been applied either before or after
forming or fabrication.
A continuous horizontal layer of masonry units.
An occupied space between building lines and lot lines other than a
yard; free, open, and unobstructed by appendages from the ground upward.
DISPERSAL AREA (SAFE)
An area which will accommodate a number of persons equal to the total
capacity of the stand and building it serves, in such a manner that no
person within the area need be closer than 15.00 meters from the stand
or building. Dispersal areas shall be based upon the area of not less
than 0.28 square meter per person.
Any building or any portion thereof which is not an "apartment house",
"lodging house", or a "hotel" as defined in this Code which contained
one or two "dwelling units" or "guest rooms", used, intended or
designed to be built, used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be
occupied, or which are occupied for living purposes.
DWELLING, INDIGENOUS FAMILY
A dwelling intended for the use and occupancy by the family of the
owner only. It is one constructed of native materials such as bamboo,
nipa, logs, or lumber, the total cost of which does not exceed fifteen
A building used as a home or residence of three or more families living
independently from one another, each occupying one or more rooms as a
single housekeeping unit.
A detached building designated for, or occupied exclusively by one
One or more habitable rooms which are occupied or which are intended or
designated to be occupied by one family with facilities for living,
sleeping, cooking, and eating.
A continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way, and
shall include intervening doors, doorways, corridors, exterior exit
balconies, ramps, stairways, smokeproof, enclosures, horizontal exits,
exit passageways, exit courts, and yards. An exit shall be deemed to be
that point which open directly into a safe dispersal area or public
way. All measurement are to be made to that point when determining the
permissible distance of the travel.
A yard or court providing egress to a public way for one or more
A means of passage from one building into another building occupied by
the same tenant through a separation wall having a minimum fire
resistance of one-hour.
An enclosed means of egress connecting a required exit or exit court
with a public way.
Any masonry, forming an integral part of a wall used as a finished
surface. (as contrasted to veneer, see definition).
A refractory brick.
A finely ground clay used as a plasticizer for masonry mortars; varies
widely in physical properties.
A hearth and fire chamber or similarly prepared place in which a fire
may be made and which is built in conjunction with a chimney.
FIRE RETARDANT TREATED WOOD
Lumber of plywood impregnated with chemicals and when tested in
accordance with accepted fire standards for a period of 30 minutes
shall have a flame-spread of not over 25 and show no evidence of
progressive combustion. The Fire-retardant properties shall not be
considered permanent when exposed to the weather.
The floor of which is at or above the level of the sidewalk or
adjoining ground, the remaining storeys being numbered in regular
The area included within the surrounding exterior walls of a building
or portion thereof, exclusive of vent shafts and courts. The floor area
of a building or portion thereof not provided with surrounding exterior
walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the
roof or floor above.
That portion of the foundation of a structure which spreads and
transmits loads directly to the soil or the pile.
All the portions of the building or structure below the footing, the
earth upon which the structure rests.
A building or portion thereof in which a motor vehicle containing
gasoline, distillate, or other volative, flammable liquid in its tank,
is stored, repaired, or kept.
A garage where automobiles and other motor vehicle are housed, cared
for, equipped, repaired or kept for remuneration, hire, or sale.
GARAGE, OPEN PARKING
A structure of one or more tiers in height which is at least 50 percent
open on two or more sides and is used exclusively for the parking or
storage of passenger motor vehicles having a capacity of not more than
nine persons per vehicle. Open parking garages are further classified
as either ramp-access or mechanical-access. Ramp-access, open parking
garages are those employing a series of continuously rising floors
permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power from and to
the street level. Mechanical access parking garages are those employing
parking machines, lifts, elevators, or other mechanical services for
vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public occupancy
is prohibited above the street level.
A building or portion of a building in which only motor vehicles used
by the tenants of the building or buildings on the premises are stored
A horizontal structural piece which supports in end of the floor beams
or joists or walls over opening.
GRADE (ADJACENT GROUND ELEVATION)
The lowest point of elevation of the finished surface of the ground
between the exterior wall of a building and a point 1.50 meters distant
from said wall, or the lowest point of elevation of the finished
surface of the ground between the exterior wall of a building and a
property line if it is less than 1.50 meters distant from sidewall. In
case walls are parallel to and within 1.50 meters of a public sidewalk,
alley, or other public way, the grade shall be the elevation of the
sidewalk, alley, or public way.
The storey at or near the level of the grade, the other storeys,
beginning with second for the first next above, shall be designated by
the successive floor numbers counting upward.
Any room or rooms used, or intended to be used by a guest for sleeping
purposes. Every 9.30 square meters of superficial floor area in a
dormitory shall be considered to be a guest room.
Any room meeting the requirements of this Code for sleeping, living,
cooking, or dining purposes, excluding such enclosed spaces as closets,
pantries, bath or toilet room, service rooms, connecting corridors,
laundries, unfinished attics, storage, space cellars, utility rooms,
and similar spaces.
A corridor or passageway used in common by all the occupants within a
A hall which includes the stair, stair landings, and those portions of
the common halls through which it is necessary to pass in going between
the entrance floor and the room.
An area of land or water or a structural surface which is used, or
intended for use, the landing and take off helicopters and any
appurtenant areas which are used, or intended for use, for heliport
buildings and other heliport facilities.
The same as heliport except that no refueling, maintenance repairs, or
storage of helicopters is permitted.
A building or a part thereof with rooms occupied or intended to be
occupied for hire as temporary aboding place of individuals with a
general kitchen and public dining room service, but no provision for
cooking in any individual suite or room.
An apartment house which may furnish dining room service and other
services for the exclusive use of its tenants.
As applied to building construction material, as material which, in the
form it is used, is either one of the following:
(a) Material having an structural base of
incombustible material as defined in Item (2), above, with a surfacing
material not over 3.2 millimeters thick which has a flame-spread rating
of 50 or less.
(b) "Incombustible" does not apply to surface finish
materials. Material required to be incombustible for reduced clearance
to flues, heating appliances, or other materials shall refer to
material conforming to the provisions of this Code. No material shall
be classed as incombustible which is subject to increase in
combustibility or flame-spread rating beyond the limits herein
established, through the effects of age, moisture, or other atmospheric
When referred to as structural material, means brick, stone,
terracotta, concrete, iron, steel, sheet, metal, or tiles, used either
singly or in combination.
A covering of not less than two thickness of roofing felt and a good
coat of tar and gravel or tin, corrugated iron or other approved
fire-resisting material with standing seam of lap joint.
INCOMBUSTIBLE STUD PARTITION
A partition plastered on both sides upon metal lath or wire cloth for
the full height, and fire-topped between the studs with incombustible
material 20 centimeters above the floor and at the ceiling.
The line formed by the intersection of the outer surface of the
enclosing wall of the building and the surface of the ground.
The beam or girder placed over an opening in a wall, which supports the
wall construction above.
The weight of the permanent portions of a building or structure; it
includes the weight of the walls permanent partitions, framing floors,
roofs, and all other permanent and stationary fixtures mechanism, and
other construction entering into and becoming a part of a building or
That load cased by winds, earthquakes, or other dynamic forces.
The weight of the contents of a building or structure; it includes all
loads except dead and lateral, and weight of temporary partitions,
cases, counters, and similar equipment, and all loads imposed due to
the occupancy of the building or structure.
The total number of persons that may occupy a building or portion
thereof at any one time.
Any building or portion thereof, containing not more than five guest
rooms which are used by not more than five guests where rent is paid in
money, goods, labor or otherwise.
A parcel of land on which a principal building and its accessories are
placed or may be placed together with the required open spaces. A lot
may or may not be the land designated as lot or recorded plot.
A lot situated at the junction of two or more streets forming an angle
of not more than one hundred thirty-five degrees (135º).
LOT, DEPTH OF
The average horizontal distance between the front and the rear lot
The front boundary line of a lot bordering on the street and in the
case of a corner lot, it may be either frontage.
A lot fronting on but one street of public alley and the remaining
sides bounded by lot lines.
The line of demarcation between either public and private property.
A lot bounded on all sides street lines.
LOT, WIDTH OF
The average horizontal distance between the side lot lines.
A form of construction composed of stone, brick, concrete, gypsum,
hollow clay tile, concrete block or tile, or other similar building
units of material or combination of these material laid up unit and set
Masonry of solid units built without hollow spaces.
Brick, block, tile, stone or other similar building unit or combination
thereof, made to be bounded together by a cementation agent.
MEZZANINE OR MEZZANINE FLOOR
A partial intermediate floor in any storey or room of a building having
an area not more than one-half of the area of the room or space in
which it is constructed.
A building which does not conform with the regulations of the district
where it is situated as to height, yard requirement, lot area, and
percentage of occupancy.
The use of a building or land or any portion of such building or land
which does not conform with the use and regulation of the zone where it
The purpose for which a building is used or intended to be used. The
term shall also include the building or room housing such use. Change
of occupancy is not intended to include change of tenants or
Any person, company, or corporation owning the property or properties
under consideration or the receiver or trustee thereof.
A bar which extends across at least one-half the width of each door
leaf, which will open the door if subjected to pressure.
An interior subdividing walls.
An insolated mass of masonry forming support for arches, columns,
girders, lintels, trusses, and similar structural parts.
A portion of the wall which projects on one or both sides and acts as a
vertical beam, a column, or both.
PLASTER, PORTLAND, CEMENT
A mixture of portland cement, or portland cement and lime, and
aggregate and other approved material as specified in this Code.
Plastic materials which have a flame spread rating of 225 or
A partially enclosed portion of an assembly room the ceiling of which
is not more than 1.50 meters above the prossenium opening and which is
designed or used for the presentation of plays, demonstrations, or
other entertainment wherein scenery, drops, decorations, of the effects
may be installed or used.
A parcel of land unobstructed from the ground to the sky, more than
3.00 meters in width, appropriated to the free passage of the general
The construction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the
purpose of its maintenance. The word "repair" shall not apply to any
change of construction.
A vertical opening through a building for elevators, dumbwaiters,
mechanical equipment, or similar purposes.
A store window in which goods are display.
Blighted Area: Eyesore; An area where the values of real estate tend to
deteriorate because of the dilapidated, obsolescent, and insanitary
condition of the building within the area. Any eyesore is a building or
area which is markedly unpleasant to look at.
The wall between the bottom of the window sill and the ground.
The underside of a beam. lintel, or revear.
Any structure designed and intended for the enclosure, shelter, or
protection of any horse, carabao, or other cattle.
A stable wherein the animals kept are for business, racing or breeding
A partially enclosed portion of an assembly building which is designed
or used for the representation of plays, demonstrations, or other
entertainment wherein scenery, drops or other effects may be installed
or used, and where the distance between the top of the prosecenium
openings and the ceiling above the stage is more than 1.50 meters.
Two or more risers shall constitute a stairway.
A stairway serving one tenant only.
That portion of a building included between the upper surface of any
floor and the upper surface of the floor next above, except that the
topmost storey shall be that portion of a building included between the
upper surface of the topmost floor and the ceiling or roof above. If
the finished floor level directly above a basement, cellar or unused
underfloor space is more than 3.60 meters above grade as defined herein
at any point. Such basement, cellar or unused underfloor space shall be
considered as a storey.
STOREY, HEIGHT OF
The perpendicular distance from top to top of two successive of floors,
floor beams, or joists. The clear height of a storey or a room is the
distance from the floor to the ceiling. The clear height of balconies
is measured from the highest point of the sidewall grade to the
underside of the balcony floor joists. If these joists are sealed, this
clear height is measured to the underside of the sealing.
Any thoroughfare of public space which has been dedicated or deeded to
the public for public use.
That which is built or constructed, an edifice or building of any kind
or any piece of work artificially built up or composed of parts joined
together in some definite manner.
The framing system including the columns and the girders, beams,
trusses, and spandrels having direct connections to the columns and all
other members which are essential to the stability of the building as a
whole. The members of floor or roof which have no connection to the
column shall be considered secondary and not a part of the structural
The vertical supports, such as posts or stanchions, as used in
indigenous or traditional type of construction. These may be
freestanding as stilts or integrated into the wall structure. In the
case of former, pie de gallos (knee braces) or crosettas (cross
bracing) are sometimes used.
Surfaces other than weather-exposed surfaces.
All surfaces of walls, ceilings, floors, roofs, soffits, and similar
surfaces exposed to the weather except the following:
(a) Ceiling and roof soffits by walls, or by beams
extend a minimum of 300 millimeters below such ceiling or roof soffit;
(b) Walls or portions of walls within an unenclosed
roof area, when located a horizontal distance from an exterior opening
equal to twice the height of the opening; and
(c) Ceiling and roof soffits beyond a horizontal
distance of 3.00 meters from the outer edge of the ceilings or roof
VALUE OR VALUATION OF A BUILDING
The estimated cost to replace the building in kind, based on current
Any surface or underground construction covered on top, or any
fire-roof construction intended for the storage of valuables.
Veneer secured and supported by approved mechanical fasteners attached
to an approved backing supported through adhesion to an approved
bonding material applied over an approved backing.
Veneer applied to weather-exposed surfaces.
Veneer applied to surfaces other than weather-exposed surfaces.
A wall which supports any load other than its own weight.
A term which may be used synonymously with a partition.
The enclosing wall of an iron or steel framework or the nonbearing
portion of an enclosing wall between pier.
A wall without openings.
Any wall or element of a wall or any number or group of members, which
defines the exterior boundary or courts of a building.
A wall in which the facing and backing are so bonded together that they
act as a composite element, and exert a common action under load.
Any wall which subdivided a building so as to resist the spread of
fire, by starting at the foundation and extending continuously through
all storeys to, or above the roof. Extension above the roof is 1.00
That portion of an enclosing wall below the first tier of floor-joists.
WALL, HEIGHT OF
The perpendicular distance measured from its base line either at the
grade or at the top of the girder to the top of the coping thereof.
Foundation and retaining walls are measured from the grade downward to
the base of the footing.
A wall which supports no load other than its own weight.
That part of any entirely above the roof line.
A wall separating two or more buildings, and used in common by the said
Any wall used to resist the lateral displacement of any material; a
subsurface wall built to resist the lateral pressure of internal loads.
WALL, THICKNESS OF
The minimum thickness measured on the bed.
An opening through a wall of a building to the outsider for the purpose
of admitting natural light andr.
A projecting window similar to a bay window, cut curried on brackets or
corbels. The term "bay window" may also be applied to an oriel window
projecting over the street line.
Horizontal strands of tautened wire attached to surfaces of vertical
wood supports which, when covered with building paper, provide a
backing for portland cement plaster.
YARD OR PATIO
The vacant space left in a lot between the building and the property
The yard lying between the side lot lines and the nearest lot line and
the nearest building line.
The yard lying between the side line and the nearest building and
between the front and the rear yards.
DIMENSION OF WOODEN POSTS OR
Maximum Maximum Required Maximum
of Height Spacing
1st Floor Total
of Post of Suportales
1-Storey Shed 4.00 M
3.50 M 10 cms. x 10 cms.
1-Storey Shed 3.00
M 4.00 M 10 cms. x 10 cms.
1-Storey Shed 5.00 M
4.00 M 12.5 cms. x 12.5
1-Storey House 5.50 M
3.50 M 12.5 cms. x 12.5
2-Storey House 1.00 to
6.00 M 3.00 M
12.5 cms. x 12.5 cms.
2-Storey House 3.00 M
7.00 M 4.00 M
12 cms. x 15 cms.
2-Storey House 4.50 M
8.00 M 4.50 M
17.5 cms. x 17.5 cms.
2-Storey House 5.00 M
9.00 M 4.50 M
20 cms. x 20 cms.
Logs or tree suportales may be used as post in indigenous traditional
type of construction, provided that these are of such sizes and spacing
as to sustain vertical loading equivalent at least to the loading
capacities of the posts and spacing in this Tables.
PROJECTIONS OF BALCONIES AND
Width of Streets Balconies Total
Over 3.00 m. but less than 6.00
With Balcony .60 m.
6.00 m. to less than 10.00 m.
With Balcony .90 m.
10.00 m. up to 11.00 m. With
Balcony 1.00 m.
10.00 m. to less than 11.00 m.
With Balcony 1.10 m.
12.00 m. to less than 13.00 m.
With Balcony 1.30 m.
13.00 m. to less than 14.00 m.
With Balcony 1.40 m.
14.00 m. or over With
Balcony 1.50 m.
TYPE OF PROTECTION REQUIRED FOR
HEIGHT OF DISTANCE FROM
Eight feet for Less than six feet
less Six feet or
Less than six feet Fence and
Six feet or more but not more
than one-fourth the height of
More than Six feet or more, but between
eight feet one-fourth to one half the eight
of construction None
Six feet or more but exceeding
one-half the construction height
Note: All protective devices shall include appropriate lights and