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This web page contains the full text of the
1997 Rules of Civil Procedure
 

THE 1997 RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE

Rules 1 to 71
[Took effect on July 1, 1997, in accordance with the resolution in Bar Matter No. 803 adopted by the Supreme Court in Baguio City on April 8, 1997]
 
PROCEDURE IN REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS
[Rules 6 to 39]
RULE 6
KINDS OF PLEADINGS
Section 1. Pleadings defined.
 
    Pleadings are the written statements of the respective claims and defenses of the parties submitted to the court for appropriate judgment.
Sec. 2. Pleadings allowed.
 
    The claims of a party are asserted in a complaint, counterclaim, cross-claim, third (fourth, etc.) party complaint, or complaint-in-intervention.

    The defenses of a party are alleged in the answer to the pleading asserting a claim against him.
    An answer may be responded to by a reply.

Sec. 3. Complaint.
 
    The complaint is the pleading alleging the plaintiff's cause or causes of action. The names and residences of the plaintiff and defendant must be stated in the complaint.
Sec. 4. Answer.
 
    An answer is a pleading in which a defending party sets forth his defenses.
Sec. 5. Defenses.
 
    Defenses may either be negative or affirmative.

    (a) A negative defense is the specific denial of the material fact or facts alleged in the pleading of the claimant essential to his cause or causes of action.

    (b) An affirmative defense is an allegation of a new matter which, while hypothetically admitting the material allegations in the pleading of the claimant, would nevertheless prevent or bar recovery by him. The affirmative defenses include fraud, statute of limitations, release, payment, illegality, statute of frauds, estoppel, former recovery, discharge in bankruptcy, and any other matter by way of confession and avoidance.

Sec. 6. Counterclaim.
 
    A counterclaim is any claim which a defending party may have against an opposing party.
Sec. 7. Compulsory counterclaim.
 
    A compulsory counterclaim is one which, being cognizable by the regular courts of justice, arises out of or is connected with the transaction or occurrence constituting the subject matter of the opposing party's claim and does not require for its adjudication the presence of third parties of whom the court cannot acquire jurisdiction. Such a counterclaim must be within the jurisdiction of the court both as to the amount and the nature thereof, except that in an original action before the Regional Trial Court, the counterclaim may be considered compulsory regardless of the amount.
Sec. 8. Cross-claim.
    A cross-claim is any claim by one party against a co-party arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter either of the original action or of a counterclaim therein. Such cross-claim may include a claim that the party against whom it is asserted is or may be liable to the cross-claimant for all or part of a claim asserted in the action against the cross-claimant.
Sec. 9. Counter-counterclaims and counter-cross-claims.
 
    A counterclaim may be asserted against an original counter-claimant.

    A cross-claim may also be filed against an original cross-claimant.

Sec. 10. Reply.
 
    A reply is a pleading, the office or function of which is to deny, or allege facts in denial or avoidance of new matters alleged by way of defense in the answer and thereby join or make issue as to such new matters. If a party does not file such reply, all the new matters alleged in the answer are deemed controverted.

    If the plaintiff wishes to interpose any claims arising out of the new matters so alleged, such claims shall be set forth in an amended or supplemental complaint.

Sec. 11. Third, (fourth, etc.) party complaint.
 
    A third (fourth, etc.) party complaint is a claim that a defending party may, with leave of court, file against a person not a party to the action, called the third (fourth, etc.) party defendant, for contribution, indemnity, subrogation or any other relief, in respect of his opponent's claim.
Sec. 12. Bringing new parties.
 
    When the presence of parties other than those to the original action is required for the granting of complete relief in the determination of a counterclaim or cross-claim, the court shall order them to be brought in as defendants, if jurisdiction over them can be obtained.
Sec. 13. Answer to third (fourth, etc.)  party complaint.
 
    A third (fourth, etc.) party defendant may allege in his answer his defenses, counterclaims or cross-claims, including such defenses that the third (fourth, etc.) party plaintiff may have against the original plaintiff's claim. In proper cases, he may also assert a counterclaim against the original plaintiff in respect of the latter's claim against the third-party plaintiff.
RULE 7
PARTS OF A PLEADING

Section 1. Caption.
 

    The caption sets forth the name of the court, the title of the action, and the docket number if assigned.

    The title of the action indicates the names of the parties. They shall all be named in the original complaint or petition; but in subsequent pleadings, it shall be sufficient if the name of the first party on each side be stated with an appropriate indication when there are other parties.

    Their respective participation in the case shall be indicated.

Sec. 2. The body.
 
    The body of the pleading sets forth its designation, the allegations of the party's claims or defenses, the relief prayed for, and the date of the pleading.

    (a) Paragraphs. - The allegations in the body of a pleading shall be divided into paragraphs so numbered as to be readily identified, each of which shall contain a statement of a single set of circumstances so far as that can be done with convenience. A paragraph may be referred to by its number in all succeeding pleadings.

    (b) Headings. - When two or more causes of action are joined, the statement of the first shall be prefaced by the words "first cause of action," of the second by "second cause of action," and so on for the others.

    When one or more paragraphs in the answer are addressed to one of several causes of action in the complaint, they shall be prefaced by the words "answer to the first cause of action" or "answer to the second cause of action" and so on; and when one or more paragraphs of the answer are addressed to several causes of action, they shall be prefaced by words to that effect.

    (c) Relief. - The pleading shall specify the relief sought, but it may add a general prayer for such further or other relief as may be deemed just or equitable.

    (d) Date. - Every pleading shall be dated.

Sec. 3. Signature and address.
 
    Every pleading must be signed by the party or counsel representing him, stating in either case his address which should not be a post office box.

    The signature of counsel constitutes a certificate by him that he has read the pleading; that to the best of his knowledge, information, and belief there is good ground to support it; and that it is not interposed for delay.

    An unsigned pleading produces no legal effect. However, the court may, in its discretion, allow such deficiency to be remedied if it shall appear that the same was due to mere inadvertence and not intended for delay. Counsel who deliberately files an unsigned pleading, or signs a pleading in violation of this Rule, or alleges scandalous or indecent matter therein, or fails to promptly report to the court a change of his address, shall be subject to appropriate disciplinary action.

Sec. 4. Verification.
    Except when otherwise specifically required by law or rule, pleadings need not be under oath, verified or accompanied by affidavit.

    A pleading is verified by an affidavit that the affiant has read the pleading and that the allegations therein are true and correct of his knowledge and belief.

    A pleading required to be verified which contains a verification based on "information and belief," or upon "knowledge, information and belief," or lacks a proper verification, shall be treated as an unsigned pleading.

Sec. 5. Certification against forum shopping.
 
    The plaintiff or principal party shall certify under oath in the complaint or other initiatory pleading asserting a claim for relief, or in a sworn certification annexed thereto and simultaneously filed therewith: (a) that he has not theretofore commenced any action or filed any claim involving the same issues in any court, tribunal or quasi-judicial agency and, to the best of his knowledge, no such other action or claim is pending therein; (b) if there is such other pending action or claim, a complete statement of the present status thereof; and (c) if he should thereafter learn that the same or similar action or claim has been filed or is pending, he shall report that fact within five (5) days therefrom to the court wherein his aforesaid complaint or initiatory pleading has been filed.

    Failure to comply with the foregoing requirements shall not be curable by mere amendment of the complaint or other initiatory pleading but shall be cause for the dismissal of the case without prejudice, unless otherwise provided, upon motion and after hearing. The submission of a false certification or non-compliance with any of the undertakings therein shall constitute indirect contempt of court, without prejudice to the corresponding administrative and criminal actions. If the acts of the party or his counsel clearly constitute willful and deliberate forum shopping, the same shall be ground for summary dismissal with prejudice and shall constitute direct contempt, as well as a cause for administrative sanctions.

RULE 8
MANNER OF MAKING ALLEGATIONS IN PLEADINGS

Section 1. In general.
 

    Every pleading shall contain in a methodical and logical form, a plain, concise and direct statement of the ultimate facts on which the party pleading relies for his claim or defense, as the case may be, omitting the statement of mere evidentiary facts.

    If a defense relied on is based on law, the pertinent provisions thereof and their applicability to him shall be clearly and concisely stated.

Sec. 2. Alternative causes of action or defenses.
 
    A party may set forth two or more statements of a claim or defense alternatively or hypothetically, either in one cause of action or defense or in separate causes of action or defenses. When two or more statements are made in the alternative and one of them if made independently would be sufficient, the pleading is not made insufficient by the insufficiency of one or more of the alternative statements.
Sec. 3. Conditions precedent.
 
    In any pleading a general averment of the performance or occurrence of all conditions precedent shall be sufficient.
Sec. 4. Capacity.
 
    Facts showing the capacity of a party to sue or be sued or the authority of a party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity or the legal existence of an organized association of persons that is made a party, must be averred. A party desiring to raise an issue as to the legal existence of any party or the capacity of any party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity, shall do so by specific denial, which shall include such supporting particulars as are peculiarly within the pleader's knowledge.
Sec. 5. Fraud, mistake, condition of the mind.
 
    In all averments of fraud or mistake, the circumstances constituting fraud or mistake must be stated with particularity. Malice, intent, knowledge or other condition of the mind of a person may be averred generally.
Sec. 6. Judgment.
 
    In pleading a judgment or decision of a domestic or foreign court, judicial or quasi-judicial tribunal, or of a board or officer, it is sufficient to aver the judgment or decision without setting forth matter showing jurisdiction to render it.
Sec. 7. Action or defense based on document.
 
    Whenever an action or defense is based upon a written instrument or document, the substance of such instrument or document shall be set forth in the pleading, and the original or a copy thereof shall be attached to the pleading as an exhibit, which shall be deemed to be a part of the pleading, or said copy may with like effect be set forth in the pleading.
Sec. 8. How to contest such documents.
 
    When an action or defense is founded upon a written instrument, copied in or attached to the corresponding pleading as provided in the preceding section, the genuineness and due execution of the instrument shall be deemed admitted unless the adverse party, under oath, specifically denies them, and sets forth what he claims to be the facts; but the requirement of an oath does not apply when the adverse party does not appear to be a party to the instrument or when compliance with an order for an inspection of the original instrument is refused.
Sec. 9. Official document or act.
 
    In pleading an official document or official act, it is sufficient to aver that the document was issued or the act done in compliance with law.
Sec. 10. Specific denial.
 
    A defendant must specify each material allegation of fact the truth of which he does not admit and, whenever practicable, shall set forth the substance of the matters upon which he relies to support his denial. Where a defendant desires to deny only a part of an averment, he shall specify so much of it as is true and material and shall deny only the remainder. Where a defendant is without knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of a material averment made in the complaint, he shall so state, and this shall have the effect of a denial.
Sec. 11. Allegations not specifically denied deemed admitted.
 
    Material averment in the complaint, other than those as to the amount of unliquidated damages, shall be deemed admitted when not specifically denied. Allegations of usury in a complaint to recover usurious interest are deemed admitted if not denied under oath.
Sec. 12. Striking out of pleading or matter contained therein.
 
    Upon motion made by a party before responding to a pleading or, if no responsive pleading is permitted by these Rules, upon motion made by a party within twenty (20) days after the service of the pleading upon him, or upon the court's own initiative at any time, the court may order any pleading to be stricken out or that any sham or false, redundant, immaterial, impertinent, or scandalous matter be stricken out therefrom.
RULE 9
EFFECT OF FAILURE TO PLEAD

Section 1. Defenses and objections not pleaded.

    Defenses and objections not pleaded either in a motion to dismiss or in the answer are deemed waived. However, when it appears from the pleadings or the evidence on record that the court has no jurisdiction over the subject matter, that there is another action pending between the same parties for the same cause, or that the action is barred by a prior judgment or by statute of limitations, the court shall dismiss the claim.
Sec. 2. Compulsory counterclaim, or cross-claim, not set up barred.
 
    A compulsory counterclaim, or a cross-claim, not set up shall be barred.
Sec. 3. Default; declaration of.
 
    If the defending party fails to answer within the time allowed therefor, the court shall, upon motion of the claiming party with notice to the defending party, and proof of such failure, declare the defending party in default. Thereupon, the court shall proceed to render judgment granting the claimant such relief as his pleading may warrant, unless the court in its discretion requires the claimant to submit evidence. Such reception of evidence may be delegated to the clerk of court.

    (a) Effect of order of default. - A party in default shall be entitled to notice of subsequent proceedings but not to take part in the trial.

    (b) Relief from order of default. - A party declared in default may at any time after notice thereof and before judgment file a motion under oath to set aside the order of default upon proper showing that his failure to answer was due to fraud, accident, mistake or excusable negligence and that he has a meritorious defense. In such case, the order of default may be set aside on such terms and conditions as the judge may impose in the interest of justice.

    (c) Effect of partial default. - When a pleading asserting a claim states a common cause of action against several defending parties, some of whom answer and the others fail to do so, the court shall try the case against all upon the answers thus filed and render judgment upon the evidence presented.

    (d) Extent of relief to be awarded. - A judgment rendered against a party in default shall not exceed the amount or be different in kind from that prayed for nor award unliquidated damages.

    (e) Where no defaults allowed. - If the defending party in an action for annulment or declaration of nullity of marriage or for legal separation fails to answer, the court shall order the prosecuting attorney to investigate whether or not a collusion between the parties exists, and if there is no collusion, to intervene for the State in order to see to it that the evidence submitted is not fabricated.

RULE 10
AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADINGS

Section 1. Amendments in general.
 

    Pleadings may be amended by adding or striking out an allegation or the name of any party, or by correcting a mistake in the name of a party or a mistaken or inadequate allegation or description in any other respect, so that the actual merits of the controversy may speedily be determined, without regard to technicalities, and in the most expeditious and inexpensive manner.
Sec. 2. Amendments as a matter of right.
 
    A party may amend his pleading once as a matter of right at any time before a responsive pleading is served or, in the case of a reply, at any time within ten (l0) days after it is served.
Sec. 3. Amendments by leave of court.
 
    Except as provided in the next preceding section, substantial amendments may be made only upon leave of court. But such leave may be refused if it appears to the court that the motion was made with intent to delay. Orders of the court upon the matters provided in this section shall be made upon motion filed in court, and after notice to the adverse party, and an opportunity to be heard.
Sec. 4. Formal amendments.
 
    A defect in the designation of the parties and other clearly clerical or typographical errors may be summarily corrected by the court at any stage of the action, at its initiative or on motion, provided no prejudice is caused thereby to the adverse party.

Sec. 5. Amendment to conform to or authorize presentation of evidence.
 
    When issues not raised by the pleadings are tried with the express or implied consent of the parties, they shall be treated in all respects as if they had been raised in the pleadings. Such amendment of the pleadings as may be necessary to cause them to conform to the evidence and to raise these issues may be made upon motion of any party at any time, even after judgment; but failure to amend does not affect the result of the trial of these issues. If evidence is objected to at the trial on the ground that it is not within the issues made by the pleadings, the court may allow the pleadings to be amended and shall do so with liberality if the presentation of the merits of the action and the ends of substantial justice will be subserved thereby. The court may grant a continuance to enable the amendment to be made.
Sec. 6. Supplemental pleadings.
 
    Upon motion of a party the court may, upon reasonable notice and upon such terms as are just, permit him to serve a supplemental pleading setting forth transactions, occurrences or events which have happened since the date of the pleading sought to be supplemented. The adverse party may plead thereto within ten (10) days from notice of the order admitting the supplemental pleading.
Sec. 7. Filing of amended pleadings.
 
    When any pleading is amended, a new copy of the entire pleading, incorporating the amendments, which shall be indicated by appropriate marks, shall be filed.
Sec. 8. Effect of amended pleadings.
 
    An amended pleading supersedes the pleading that it amends. However, admissions in superseded pleadings may be received in evidence against the pleader; and claims or defenses alleged therein not incorporated in the amended pleading shall be deemed waived.
RULE 11
WHEN TO FILE RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS

Section 1. Answer to the complaint.

    The defendant shall file his answer to the complaint within fifteen (l5) days after service of summons, unless a different period is fixed by the court.
Sec. 2. Answer of a defendant foreign private juridical entity.
 
    Where the defendant is a foreign private juridical entity and service of summons is made on the government official designated by law to receive the same, the answer shall be filed within thirty (30) days after receipt of summons by such entity.
Sec. 3. Answer to amended complaint.
 
    Where the plaintiff files an amended complaint as a matter of right, the defendant shall answer the same within fifteen (l5) days after being served with a copy thereof.

    Where its filing is not a matter of right, the defendant shall answer the amended complaint within ten (10) days from notice of the order admitting the same. An answer earlier filed may serve as the answer to the amended complaint if no new answer is filed.

    This Rule shall apply to the answer to an amended counterclaim, amended cross-claim, amended third (fourth, etc.) party complaint, and amended complaint-in-intervention.

Sec. 4. Answer to counterclaim or cross-claim.
 
    A counterclaim or cross-claim must be answered within ten (l0) days from service.
Sec. 5. Answer to third (fourth, etc.)- party complaint.
 
    The time to answer a third (fourth, etc.)- party complaint shall be governed by the same rule as the answer to the complaint.
Sec. 6. Reply.
 
    A reply may be filed within ten (l0) days from service of the pleading responded to.
Sec. 7. Answer to supplemental complaint.
 
    A supplemental complaint may be answered within ten (10) days from notice of the order admitting the same, unless a different period is fixed by the court. The answer to the complaint shall serve as the answer to the supplemental complaint if no new or supplemental answer is filed.
Sec. 8. Existing counterclaim or cross-claim.
 
    A compulsory counterclaim or a cross-claim that a defending party has at the time he files his answer shall be contained therein.
Sec. 9. Counterclaim or cross-claim arising after answer.
 
    A counterclaim or a cross-claim which either matured or was acquired by a party after serving his pleading may, with the permission of the court, be presented as a counterclaim or a cross-claim by supplemental pleading before judgment.
Sec. 10. Omitted counterclaim or cross-claim.
 
    When a pleader fails to set up a counterclaim or a cross-claim through oversight, inadvertence, or excusable neglect, or when justice requires, he may, by leave of court, set up the counterclaim or cross-claim by amendment before judgment.
Sec. 11. Extension of time to plead.
 
    Upon motion and on such terms as may be just, the court may extend the time to plead provided in these Rules.

    The court may also, upon like terms, allow an answer or other pleading to be filed after the time fixed by these Rules.

RULE 12
BILL OF PARTICULARS

Section 1. When applied for; purpose.
 

    Before responding to a pleading, a party may move for a definite statement or for a bill of particulars of any matter which is not averred with sufficient definiteness or particularity to enable him properly to prepare his responsive pleading. If the pleading is a reply, the motion must be filed within ten (10) days from service thereof. Such motion shall point out the defects complained of, the paragraphs wherein they are contained, and the details desired.
Sec. 2. Action by the court.
 
    Upon the filing of the motion, the clerk of court must immediately bring it to the attention of the court which may either deny or grant it outright, or allow the parties the opportunity to be heard.
Sec. 3. Compliance with order.
 
    If the motion is granted, either in whole or in part, the compliance therewith must be effected within ten (l0) days from notice of the order, unless a different period is fixed by the court. The bill of particulars or a more definite statement ordered by the court may be filed either in a separate or in an amended pleading, serving a copy thereof on the adverse party.
Sec. 4. Effect of non-compliance.
 
    If the order is not obeyed, or in case of insufficient compliance therewith, the court may order the striking out of the pleading or the portions thereof to which the order was directed or make such other order as it deems just.
Sec. 5. Stay of period to file responsive pleading.
 
    After service of the bill of particulars or of a more definite pleading, or after notice of denial of his motion, the moving party may file his responsive pleading within the period to which he was entitled at the time of filing his motion, which shall not be less than five (5) days in any event.
Sec. 6. Bill a part of pleading.
 
    A bill of particulars becomes part of the pleading for which it is intended.
RULE 13
FILING AND SERVICE OF PLEADINGS,
JUDGMENTS AND OTHER PAPERS

Section 1. Coverage.
 

    This Rule shall govern the filing of all pleadings and other papers, as well as the service thereof, except those for which a different mode of service is prescribed.
Sec. 2. Filing and service, defined.
 
    Filing is the act of presenting the pleading or other paper to the clerk of court.

    Service is the act of providing a party with a copy of the pleading or paper concerned. If any party has appeared by counsel, service upon him shall be made upon his counsel or one of them, unless service upon the party himself is ordered by the court. Where one counsel appears for several parties, he shall only be entitled to one copy of any paper served upon him by the opposite side.

Sec. 3. Manner of filing.
 
    The filing of pleadings, appearances, motions, notices, orders, judgments and all other papers shall be made by presenting the original copies thereof, plainly indicated as such, personally to the clerk of court or by sending them by registered mail. In the first case, the clerk of court shall endorse on the pleading the date and hour of filing. In the second case, the date of the mailing of motions, pleadings, or any other papers or payments or deposits, as shown by the post office stamp on the envelope or the registry receipt, shall be considered as the date of their filing, payment, or deposit in court. The envelope shall be attached to the record of the case.
Sec. 4. Papers required to be filed and served.
 
    Every judgment, resolution, order, pleading subsequent to the complaint, written motion, notice, appearance, demand, offer of judgment or similar papers shall be filed with the court, and served upon the parties affected.
Sec. 5. Modes of service.
 
    Service of pleadings, motions, notices, orders, judgments and other papers shall be made either personally or by mail.
Sec. 6. Personal service.
 
    Service of the papers may be made by delivering personally a copy to the party or his counsel, or by leaving it in his office with his clerk or with a person having charge thereof. If no person is found in his office, or his office is not known, or he has no office, then by leaving the copy, between the hours of eight in the morning and six in the evening, at the party's or counsel's residence, if known, with a person of sufficient age and discretion then residing therein.
Sec. 7. Service by mail.
 
    Service by registered mail shall be made by depositing the copy in the office, in a sealed envelope, plainly addressed to the party or his counsel at his office, if known, otherwise at his residence, if known, with postage fully pre-paid, and with instructions to the postmaster to return the mail to the sender after ten (l0) days if undelivered. If no registry service is available in the locality of either the sender or the addressee, service may be done by ordinary mail.
Sec. 8. Substituted service.
    If service of pleadings, motions, notices, resolutions, orders and other papers cannot be made under the two preceding sections, the office and place of residence of the party or his counsel being unknown, service may be made by delivering the copy to the clerk of court, with proof of failure of both personal service and service by mail. The service is complete at the time of such delivery.
Sec. 9. Service of judgments, final orders or resolutions.
 
    Judgments, final orders or resolutions shall be served either personally or by registered mail. When a party summoned by publication has failed to appear in the action, judgments, final orders or resolutions against him shall be served upon him also by publication at the expense of the prevailing party.
Sec. 10. Completeness of service.
 
    Personal service is complete upon actual delivery. Service by ordinary mail is complete upon the expiration of ten (10) days after mailing, unless the court otherwise provides. Service by registered mail is complete upon actual receipt by the addressee, or after five (5) days from the date he received the first notice of the postmaster, whichever date is earlier.
Sec. 11. Priorities in modes of service and filing.
 
    Whenever practicable, the service and filing of pleadings and other papers shall be done personally. Except with respect to papers emanating from the court, a resort to other modes must be accompanied by a written explanation why the service or filing was not done personally. A violation of this Rule may be cause to consider the paper as not filed.
Sec. 12. Proof of filing.
 
    The filing of a pleading or paper shall be proved by its existence in the record of the case. If it is not in the record, but is claimed to have been filed personally, the filing shall be proved by the written or stamped acknowledgment of its filing by the clerk of court on a copy of the same; if filed by registered mail, by the registry receipt and by the affidavit of the person who did the mailing, containing a full statement of the date and place of depositing the mail in the post office in a sealed envelope addressed to the court, with postage fully prepaid, and with instructions to the postmaster to return the mail to the sender after ten (10) days if not delivered.
Sec. 13. Proof of service.
 
    Proof of personal service shall consist of a written admission of the party served, or the official return of the server, or the affidavit of the party serving, containing a full statement of the date, place and manner of service. If the service is by ordinary mail, proof thereof shall consist of an affidavit of the person mailing of facts showing compliance with section 7 of this Rule. If service is made by registered mail, proof shall be made by such affidavit and the registry receipt issued by the mailing office. The registry return card shall be filed immediately upon its receipt by the sender, or in lieu thereof the unclaimed letter together with the certified or sworn copy of the notice given by the postmaster to the addressee.
Sec. 14. Notice of lis pendens.
 
    In an action affecting the title or the right of possession of real property, the plaintiff and the defendant, when affirmative relief is claimed in his answer, may record in the office of the registry of deeds of the province in which the property is situated a notice of the pendency of the action. Said notice shall contain the names of the parties and the object of the action or defense, and a description of the property in that province affected thereby. Only from the time of filing such notice for record shall a purchaser, or encumbrancer of the property affected thereby, be deemed to have constructive notice of the pendency of the action, and only of its pendency against the parties designated by their real names.

    The notice of lis pendens hereinabove mentioned may be cancelled only upon order of the court, after proper showing that the notice is for the purpose of molesting the adverse party, or that it is not necessary to protect the rights of the party who caused it to be recorded.

RULE 14
SUMMONS

Section 1. Clerk to issue summons.
 

    Upon the filing of the complaint and the payment of the requisite legal fees, the clerk of court shall forthwith issue the corresponding summons to the defendants.
Sec. 2. Contents.
 
    The summons shall be directed to the defendant, signed by the clerk of court under seal, and contain:
    (a) the name of the court and the names of the parties to the action;

    (b) a direction that the defendant answer within the time fixed by these Rules;

    (c) a notice that unless the defendant so answers, plaintiff will take judgment by default and may be granted the relief applied for.
    A copy of the complaint and order for appointment of guardian ad litem, if any, shall be attached to the original and each copy of the summons.
Sec. 3. By whom served.
 
    The summons may be served by the sheriff, his deputy, or other proper court officer, or for justifiable reasons by any suitable person authorized by the court issuing the summons.
Sec. 4. Return.
 
    When the service has been completed, the server shall, within five (5) days therefrom, serve a copy of the return, personally or by registered mail, to the plaintiff's counsel, and shall return the summons to the clerk who issued it, accompanied by proof of service.
Sec. 5. Issuance of alias summons.
 
    If a summons is returned without being served on any or all of the defendants, the server shall also serve a copy of the return on the plaintiff's counsel, stating the reasons for the failure of service, within five (5) days therefrom. In such a case, or if the summons has been lost, the clerk, on demand of the plaintiff, may issue an alias summons.
Sec. 6. Service in person on defendant.
 
    Whenever practicable, the summons shall be served by handing a copy thereof to the defendant in person, or, if he refuses to receive and sign for it, by tendering it to him.
Sec. 7. Substituted service.
 
    If, for justifiable causes, the defendant cannot be served within a reasonable time as provided in the preceding section, service may be effected (a) by leaving copies of the summons at the defendant's residence with some person of suitable age and discretion then residing therein, or (b) by leaving the copies at defendant's office or regular place of business with some competent person in charge thereof.
Sec. 8. Service upon entity without juridical personality.
 
    When persons associated in an entity without juridical personality are sued under the name by which they are generally or commonly known, service may be effected upon all the defendants by serving upon any one of them, or upon the person in charge of the office or place of business maintained in such name. But such service shall not bind individually any person whose connection with the entity has, upon due notice, been severed before the action was brought.
Sec. 9. Service upon prisoners.
 
    When the defendant is a prisoner confined in a jail or institution, service shall be effected upon him by the officer having the management of such jail or institution who is deemed deputized as a special sheriff for said purpose.
Sec. 10. Service upon minors and incompetents.
 
    When the defendant is a minor, insane or otherwise an incompetent, service shall be made upon him personally and on his legal guardian if he has one, or if none, upon his guardian ad litem whose appointment shall be applied for by the plaintiff. In the case of a minor, service may also be made on his father or mother.
Sec. 11. Service upon domestic private juridical entity.
 
    When the defendant is a corporation, partnership or association organized under the laws of the Philippines with a juridical personality, service may be made on the president, managing partner, general manager, corporate secretary, treasurer, or in-house counsel.
Sec. 12. Service upon foreign private juridical entity.
 
    When the defendant is a foreign private juridical entity which has transacted business in the Philippines, service may be made on its resident agent designated in accordance with law for that purpose, or, if there be no such agent, on the government official designated by law to that effect, or on any of its officers or agents within the Philippines.
Sec. 13. Service upon public corporations.
 
    When the defendant is the Republic of the Philippines, service may be effected on the Solicitor General; in case of a province, city or municipality, or like public corporations, service may be effected on its executive head, or on such other officer or officers as the law or the court may direct.
Sec. 14. Service upon defendant whose identity or whereabouts are unknown.
 
    In any action where the defendant is designated as an unknown owner, or the like, or whenever his whereabouts are unknown and cannot be ascertained by diligent inquiry, service may, by leave of court, be effected upon him by publication in a newspaper of general circulation and in such places and for such time as the court may order.
Sec. 15. Extraterritorial service.
 
    When the defendant does not reside and is not found in the Philippines, and the action affects the personal status of the plaintiff or relates to, or the subject of which is, property within the Philippines, in which the defendant has or claims a lien or interest, actual or contingent, or in which the relief demanded consists, wholly or in part, in excluding the defendant from any interest therein, or the property of the defendant has been attached within the Philippines, service may, by leave of court, be effected out of the Philippines by personal service as under section 6; or by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in such places and for such time as the court may order, in which case a copy of the summons and order of the court shall be sent by registered mail to the last known address of the defendant, or in any other manner the court may deem sufficient. Any order granting such leave shall specify a reasonable time, which shall not be less than sixty (60) days after notice, within which the defendant must answer.

Sec. 16. Residents temporarily out of the Philippines.
    When any action is commenced against a defendant who ordinarily resides within the Philippines, but who is temporarily out of it, service may, by leave of court, be also effected out of the Philippines, as under the preceding section.

Sec. 17. Leave of court.
    Any application to the court under this Rule for leave to effect service in any manner for which leave of court is necessary shall be made by motion in writing, supported by affidavit of the plaintiff or some person on his behalf, setting forth the grounds for the application.

Sec. 18. Proof of service.
    The proof of service of a summons shall be made in writing by the server and shall set forth the manner, place, and date of service; shall specify any papers which have been served with the process and the name of the person who received the same; and shall be sworn to when made by a person other than a sheriff or his deputy.

Sec. 19. Proof of service by publication.
    If the service has been made by publication, service may be proved by the affidavit of the printer, his foreman or principal clerk, or of the editor, business or advertising manager, to which affidavit a copy of the publication shall be attached, and by an affidavit showing the deposit of a copy of the summons and order for publication in the post office, postage prepaid, directed to the defendant by registered mail to his last known address.

Sec. 20. Voluntary appearance.
    The defendant's voluntary appearance in the action shall be equivalent to service of summons. The inclusion in a motion to dismiss of other grounds aside from lack of jurisdiction over the person of the defendant shall not be deemed a voluntary appearance.
RULE 15
MOTIONS
Section 1. Motion defined.
    A motion is an application for relief other than by a pleading.

Sec. 2. Motions must be in writing.
    All motions shall be in writing except those made in open court or in the course of a hearing or trial.

Sec. 3. Contents.
    A motion shall state the relief sought to be obtained and the grounds upon which it is based, and if required by these Rules or necessary to prove facts alleged therein, shall be accompanied by supporting affidavits and other papers.

Sec. 4. Hearing of motion.
    Except for motions which the court may act upon without prejudicing the rights of the adverse party, every written motion shall be set for hearing by the applicant.

    Every written motion required to be heard and the notice of the hearing thereof shall be served in such a manner as to ensure its receipt by the other party at least three (3) days before the date of hearing, unless the court for good cause sets the hearing on shorter notice.


Sec. 5. Notice of hearing.
    The notice of hearing shall be addressed to all parties concerned, and shall specify the time and date of the hearing which must not be later than ten (10) days after the filing of the motion.

Sec. 6. Proof of service necessary.
    No written motion set for hearing shall be acted upon by the court without proof of service thereof.

Sec. 7. Motion day.
    Except for motions requiring immediate action, all motions shall be scheduled for hearing on Friday afternoons, or if Friday is a non-working day, in the afternoon of the next working day.

Sec. 8. Omnibus motion.
    Subject to the provisions of section 1 of Rule 9, a motion attacking a pleading, order, judgment, or proceeding shall include all objections then available, and all objections not so included shall be deemed waived.

Sec. 9. Motion for leave.
    A motion for leave to file a pleading or motion shall be accompanied by the pleading or motion sought to be admitted.

Sec. 10. Form.
    The Rules applicable to pleadings shall apply to written motions so far as concerns caption, designation, signature, and other matters of form.
RULE 16
MOTION TO DISMISS
Section 1. Grounds.
    Within the time for but before filing the answer to the complaint or pleading asserting a claim, a motion to dismiss may be made on any of the following grounds:
     
    (a) That the court has no jurisdiction over the person of the defending party;

    (b) That the court has no jurisdiction over the subject matter of the claim;

    (c) That venue is improperly laid;

    (d) That the plaintiff has no legal capacity to sue;

    (e) That there is another action pending between the same parties for the same cause;

    (f) That the cause of action is barred by a prior judgment or by the statute of limitations;

    (g) That the pleading asserting the claim states no cause of action;

    (h) That the claim or demand set forth in the plaintiff's pleading has been paid, waived, abandoned, or otherwise extinguished;

    (i) That the claim on which the action is founded is unenforceable under the provisions of the statute of frauds; and

    (j) That a condition precedent for filing the claim has not been complied with.

     
Sec. 2. Hearing of motion.
    At the hearing of the motion, the parties shall submit their arguments on the questions of law and their evidence on the questions of fact involved except those not available at that time. Should the case go to trial, the evidence presented during the hearing shall automatically be part of the evidence of the party presenting the same.

Sec. 3. Resolution of motion.
    After the hearing, the court may dismiss the action or claim, deny the motion, or order the amendment of the pleading.

    The court shall not defer the resolution of the motion for the reason that the ground relied upon is not indubitable.

    In every case, the resolution shall state clearly and distinctly the reasons therefor.


Sec. 4. Time to plead.
    If the motion is denied, the movant shall file his answer within the balance of the period prescribed by Rule 11 to which he was entitled at the time of serving his motion, but not less than five (5) days in any event, computed from his receipt of the notice of the denial. If the pleading is ordered to be amended, he shall file his answer within the period prescribed by Rule 11 counted from service of the amended pleading, unless the court provides a longer period.

Sec. 5. Effect of dismissal.
    Subject to the right of appeal, an order granting a motion to dismiss based on paragraphs (f), (h) and (i) of section 1 hereof shall bar the refiling of the same action or claim.

Sec. 6. Pleading grounds as affirmative defenses.
    If no motion to dismiss has been filed, any of the grounds for dismissal provided for in this Rule may be pleaded as an affirmative defense in the answer and, in the discretion of the court, a preliminary hearing may be had thereon as if a motion to dismiss had been filed.

    The dismissal of the complaint under this section shall be without prejudice to the prosecution in the same or separate action of a counterclaim pleaded in the answer.

RULE 17
DISMISSAL OF ACTIONS
Section 1. Dismissal upon notice by plaintiff.
    A complaint may be dismissed by the plaintiff by filing a notice of dismissal at any time before service of the answer or of a motion for summary judgment. Upon such notice being filed, the court shall issue an order confirming the dismissal. Unless otherwise stated in the notice, the dismissal is without prejudice, except that a notice operates as an adjudication upon the merits when filed by a plaintiff who has once dismissed in a competent court an action based on or including the same claim.

Sec. 2. Dismissal upon motion of plaintiff.
    Except as provided in the preceding section, a complaint shall not be dismissed at the plaintiff's instance save upon approval of the court and upon such terms and conditions as the court deems proper. If a counterclaim has been pleaded by a defendant prior to the service upon him of the plaintiff's motion for dismissal, the dismissal shall be limited to the complaint. The dismissal shall be without prejudice to the right of the defendant to prosecute his counterclaim in a separate action unless within fifteen (15) days from notice of the motion he manifests his preference to have his counterclaim resolved in the same action. Unless otherwise specified in the order, a dismissal under this paragraph shall be without prejudice. A class suit shall not be dismissed or compromised without the approval of the court.

Sec. 3. Dismissal due to fault of plaintiff.
    If, for no justifiable cause, the plaintiff fails to appear on the date of the presentation of his evidence in chief on the complaint, or to prosecute his action for an unreasonable length of time, or to comply with these Rules or any order of the court, the complaint may be dismissed upon motion of the defendant or upon the court's own motion, without prejudice to the right of the defendant to prosecute his counterclaim in the same or in a separate action. This dismissal shall have the effect of an adjudication upon the merits, unless otherwise declared by the court.

Sec. 4. Dismissal of counterclaim, cross-claim, or third-party complaint.
    The provisions of this Rule shall apply to the dismissal of any counterclaim, cross-claim, or third-party complaint. A voluntary dismissal by the claimant by notice as in section 1 of this Rule, shall be made before a responsive pleading or a motion for summary judgment is served or, if there is none, before the introduction of evidence at the trial or hearing.
RULE 18
PRE-TRIAL
Section 1. When conducted.
    After the last pleading has been served and filed, it shall be the duty of the plaintiff to promptly move ex parte that the case be set for pre-trial.

Sec. 2. Nature and purpose.
    The pre-trial is mandatory. The court shall consider:
     
    (a) The possibility of an amicable settlement or of a submission to alternative modes of dispute resolution;

    (b) The simplification of the issues;

    (c) The necessity or desirability of amendments to the pleadings;

    (d) The possibility of obtaining stipulations or admissions of facts and of documents to avoid unnecessary proof;

    (e) The limitation of the number of witnesses;

    (f) The advisability of a preliminary reference of issues to a commissioner;

    (g) The propriety of rendering judgment on the pleadings, or summary judgment, or of dismissing the action should a valid ground therefor be found to exist;

    (h) The advisability or necessity of suspending the proceedings; and

    (i) Such other matters as may aid in the prompt disposition of the action.

     
Sec. 3. Notice of pre-trial.
    The notice of pre-trial shall be served on counsel, or on the party who has no counsel. The counsel served with such notice is charged with the duty of notifying the party represented by him.

Sec. 4. Appearance of parties.
    It shall be the duty of the parties and their counsel to appear at the pre-trial. The non-appearance of a party may be excused only if a valid cause is shown therefor or if a representative shall appear in his behalf fully authorized in writing to enter into an amicable settlement, to submit to alternative modes of dispute resolution, and to enter into stipulations or admissions of facts and of documents.

Sec. 5. Effect of failure to appear.
    The failure of the plaintiff to appear when so required pursuant to the next preceding section shall be cause for dismissal of the action. The dismissal shall be with prejudice, unless otherwise ordered by the court. A similar failure on the part of the defendant shall be cause to allow the plaintiff to present his evidence ex parte and the court to render judgment on the basis thereof.

Sec. 6. Pre-trial brief.
    The parties shall file with the court and serve on the adverse party, in such manner as shall ensure their receipt thereof at least three (3) days before the date of the pre-trial, their respective pre-trial briefs which shall contain, among others:
     
    (a) A statement of their willingness to enter into amicable settlement or alternative modes of dispute resolution, indicating the desired terms thereof;

    (b) A summary of admitted facts and proposed stipulation of facts;

    (c) The issues to be tried or resolved;

    (d) The documents or exhibits to be presented, stating the purpose thereof;

    (e) A manifestation of their having availed or their intention to avail themselves of discovery procedures or referral to commissioners; and

    (f) The number and names of the witnesses, and the substance of their respective testimonies.

    Failure to file the pre-trial brief shall have the same effect as failure to appear at the pre-trial.

Sec. 7. Record of pre-trial.
    The proceedings in the pre-trial shall be recorded. Upon the termination thereof, the court shall issue an order which shall recite in detail the matters taken up in the conference, the action taken thereon, the amendments allowed to the pleadings, and the agreements or admissions made by the parties as to any of the matters considered. Should the action proceed to trial, the order shall explicitly define and limit the issues to be tried. The contents of the order shall control the subsequent course of the action, unless modified before trial to prevent manifest injustice.
RULE 19
INTERVENTION
Section 1. Who may intervene.
    A person who has a legal interest in the matter in litigation, or in the success of either of the parties, or an interest against both, or is so situated as to be adversely affected by a distribution or other disposition of property in the custody of the court or of an officer thereof may, with leave of court, be allowed to intervene in the action. The court shall consider whether or not the intervention will unduly delay or prejudice the adjudication of the rights of the original parties, and whether or not the intervenor's rights may be fully protected in a separate proceeding.

Sec. 2. Time to intervene.
    The motion to intervene may be filed at any time before rendition of judgment by the trial court. A copy of the pleading-in-intervention shall be attached to the motion and served on the original parties.

Sec. 3. Pleadings-in-intervention.
    The intervenor shall file a complaint-in-intervention if he asserts a claim against either or all of the original parties, or an answer-in-intervention if he unites with the defending party in resisting a claim against the latter.

Sec. 4. Answer to complaint-in-intervention.
    The answer to the complaint-in -intervention shall be filed within fifteen (15) days from notice of the order admitting the same, unless a different period is fixed by the court.
RULE 20
CALENDAR OF CASES
Section 1. Calendar of cases.
    The clerk of court, under the direct supervision of the judge, shall keep a calendar of cases for pre-trial, for trial, those whose trials were adjourned or postponed, and those with motions to set for hearing. Preference shall be given to habeas corpus cases, election cases, special civil actions, and those so required by law.

Sec. 2. Assignment of cases.
    The assignment of cases to the different branches of a court shall be done exclusively by raffle. The assignment shall be done in open session of which adequate notice shall be given so as to afford interested parties the opportunity to be present.
RULE 21
SUBPOENA
Section 1. Subpoena and subpoena duces tecum.
    Subpoena is a process directed to a person requiring him to attend and to testify at the hearing or the trial of an action, or at any investigation conducted by competent authority, or for the taking of his deposition. It may also require him to bring with him any books, documents, or other things under his control, in which case it is called a subpoena duces tecum.

Sec. 2. By whom issued.
    The subpoena may be issued by:
     
    a) the court before whom the witness is required to attend;

    b) the court of the place where the deposition is to be taken;

    c) the officer or body authorized by law to do so in connection with investigations conducted by said officer or body; or

    d) any Justice of the Supreme Court or of the Court of Appeals in any case or investigation pending within the Philippines.

    When application for a subpoena to a prisoner is made, the judge or officer shall examine and study carefully such application to determine whether the same is made for a valid purpose.

    No prisoner sentenced to death, reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment and who is confined in any penal institution shall be brought outside the said penal institution for appearance or attendance in any court unless authorized by the Supreme Court.


Sec. 3. Form and contents.
    A subpoena shall state the name of the court and the title of the action or investigation, shall be directed to the person whose attendance is required, and in the case of a subpoena duces tecum, it shall also contain a reasonable description of the books, documents or things demanded which must appear to the court prima facie relevant.

Sec. 4. Quashing a subpoena.
    The court may quash a subpoena duces tecum upon motion promptly made and, in any event, at or before the time specified therein if it is unreasonable and oppressive, or the relevancy of the books, documents or things does not appear, or if the person in whose behalf the subpoena is issued fails to advance the reasonable cost of the production thereof.

    The court may quash a subpoena ad testificandum on the ground that the witness is not bound thereby. In either case, the subpoena may be quashed on the ground that the witness fees and kilometrage allowed by these Rules were not tendered when the subpoena was served.


Sec. 5. Subpoena for depositions.
    Proof of service of a notice to take a deposition, as provided in sections 15 and 25 of Rule 23, shall constitute sufficient authorization for the issuance of subpoenas for the persons named in said notice by the clerk of the court of the place in which the deposition is to be taken. The clerk shall not, however, issue a subpoena duces tecum to any such person without an order of the court.

Sec. 6. Service.
    Service of a subpoena shall be made in the same manner as personal or substituted service of summons. The original shall be exhibited and a copy thereof delivered to the person on whom it is served, tendering to him the fees for one day’s attendance and the kilometrage allowed by these Rules, except that, when a subpoena is issued by or on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines or an officer or agency thereof, the tender need not be made. The service must be made so as to allow the witness a reasonable time for preparation and travel to the place of attendance. If the subpoena is duces tecum, the reasonable cost of producing the books, documents or things demanded shall also be tendered.

Sec. 7. Personal appearance in court.
    A person present in court before a judicial officer may be required to testify as if he were in attendance upon a subpoena issued by such court or officer.

Sec. 8. Compelling attendance.
    In case of failure of a witness to attend, the court or judge issuing the subpoena, upon proof of the service thereof and of the failure of the witness, may issue a warrant to the sheriff of the province, or his deputy, to arrest the witness and bring him before the court or officer where his attendance is required, and the cost of such warrant and seizure of such witness shall be paid by the witness if the court issuing it shall determine that his failure to answer the subpoena was willful and without just excuse.

Sec. 9. Contempt.
    Failure by any person without adequate cause to obey a subpoena served upon him shall be deemed a contempt of the court from which the subpoena is issued. If the subpoena was not issued by a court, the disobedience thereto shall be punished in accordance with the applicable law or Rule.

Sec. 10. Exceptions.
    The provisions of sections 8 and 9 of this Rule shall not apply to a witness who resides more than one hundred (100) kilometers from his residence to the place where he is to testify by the ordinary course of travel, or to a detention prisoner if no permission of the court in which his case is pending was obtained.
RULE 22
COMPUTATION OF TIME
Section 1. How to compute time.
    In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these Rules, or by order of the court, or by any applicable statute, the day of the act or event from which the designated period of time begins to run is to be excluded and the date of performance included. If the last day of the period, as thus computed, falls on a Saturday, a Sunday, or a legal holiday in the place where the court sits, the time shall not run until the next working day.

Sec. 2. Effect of interruption.
    Should an act be done which effectively interrupts the running of the period, the allowable period after such interruption shall start to run on the day after notice of the cessation of the cause thereof.

    The day of the act that caused the interruption shall be excluded in the computation of the period.

RULE 23
DEPOSITIONS PENDING ACTIONS
Section 1. Depositions pending action, when may be taken.
    By leave of court after jurisdiction has been obtained over any defendant or over property which is the subject of the action, or without such leave after an answer has been served, the testimony of any person, whether a party or not, may be taken, at the instance of any party, by deposition upon oral examination or written interrogatories. The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by the use of a subpoena as provided in Rule 21. Depositions shall be taken only in accordance with these Rules. The deposition of a person confined in prison may be taken only by leave of court on such terms as the court prescribes.

Sec. 2. Scope of examination.
    Unless otherwise ordered by the court as provided by section 16 or 18 of this Rule, the deponent may be examined regarding any matter, not privileged, which is relevant to the subject of the pending action, whether relating to the claim or defense of any other party, including the existence, description, nature, custody, condition, and location of any books, documents, or other tangible things and the identity and location of persons having knowledge of relevant facts.

Sec. 3. Examination and cross-examination.
    Examination and cross-examination of deponents may proceed as permitted at the trial under sections 3 to 18 of Rule 132.

Sec. 4. Use of depositions.
    At the trial or upon the hearing of a motion or an interlocutory proceeding, any part or all of a deposition, so far as admissible under the rules of evidence, may be used against any party who was present or represented at the taking of the deposition or who had due notice thereof, in accordance with any one of the following provisions:
     
    (a) Any deposition may be used by any party for the purpose of contradicting or impeaching the testimony of deponent as a witness;

    (b) The deposition of a party or of any one who at the time of taking the deposition was an officer, director, or managing agent of a public or private corporation, partnership, or association which is a party may be used by an adverse party for any purpose;

    (c) The deposition of a witness, whether or not a party, may be used by any party for any purpose if the court finds: (1) that the witness is dead; or (2) that the witness resides at a distance more than one hundred (100) kilometers from the place of trial or hearing, or is out of the Philippines, unless it appears that his absence was procured by the party offering the deposition; or (3) that the witness is unable to attend or testify because of age, sickness, infirmity, or imprisonment; or (4) that the party offering the deposition has been unable to procure the attendance of the witness by subpoena; or (5) upon application and notice, that such exceptional circumstances exist as to make it desirable, in the interest of justice and with due regard to the importance of presenting the testimony of witnesses orally in open court, to allow the deposition to be used; and

    (d) If only part of a deposition is offered in evidence by a party, the adverse party may require him to introduce all of it which is relevant to the part introduced, and any party may introduce any other parts.

     
Sec. 5. Effect of substitution of parties.
    Substitution of parties does not affect the right to use depositions previously taken; and, when an action has been dismissed and another action involving the same subject is afterward brought between the same parties or their representatives or successors in interest, all depositions lawfully taken and duly filed in the former action may be used in the latter as if originally taken therefor.

Sec. 6. Objections to admissibility.
    Subject to the provisions of section 29 of this Rule, objection may be made at the trial or hearing to receiving in evidence any deposition or part thereof for any reason which would require the exclusion of the evidence if the witness were then present and testifying.

Sec. 7. Effect of taking depositions.
    A party shall not be deemed to make a person his own witness for any purpose by taking his deposition.

Sec. 8. Effect of using depositions.
    The introduction in evidence of the deposition or any part thereof for any purpose other than that of contradicting or impeaching the deponent makes the deponent the witness of the party introducing the deposition, but this shall not apply to the use by an adverse party of a deposition as described in paragraph (b) of section 4 of this Rule.

Sec. 9. Rebutting deposition.
    At the trial or hearing, any party may rebut any relevant evidence contained in a deposition whether introduced by him or by any other party.

Sec. 10. Persons before whom depositions may be taken within the Philippines.
    Within the Philippines, depositions may be taken before any judge, notary public, or the person referred to in section 14 hereof.

Sec. 11. Persons before whom depositions may be taken in foreign countries.
    In a foreign state or country, depositions may be taken (a) on notice before a secretary of embassy or legation, consul general, consul, vice-consul, or consular agent of the Republic of the Philippines; (b) before such person or officer as may be appointed by commission or under letters rogatory; or (c) the person referred to in section 14 hereof.

Sec. 12. Commission or letters rogatory.
    A commission or letters rogatory shall be issued only when necessary or convenient, on application and notice, and on such terms and with such direction as are just and appropriate. Officers may be designated in notices or commissions either by name or descriptive title and letters rogatory may be addressed to the appropriate judicial authority in the foreign country.

Sec. 13. Disqualification by interest.
    No deposition shall be taken before a person who is a relative within the sixth degree of consanguinity or affinity, or employee or counsel of any of the parties; or who is a relative within the same degree, or employee of such counsel; or who is financially interested in the action.

Sec. 14. Stipulations regarding taking of depositions.
    If the parties so stipulate in writing, depositions may be taken before any person authorized to administer oaths, at any time or place, in accordance with these Rules, and when so taken may be used like other depositions.

Sec. 15. Deposition upon oral examination; notice; time and place.
    A party desiring to take the deposition of any person upon oral examination shall give reasonable notice in writing to every other party to the action. The notice shall state the time and place for taking the deposition and the name and address of each person to be examined, if known, and if the name is not known, a general description sufficient to identify him or the particular class or group to which he belongs. On motion of any party upon whom the notice is served, the court may for cause shown enlarge or shorten the time.

Sec. 16. Orders for the protection of parties and deponents.
    After notice is served for taking a deposition by oral examination, upon motion seasonably made by any party or by the person to be examined and for good cause shown, the court in which the action is pending may make an order that the deposition shall not be taken, or that it may be taken only at some designated place other than that stated in the notice, or that it may be taken only on written interrogatories, or that certain matters shall not be inquired into, or that the scope of the examination shall be held with no one present except the parties to the action and their officers or counsel, or that after being sealed the deposition shall be opened only by order of the court, or that secret processes, developments, or research need not be disclosed, or that the parties shall simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed by the court; or the court may make any other order which justice requires to protect the party or witness from annoyance, embarrassment, or oppression.

Sec. 17. Record of examination; oath; objections.
    The officer before whom the deposition is to be taken shall put the witness on oath and shall personally, or by some one acting under his direction and in his presence, record the testimony of the witness. The testimony shall be taken stenographically unless the parties agree otherwise. All objections made at the time of the examination to the qualifications of the officer taking the deposition, or to the manner of taking it, or to the evidence presented, or to the conduct of any party, and any other objection to the proceedings, shall be noted by the officer upon the deposition. Evidence objected to shall be taken subject to the objections. In lieu of participating in the oral examination, parties served with notice of taking a deposition may transmit written interrogatories to the officers, who shall propound them to the witness and record the answers verbatim.

Sec. 18. Motion to terminate or limit examination.
    At any time during the taking of the deposition, on motion or petition of any party or of the deponent and upon a showing that the examination is being conducted in bad faith or in such manner as unreasonably to annoy, embarrass, or oppress the deponent or party, the court in which the action is pending or the Regional Trial Court of the place where the deposition is being taken may order the officer conducting the examination to cease forthwith from taking the deposition, or may limit the scope and manner of the taking of the deposition, as provided in section 16 of this Rule. If the order made terminates the examination, it shall be resumed thereafter only upon the order of the court in which the action is pending. Upon demand of the objecting party or deponent, the taking of the deposition shall be suspended for the time necessary to make a notice for an order. In granting or refusing such order, the court may impose upon either party or upon the witness the requirement to pay such costs or expenses as the court may deem reasonable.

Sec. 19. Submission to witness; changes; signing.
    When the testimony is fully transcribed, the deposition shall be submitted to the witness for examination and shall be read to or by him, unless such examination and reading are waived by the witness and by the parties. Any changes in form or substance which the witness desires to make shall be entered upon the deposition by the officer with a statement of the reasons given by the witness for making them. The deposition shall then be signed by the witness, unless the parties by stipulation waive the signing or the witness is ill or cannot be found or refuses to sign. If the deposition is not signed by the witness, the officer shall sign it and state on the record the fact of the waiver or of the illness or absence of the witness or the fact of the refusal to sign together with the reason given therefor, if any, and the deposition may then be used as fully as though signed, unless on a motion to suppress under section 29 (f) of this Rule, the court holds that the reasons given for the refusal to sign require rejection of the deposition in whole or in part.

Sec. 20. Certification and filing by officer.
    The officer shall certify on the deposition that the witness was duly sworn to by him and that the deposition is a true record of the testimony given by the witness. He shall then securely seal the deposition in an envelope indorsed with the title of the action and marked "Deposition of (here insert the name of witness)" and shall promptly file it with the court in which the action is pending or send it by registered mail to the clerk thereof for filing.

Sec. 21. Notice of filing.
    The officer taking the deposition shall give prompt notice of its filing to all the parties.

Sec. 22. Furnishing copies.
    Upon payment of reasonable charges therefor, the officer shall furnish a copy of the deposition to any party or to the deponent.

Sec. 23. Failure to attend of party giving notice.
    If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition fails to attend and proceed therewith and another attends in person or by counsel pursuant to the notice, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay such other party the amount of the reasonable expenses incurred by him and his counsel in so attending, including reasonable attorney’s fees.

Sec. 24. Failure of party giving notice to serve subpoena.
    If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition of a witness fails to serve a subpoena upon him and the witness because of such failure does not attend, and if another party attends in person or by counsel because he expects the deposition of that witness to be taken, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the amount of the reasonable expenses incurred by him and his counsel in so attending, including reasonable attorney’s fees.

Sec. 25. Deposition upon written interrogatories; service of notice and of interrogatories.
    A party desiring to take the deposition of any person upon written interrogatories shall serve them upon every other party with a notice stating the name and address of the person who is to answer them and the name or descriptive title and address of the officer before whom the deposition is to be taken. Within ten (10) days thereafter, a party so served may serve cross-interrogatories upon the party proposing to take the deposition. Within five (5) days thereafter, the latter may serve re-direct interrogatories upon a party who has served cross- interrogatories. Within three (3) days after being served with re-direct interrogatories, a party may serve recross-interrogatories upon the party proposing to take the deposition.

Sec. 26. Officers to take responses and prepare record.
    A copy of the notice and copies of all interrogatories served shall be delivered by the party taking the deposition to the officer designated in the notice, who shall proceed promptly, in the manner provided by sections 17, 19 and 20 of this Rule, to take the testimony of the witness in response to the interrogatories and to prepare, certify, and file or mail the deposition, attaching thereto the copy of the notice and the interrogatories received by him.

Sec. 27. Notice of filing and furnishing copies.
    When a deposition upon interrogatories is filed, the officer taking it shall promptly give notice thereof to all the parties, and may furnish copies to them or to the deponent upon payment of reasonable charges therefor.

Sec. 28. Orders for the protection of parties and deponents.
    After the service of the interrogatories and prior to the taking of the testimony of the deponent, the court in which the action is pending, on motion promptly made by a party or a deponent, and for good cause shown, may make any order specified in sections 15, 16 and 18 of this Rule which is appropriate and just or an order that the deposition shall not be taken before the officer designated in the notice or that it shall not be taken except upon oral examination.

Sec. 29. Effects of errors and irregularities in depositions.
    (a) As to notice.- All errors and irregularities in the notice for taking a deposition are waived unless written objection is promptly served upon the party giving the notice.

    (b) As to disqualification of officer.- Objection to taking a deposition because of disqualification of the officer before whom it is to be taken is waived unless made before the taking of the deposition begins or as soon thereafter as the disqualification becomes known or could be discovered with reasonable diligence.

    (c) As to competency or relevancy of evidence.- Objections to the competency of a witness or the competency, relevancy, or materiality of testimony are not waived by failure to make them before or during the taking of the deposition, unless the ground of the objection is one which might have been obviated or removed if presented at that time.

    (d) As to oral examination and other particulars.- Errors and irregularities occurring at the oral examination in the manner of taking the deposition, in the form of the questions or answers, in the oath or affirmation, or in the conduct of the parties and errors of any kind which might be obviated, removed, or cured if promptly prosecuted, are waived unless reasonable objection thereto is made at the taking of the deposition.

    (e) As to form of written interrogatories.- Objections to the form of written interrogatories submitted under sections 25 and 26 of this Rule are waived unless served in writing upon the party propounding them within the time allowed for serving succeeding cross or other interrogatories and within three (3) days after service of the last interrogatories authorized.

    (f) As to manner of preparation.- Errors and irregularities in the manner in which the testimony is transcribed or the deposition is prepared, signed, certified, sealed, indorsed, transmitted, filed, or otherwise dealt with by the officer under sections 17, 19, 20 and 26 of this Rule are waived unless a motion to suppress the deposition or some part thereof is made with reasonable promptness after such defect is, or with due diligence might have been, ascertained.

RULE 24
DEPOSITIONS BEFORE ACTION OR PENDING APPEAL.
Section 1. Depositions before action; petition.
    A person who desires to perpetuate his own testimony or that of another person regarding any matter that may be cognizable in any court of the Philippines, may file a verified petition in the court of the place of the residence of any expected adverse party.

Sec. 2. Contents of petition.
    The petition shall be entitled in the name of the petitioner and shall show: (a) that the petitioner expects to be a party to an action in a court of the Philippines but is presently unable to bring it or cause it to be brought; (b) the subject matter of the expected action and his interest therein; (c) the facts which he desires to establish by the proposed testimony and his reasons for desiring to perpetuate it; (d) the names or a description of the persons he expects will be adverse parties and their addresses so far as known; and (e) the names and addresses of the persons to be examined and the substance of the testimony which he expects to elicit from each, and shall ask for an order authorizing the petitioner to take the depositions of the persons to be examined named in the petition for the purpose of perpetuating their testimony.

Sec. 3. Notice and service.
    The petitioner shall serve a notice upon each person named in the petition as an expected adverse party, together with a copy of the petition, stating that the petitioner will apply to the court, at a time and place named therein, for the order described in the petition. At least twenty (20) days before the date of the hearing, the court shall cause notice thereof to be served on the parties and prospective deponents in the manner provided for service of summons.

Sec. 4. Order and examination.
    If the court is satisfied that the perpetuation of the testimony may prevent a failure or delay of justice, it shall make an order designating or describing the persons whose deposition may be taken and specifying the subject matter of the examination and whether the depositions shall be taken upon oral examination or written interrogatories. The depositions may then be taken in accordance with Rule 23 before the hearing.

Sec. 5. Reference to court.
    For the purpose of applying Rule 23 to depositions for perpetuating testimony, each reference therein to the court in which the action is pending shall be deemed to refer to the court in which the petition for such deposition was filed.

Sec. 6. Use of deposition.
    If a deposition to perpetuate testimony is taken under this Rule, or if, although not so taken, it would be admissible in evidence, it may be used in any action involving the same subject matter subsequently brought in accordance with the provisions of sections 4 and 5 of Rule 23.

Sec. 7. Depositions pending appeal.
    If an appeal has been taken from a judgment of a court, including the Court of Appeals in proper cases, or before the taking of an appeal if the time therefor has not expired, the court in which the judgment was rendered may allow the taking of depositions of witnesses to perpetuate their testimony for use in the event of further proceedings in the said court. In such case the party who desires to perpetuate the testimony may make a motion in the said court for leave to take the depositions, upon the same notice and service thereof as if the action was pending therein. The motion shall state (a) the names and addresses of the persons to be examined and the substance of the testimony which he expects to elicit from each; and (b) the reason for perpetuating their testimony. If the court finds that the perpetuation of the testimony is proper to avoid a failure or delay of justice, it may make an order allowing the depositions to be taken, and thereupon the depositions may be taken and used in the same manner and under the same conditions as are prescribed in these Rules for depositions taken in pending actions.
RULE 25
INTERROGATORIES TO PARTIES
Section 1. Interrogatories to parties; service thereof.
    Under the same conditions specified in section 1 of Rule 23, any party desiring to elicit material and relevant facts from any adverse parties shall file and serve upon the latter written interrogatories to be answered by the party served or, if the party served is a public or private corporation or a partnership or association, by any officer thereof competent to testify in its behalf.

Sec. 2. Answer to interrogatories.
    The interrogatories shall be answered fully in writing and shall be signed and sworn to by the person making them. The party upon whom the interrogatories have been served shall file and serve a copy of the answers on the party submitting the interrogatories within fifteen (15) days after service thereof, unless the court, on motion and for good cause shown, extends or shortens the time.

Sec. 3. Objections to interrogatories.
    Objections to any interrogatories may be presented to the court within ten (10) days after service thereof, with notice as in case of a motion; and answers shall be deferred until the objections are resolved, which shall be at as early a time as is practicable.

Sec. 4. Number of interrogatories.
    No party may, without leave of court, serve more than one set of interrogatories to be answered by the same party.

Sec. 5. Scope and use of interrogatories.
    Interrogatories may relate to any matters that can be inquired into under section 2 of Rule 23, and the answers may be used for the same purposes provided in section 4 of the same Rule.

Sec. 6. Effect of failure to serve written interrogatories.
    Unless thereafter allowed by the court for good cause shown and to prevent a failure of justice, a party not served with written interrogatories may not be compelled by the adverse party to give testimony in open court, or to give a deposition pending appeal.
RULE 26
ADMISSION BY ADVERSE PARTY
Section 1. Request for admission.
    At any time after issues have been joined, a party may file and serve upon any other party a written request for the admission by the latter of the genuineness of any material and relevant document described in and exhibited with the request or of the truth of any material and relevant matter of fact set forth in the request. Copies of the documents shall be delivered with the request unless copies have already been furnished.

Sec. 2. Implied admission.
    Each of the matters of which an admission is requested shall be deemed admitted unless, within a period designated in the request, which shall not be less than fifteen (15) days after service thereof, or within such further time as the court may allow on motion, the party to whom the request is directed files and serves upon the party requesting the admission a sworn statement either denying specifically the matters of which an admission is requested or setting forth in detail the reasons why he cannot truthfully either admit or deny those matters.

    Objections to any request for admission shall be submitted to the court by the party requested within the period for and prior to the filing of his sworn statement as contemplated in the preceding paragraph and his compliance therewith shall be deferred until such objections are resolved, which resolution shall be made as early as practicable.


Sec. 3. Effect of admission.
    Any admission made by a party pursuant to such request is for the purpose of the pending action only and shall not constitute an admission by him for any other purpose nor may the same be used against him in any other proceeding.

Sec. 4. Withdrawal.
    The court may allow the party making an admission under this Rule, whether express or implied, to withdraw or amend it upon such terms as may be just.

Sec. 5. Effect of failure to file and serve request for admission.
    Unless otherwise allowed by the court for good cause shown and to prevent a failure of justice, a party who fails to file and serve a request for admission on the adverse party of material and relevant facts at issue which are, or ought to be, within the personal knowledge of the latter, shall not be permitted to present evidence on such facts.
RULE 27
PRODUCTION OR INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS OR THINGS
Section 1. Motion for production or inspection; order.
    Upon motion of any party showing good cause therefor, the court in which an action is pending may (a) order any party to produce and permit the inspection and copying or photographing, by or on behalf of the moving party, of any designated documents, papers, books, accounts, letters, photographs, objects or tangible things, not privileged, which constitute or contain evidence material to any matter involved in the action and which are in his possession, custody or control; or (b) order any party to permit entry upon designated land or other property in his possession or control for the purpose of inspecting, measuring, surveying, or photographing the property or any designated relevant object or operation thereon. The order shall specify the time, place and manner of making the inspection and taking copies and photographs, and may prescribe such terms and conditions as are just.
RULE 28
PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION OF PERSONS
Section 1. When examination may be ordered.
    In an action in which the mental or physical condition of a party is in controversy, the court in which the action is pending may in its discretion order him to submit to a physical or mental examination by a physician.

Sec. 2. Order for examination.
    The order for examination may be made only on motion for good cause shown and upon notice to the party to be examined and to all other parties, and shall specify the time, place, manner, conditions and scope of the examination and the person or persons by whom it is to be made.

Sec. 3. Report of findings.
    If requested by the party examined, the party causing the examination to be made shall deliver to him a copy of a detailed written report of the examining physician setting out his findings and conclusions. After such request and delivery, the party causing the examination to be made shall be entitled upon request to receive from the party examined a like report of any examination, previously or thereafter made, of the same mental or physical condition. If the party examined refuses to deliver such report, the court on motion and notice may make an order requiring delivery on such terms as are just, and if a physician fails or refuses to make such a report the court may exclude his testimony if offered at the trial.

Sec. 4. Waiver of privilege.
    By requesting and obtaining a report of the examination so ordered or by taking the deposition of the examiner, the party examined waives any privilege he may have in that action or any other involving the same controversy, regarding the testimony of every other person who has examined or may thereafter examine him in respect of the same mental or physical examination.
RULE 29
REFUSAL TO COMPLY WITH MODES OF DISCOVERY
Section 1. Refusal to answer.
    If a party or other deponent refuses to answer any question upon oral examination, the examination may be completed on other matters or adjourned as the proponent of the question may prefer. The proponent may thereafter apply to the proper court of the place where the deposition is being taken, for an order to compel an answer. The same procedure may be availed of when a party or a witness refuses to answer any interrogatory submitted under Rules 23 or 25.

    If the application is granted, the court shall require the refusing party or deponent to answer the question or interrogatory and if it also finds that the refusal to answer was without substantial justification, it may require the refusing party or deponent or the counsel advising the refusal, or both of them, to pay the proponent the amount of the reasonable expenses incurred in obtaining the order, including attorney’s fees.

    If the application is denied and the court finds that it was filed without substantial justification, the court may require the proponent or the counsel advising the filing of the application, or both of them, to pay to the refusing party or deponent the amount of the reasonable expenses incurred in opposing the application, including attorney’s fees.


Sec. 2. Contempt of court.
    If a party or other witness refuses to be sworn or refuses to answer any question after being directed to do so by the court of the place in which the deposition is being taken, the refusal may be considered a contempt of that court.

Sec. 3. Other consequences.
    If any party or an officer or managing agent of a party refuses to obey an order made under section 1 of this Rule requiring him to answer designated questions, or an order under Rule 27 to produce any document or other thing for inspection, copying, or photographing or to permit it to be done, or to permit entry upon land or other property, or an order made under Rule 28 requiring him to submit to a physical or mental examination, the court may make such orders in regard to the refusal as are just, and among others the following:
     
    (a) An order that the matters regarding which the questions were asked, or the character or description of the thing or land, or the contents of the paper, or the physical or mental condition of the party, or any other designated facts shall be taken to be established for the purposes of the action in accordance with the claim of the party obtaining the order;

    (b) An order refusing to allow the disobedient party to support or oppose designated claims or defenses or prohibiting him from introducing in evidence designated documents or things or items of testimony, or from introducing evidence of physical or mental condition;

    (c) An order striking out pleadings or parts thereof, or staying further proceedings until the order is obeyed, or dismissing the action or proceeding or any part thereof, or rendering a judgment by default against the disobedient party; and

    (d) In lieu of any of the foregoing orders or in addition thereto, an order directing the arrest of any party or agent of a party for disobeying any of such orders except an order to submit to a physical or mental examination.

Sec. 4. Expenses on refusal to admit.
    If a party after being served with a request under Rule 26 to admit the genuineness of any document or the truth of any matter of fact, serves a sworn denial thereof and if the party requesting the admissions thereafter proves the genuineness of such document or the truth of any such matter of fact, he may apply to the court for an order requiring the other party to pay him the reasonable expenses incurred in making such proof, including attorney’s fees. Unless the court finds that there were good reasons for the denial or that admissions sought were of no substantial importance, such order shall be issued.

Sec. 5. Failure of party to attend or serve answers.
    If a party or an officer or managing agent of a party wilfully fails to appear before the officer who is to take his deposition, after being served with a proper notice, or fails to serve answers to interrogatories submitted under Rule 25 after proper service of such interrogatories, the court on motion and notice, may strike out all or any part of any pleading of that party, or dismiss the action or proceeding or any part thereof, or enter a judgment by default against that party, and in its discretion, order him to pay reasonable expenses incurred by the other, including attorney’s fees.

Sec. 6. Expenses against the Republic of the Philippines.
    Expenses and attorney’s fees are not to be imposed upon the Republic of the Philippines under this Rule.
RULE 30
TRIAL
Section 1. Notice of trial.
    Upon entry of a case in the trial calendar, the clerk shall notify the parties of the date of its trial in such manner as shall ensure his receipt of that notice at least five (5) days before such date.

Sec. 2. Adjournments and postponements.
    A court may adjourn a trial from day to day, and to any stated time, as the expeditious and convenient transaction of business may require, but shall have no power to adjourn a trial for a longer period than one month for each adjournment, nor more than three months in all, except when authorized in writing by the Court Administrator, Supreme Court.

Sec. 3. Requisites of motion to postpone trial for absence of evidence.
    A motion to postpone a trial on the ground of absence of evidence can be granted only upon affidavit showing the materiality or relevancy of such evidence, and that due diligence has been used to procure it. But if the adverse party admits the facts to be given in evidence, even if he objects or reserves the right to their admissibility, the trial shall not be postponed.

Sec. 4. Requisites of motion to postpone trial for illness of party or counsel.
    A motion to postpone a trial on the ground of illness of a party or counsel may be granted if it appears upon affidavit or sworn certification that the presence of such party or counsel at the trial is indispensable and that the character of his illness is such as to render his non-attendance excusable.

Sec. 5. Order of trial.
    Subject to the provisions of section 2 of Rule 31, and unless the court for special reasons otherwise directs, the trial shall be limited to the issues stated in the pre-trial order and shall proceed as follows:
     
    (a) The plaintiff shall adduce evidence in support of his complaint;

    (b) The defendant shall then adduce evidence in support of his defense, counterclaim, cross-claim and third-party complaint;

    (c) The third-party defendant, if any, shall adduce evidence of his defense, counterclaim, cross-claim and fourth-party complaint;

    (d) The fourth-party, and so forth, if any, shall adduce evidence of the material facts pleaded by them;

    (e) The parties against whom any counterclaim or cross-claim has been pleaded, shall adduce evidence in support of their defense, in the order to be prescribed by the court;

    (f) The parties may then respectively adduce rebutting evidence only, unless the court, for good reasons and in the furtherance of justice, permits them to adduce evidence upon their original case; and

    (g) Upon admission of the evidence, the case shall be deemed submitted for decision, unless the court directs the parties to argue or to submit their respective memoranda or any further pleadings.

    If several defendants or third-party defendants, and so forth, having separate defenses appear by different counsel, the court shall determine the relative order of presentation of their evidence.

Sec. 6. Agreed statement of facts.
    The parties to any action may agree, in writing, upon the facts involved in the litigation, and submit the case for judgment on the facts agreed upon, without the introduction of evidence.

    If the parties agree only on some of the facts in issue, the trial shall be held as to the disputed facts in such order as the court shall prescribe.


Sec. 7. Statement of judge.
    During the hearing or trial of a case any statement made by the judge with reference to the case, or to any of the parties, witnesses or counsel, shall be made of record in the stenographic notes.

Sec. 8. Suspension of actions.
    The suspension of actions shall be governed by the provisions of the Civil Code.

Sec. 9. Judge to receive evidence; delegation to clerk of court.
    The judge of the court where the case is pending shall personally receive the evidence to be adduced by the parties. However, in default or ex parte hearings, and in any case where the parties agree in writing, the court may delegate the reception of evidence to its clerk of court who is a member of the bar. The clerk of court shall have no power to rule on objections to any question or to the admission of exhibits, which objections shall be resolved by the court upon submission of his report and the transcripts within ten (10) days from termination of the hearing.
RULE 31
CONSOLIDATION OR SEVERANCE
Section 1. Consolidation.
    When actions involving a common question of law or fact are pending before the court, it may order a joint hearing or trial of any or all the matters in issue in the actions; it may order all the actions consolidated; and it may make such orders concerning proceedings therein as may tend to avoid unnecessary costs or delay.

Sec. 2. Separate trials.
    The court, in furtherance of convenience or to avoid prejudice, may order a separate trial of any claim, cross-claim, counterclaim, or third-party complaint, or of any separate issue or of any number of claims, cross-claims, counterclaims, third-party complaints or issues.
RULE 32
TRIAL BY COMMISSIONER
Section 1. Reference by consent.
    By written consent of both parties, the court may order any or all of the issues in a case to be referred to a commissioner to be agreed upon by the parties or to be appointed by the court. As used in these Rules, the word "commissioner" includes a referee, an auditor and an examiner.

Sec. 2. Reference ordered on motion.
    When the parties do not consent, the court may, upon the application of either or of its own motion, direct a reference to a commissioner in the following cases:
     
    (a) When the trial of an issue of fact requires the examination of a long account on either side, in which case the commissioner may be directed to hear and report upon the whole issue or any specific question involved therein;

    (b) When the taking of an account is necessary for the information of the court before judgment, or for carrying a judgment or order into effect;

    (c) When a question of fact, other than upon the pleadings, arises upon motion or otherwise, in any stage of a case, or for carrying a judgment or order into effect.

Sec. 3. Order of reference; powers of the commissioner.
    When a reference is made, the clerk shall forthwith furnish the commissioner with a copy of the order of reference. The order may specify or limit the powers of the commissioner, and may direct him to report only upon particular issues, or to do or perform particular acts, or to receive and report evidence only, and may fix the date for beginning and closing the hearings and for the filing of his report. Subject to the specifications and limitations stated in the order, the commissioner has and shall exercise the power to regulate the proceedings in every hearing before him and to do all acts and take all measures necessary or proper for the efficient performance of his duties under the order. He may issue subpoenas and subpoenas duces tecum, swear witnesses, and unless otherwise provided in the order of reference, he may rule upon the admissibility of evidence. The trial or hearing before him shall proceed in all respects as it would if held before the court.

Sec. 4. Oath of commissioner.
    Before entering upon his duties the commissioner shall be sworn to a faithful and honest performance thereof.

Sec. 5. Proceedings before commissioner.
    Upon receipt of the order of reference and unless otherwise provided therein, the commissioner shall forthwith set a time and place for the first meeting of the parties or their counsel to be held within ten (l0) days after the date of the order of reference and shall notify the parties or their counsel.

Sec. 6. Failure of parties to appear before commissioner.
    If a party fails to appear at the time and place appointed, the commissioner may proceed ex parte or, in his discretion, adjourn the proceedings to a future day, giving notice to the absent party or his counsel of the adjournment.

Sec. 7. Refusal of witness.
    The refusal of a witness to obey a subpoena issued by the commissioner or to give evidence before him, shall be deemed a contempt of the court which appointed the commissioner.

Sec. 8. Commissioner shall avoid delays.
    It is the duty of the commissioner to proceed with all reasonable diligence. Either party, on notice to the parties and commissioner, may apply to the court for an order requiring the commissioner to expedite the proceedings and to make his report.

Sec. 9. Report of commissioner.
    Upon the completion of the trial or hearing or proceeding before the commissioner, he shall file with the court his report in writing upon the matters submitted to him by the order of reference. When his powers are not specified or limited, he shall set forth his findings of fact and conclusions of law in his report. He shall attach thereto all exhibits, affidavits, depositions, papers and the transcript, if any, of the testimonial evidence presented before him.

Sec. 10. Notice to parties of the filing of report.
    Upon the filing of the report, the parties shall be notified by the clerk, and they shall be allowed ten (l0) days within which to signify grounds of objections to the findings of the report, if they so desire. Objections to the report based upon grounds which were available to the parties during the proceedings before the commissioner, other than objections to the findings and conclusions therein set forth, shall not be considered by the court unless they were made before the commissioner.

Sec. 11. Hearing upon report.
    Upon the expiration of the period of ten (l0) days referred to in the preceding section, the report shall be set for hearing, after which the court shall issue an order adopting, modifying, or rejecting the report in whole or in part, or recommitting it with instructions, or requiring the parties to present further evidence before the commissioner or the court.

Sec. 12. Stipulations as to findings.
    When the parties stipulate that a commissioner’s findings of fact shall be final, only questions of law shall thereafter be considered.

Sec. 13. Compensation of commissioner.
    The court shall allow the commissioner such reasonable compensation as the circumstances of the case warrant, to be taxed as costs against the defeated party, or apportioned, as justice requires.
     
RULE 33
DEMURRER TO EVIDENCE
Section 1. Demurrer to evidence.
    After the plaintiff has completed the presentation of his evidence, the defendant may move for dismissal on the ground that upon the facts and the law the plaintiff has shown no right to relief. If his motion is denied, he shall have the right to present evidence. If the motion is granted but on appeal the order of dismissal is reversed he shall be deemed to have waived the right to present evidence.
     
RULE 34
JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS
Section 1. Judgment on the pleadings.
    Where an answer fails to tender an issue, or otherwise admits the material allegations of the adverse party’s pleading, the court may, on motion of that party, direct judgment on such pleading. However, in actions for declaration of nullity or annulment of marriage or for legal separation, the material facts alleged in the complaint shall always be proved.
     
RULE 35
SUMMARY JUDGMENTS
Section 1. Summary judgment for claimant.
    A party seeking to recover upon a claim, counterclaim, or cross-claim or to obtain a declaratory relief may, at any time after the pleading in answer thereto has been served, move with supporting affidavits, depositions or admissions for a summary judgment in his favor upon all or any part thereof.

Sec. 2. Summary judgment for defending party.
    A party against whom a claim, counterclaim, or cross-claim is asserted or a declaratory relief is sought may, at any time, move with supporting affidavits, depositions or admissions for a summary judgment in his favor as to all or any part thereof.

Sec. 3. Motion and proceedings thereon.
    The motion shall be served at least ten (10) days before the time specified for the hearing. The adverse party may serve opposing affidavits, depositions, or admissions at least three (3) days before the hearing. After the hearing, the judgment sought shall be rendered forthwith if the pleadings, supporting affidavits, depositions, and admissions on file, show that, except as to the amount of damages, there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law.

Sec. 4. Case not fully adjudicated on motion.
    If on motion under this Rule, judgment is not rendered upon the whole case or for all the reliefs sought and a trial is necessary, the court at the hearing of the motion, by examining the pleadings and the evidence before it and by interrogating counsel shall ascertain what material facts exist without substantial controversy and what are actually and in good faith controverted. It shall thereupon make an order specifying the facts that appear without substantial controversy, including the extent to which the amount of damages or other relief is not in controversy, and directing such further proceedings in the action as are just. The facts so specified shall be deemed established, and the trial shall be conducted on the controverted facts accordingly.

Sec. 5. Form of affidavits and supporting papers.
    Supporting and opposing affidavits shall be made on personal knowledge, shall set forth such facts as would be admissible in evidence, and shall show affirmatively that the affiant is competent to testify to the matters stated therein. Certified true copies of all papers or parts thereof referred to in the affidavit shall be attached thereto or served therewith.

Sec. 6. Affidavits in bad faith.
    Should it appear to its satisfaction at any time that any of the affidavits presented pursuant to this Rule are presented in bad faith, or solely for the purpose of delay, the court shall forthwith order the offending party or counsel to pay to the other party the amount of the reasonable expenses which the filing of the affidavits caused him to incur, including attorney’s fees. It may, after hearing, further adjudge the offending party or counsel guilty of contempt.
RULE 36
JUDGMENTS, FINAL ORDERS AND ENTRY THEREOF
Section 1. Rendition of judgments and final orders.
    A judgment or final order determining the merits of the case shall be in writing personally and directly prepared by the judge, stating clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based, signed by him, and filed with the clerk of the court.

Sec. 2. Entry of judgments and final orders.
    If no appeal or motion for new trial or reconsideration is filed within the time provided in these Rules, the judgment or final order shall forthwith be entered by the clerk in the book of entries of judgments. The date of finality of the judgment or final order shall be deemed to be the date of its entry. The record shall contain the dispositive part of the judgment or final order and shall be signed by the clerk, with a certificate that such judgment or final order has become final and executory.

Sec. 3. Judgment for or against one or more of several parties.
    Judgment may be given for or against one or more of several plaintiffs, and for or against one or more of several defendants. When justice so demands, the court may require the parties on each side to file adversary pleadings as between themselves and determine their ultimate rights and obligations.

Sec. 4. Several judgments.
    In an action against several defendants, the court may, when a several judgment is proper, render judgment against one or more of them, leaving the action to proceed against the others.

Sec. 5. Separate judgments.
    When more than one claim for relief is presented in an action, the court, at any stage, upon a determination of the issues material to a particular claim and all counterclaims arising out of the transaction or occurrence which is the subject matter of the claim, may render a separate judgment disposing of such claim. The judgment shall terminate the action with respect to the claim so disposed of and the action shall proceed as to the remaining claims. In case a separate judgment is rendered, the court by order may stay its enforcement until the rendition of a subsequent judgment or judgments and may prescribe such conditions as may be necessary to secure the benefit thereof to the party in whose favor the judgment is rendered.

Sec. 6. Judgment against entity without juridical personality.
    When judgment is rendered against two or more persons sued as an entity without juridical personality, the judgment shall set out their individual or proper names, if known.
RULE 37
NEW TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION
Section 1. Grounds of and period for filing motion for new trial or reconsideration.
    Within the period for taking an appeal, the aggrieved party may move the trial court to set aside the judgment or final order and grant a new trial for one or more of the following causes materially affecting the substantial rights of said party:
     
    (a) Fraud, accident, mistake or excusable negligence which ordinary prudence could not have guarded against and by reason of which such aggrieved party has probably been impaired in his rights; or

    (b) Newly discovered evidence, which he could not, with reasonable diligence, have discovered and produced at the trial, and which if presented would probably alter the result.

    Within the same period, the aggrieved party may also move for reconsideration upon the grounds that the damages awarded are excessive, that the evidence is insufficient to justify the decision or final order, or that the decision or final order is contrary to law.

Sec. 2. Contents of motion for new trial or reconsideration and notice thereof.
    The motion shall be made in writing stating the ground or grounds therefor, a written notice of which shall be served by the movant on the adverse party.

    A motion for new trial shall be proved in the manner provided for proof of motions. A motion for the cause mentioned in paragraph (a) of the preceding section shall be supported by affidavits of merits which may be rebutted by affidavits. A motion for the cause mentioned in paragraph (b) shall be supported by affidavits of the witnesses by whom such evidence is expected to be given, or by duly authenticated documents which are proposed to be introduced in evidence.

    A motion for reconsideration shall point out specifically the findings or conclusions of the judgment or final order which are not supported by the evidence or which are contrary to law, making express reference to the testimonial or documentary evidence or to the provisions of law alleged to be contrary to such findings or conclusions.

    A pro forma motion for new trial or reconsideration shall not toll the reglementary period of appeal.


Sec. 3. Action upon motion for new trial or reconsideration.
    The trial court may set aside the judgment or final order and grant a new trial, upon such terms as may be just, or may deny the motion. If the court finds that excessive damages have been awarded or that the judgment or final order is contrary to the evidence or law, it may amend such judgment or final order accordingly.

Sec. 4. Resolution of motion.
    A motion for new trial or reconsideration shall be resolved within thirty (30) days from the time it is submitted for resolution.

Sec. 5. Second motion for new trial.
    A motion for new trial shall include all grounds then available and those not so included shall be deemed waived. A second motion for new trial, based on a ground not existing nor available when the first motion was made, may be filed within the time herein provided excluding the time during which the first motion had been pending.

    No party shall be allowed a second motion for reconsideration of a judgment or final order.


Sec. 6. Effect of granting of motion for new trial.
    If a new trial is granted in accordance with the provisions of this Rule, the original judgment or final order shall be vacated, and the action shall stand for trial de novo; but the recorded evidence taken upon the former trial, in so far as the same is material and competent to establish the issues, shall be used at the new trial without retaking the same.

Sec.7. Partial new trial or reconsideration.
    If the grounds for a motion under this Rule appear to the court to affect the issues as to only a part, or less than all of the matter in controversy, or only one, or less than all, of the parties to it, the court may order a new trial or grant reconsideration as to such issues if severable without interfering with the judgment or final order upon the rest.

Sec. 8. Effect of order for partial new trial.
    When less than all of the issues are ordered retried, the court may either enter a judgment or final order as to the rest, or stay the enforcement of such judgment or final order until after the new trial.

Sec. 9. Remedy against order denying a motion for new trial or reconsideration.
    An order denying a motion for new trial or reconsideration is not appealable, the remedy being an appeal from the judgment or final order.
RULE 38
RELIEF FROM JUDGMENTS, ORDERS,
OR OTHER PROCEEDINGS
Section 1. Petition for relief from judgment, order, or other proceedings.
    When a judgment or final order is entered, or any other proceeding is thereafter taken against a party in any court through fraud, accident, mistake, or excusable negligence, he may file a petition in such court and in the same case praying that the judgment, order or proceeding be set aside.

Sec. 2. Petition for relief from denial of appeal.
    When a judgment or final order is rendered by any court in a case, and a party thereto, by fraud, accident, mistake, or excusable negligence, has been prevented from taking an appeal, he may file a petition in such court and in the same case praying that the appeal be given due course.

Sec. 3. Time for filing petition; contents and verification.
    A petition provided for in either of the preceding sections of this Rule must be verified, filed within sixty (60) days after the petitioner learns of the judgment, final order, or other proceeding to be set aside, and not more than six (6) months after such judgment or final order was entered, or such proceeding was taken; and must be accompanied with affidavits showing the fraud, accident, mistake, or excusable negligence relied upon, and the facts constituting the petitioner's good and substantial cause of action or defense, as the case may be.

Sec. 4. Order to file an answer.
    If the petition is sufficient in form and substance to justify relief, the court in which it is filed, shall issue an order requiring the adverse parties to answer the same within fifteen (15) days from the receipt thereof. The order shall be served in such manner as the court may direct, together with copies of the petition and the accompanying affidavits.

Sec. 5. Preliminary injunction pending proceedings.
    The court in which the petition is filed, may grant such preliminary injunction as may be necessary for the preservation of the rights of the parties, upon the filing by the petitioner of a bond in favor of the adverse party all damages and costs that may be awarded to him by reason of issuance of such injunction or the other proceedings following the petition; but such injunction shall not operate to discharge or extinguish any lien which the adverse party may have acquired upon the property of the petitioner.

Sec. 6. Proceedings after answer is filed.
    After the filing of the answer or the expiration of the period therefor, the court shall hear the petition and if after such hearing, it finds that the allegations thereof are not true, the petition shall be dismissed; but if it finds said allegations to be true, it shall set aside the judgment or final order or other proceedings complained of upon such terms as may be just. Thereafter the case shall stand as if such judgment, final order or other proceeding had never been rendered, issued or taken. The court shall then proceed to hear and determine the case as if a timely motion for a new trial or reconsideration had been granted by it.

Sec. 7. Procedure where the denial of an appeal is set aside.
    Where the denial of an appeal is set aside, the lower court shall be required to give due course to the appeal and to elevate the record of the appelaed case as if a timely and proper appeal had been made.
RULE 39
EXECUTION, SATISFACTION AND EFFECT OF JUDGMENTS
Section 1. Execution upon judgments or final orders.
    Execution shall issue as a matter of right, on motion, upon a judgment or order that disposes of the action or proceeding upon the expiration of the period to appeal therefrom if no appeal has been duly perfected.

    If the appeal has been duly perfected and finally resolved, the execution may forthwith be applied for in the court of origin, on motion of the judgment obligee, submitting therewith certified true copies of the judgment or judgments or final order or orders sought to be enforced and of the entry thereof, with notice to the adverse party.

    The appellate court may, on motion in the same case, when the interest of justice so requires, direct the court of origin to issue the writ of execution.


Sec. 2. Discretionary execution.
    (a) Execution of a judgment or final order pending appeal.— On motion of the prevailing party will notice to the adverse party filed in the trial court while it has jurisdiction over the case and is in possession of either the original record or the record on appeal, as the case may be, at the time of the filing of such motion, said court may, in its discretion, order execution of a judgment or final order even before the expiration of the period to appeal.

    After the trial court has lost jurisdiction, the motion for execution pending appeal may be filed in the appellate court.

    Discretionary execution may only issue upon good reasons to be stated in a special order after due hearing.

    (b) Execution of several, separate or partial judgments.— A several separate or partial judgment may be executed under the same terms and conditions as execution of a judgment or final order pending appeal.


Sec. 3. Stay of discretionary execution.
    Discretionary execution issued under the preceding section may be stayed upon approval by the proper court of a sufficient supersede as bond filed by the party against whom it is directed, conditioned upon the performance of the judgment or order allowed to be executed in case it shall be finally sustained in whole or in part. The bond thus given may be proceeded against on motion with notice to the surety.

Sec. 4. Judgments not stayed by appeal.
    Judgments in actions for injunction, receivership, accounting and support, and such other judgments as are now or may hereafter be declared to be immediately executory, shall be enforceable after their rendition and shall not be stayed by an appeal taken therefrom, unless otherwise ordered by the trial court. On appeal therefrom, the appellate court in its discretion may make an order suspending, modifying, restoring or granting the injunction, receivership, accounting, or award of support.

    The stay of execution shall be upon such terms as to bond or otherwise as may be considered proper for the security or protection of the rights of the adverse party.


Sec. 5. Effect of reversal of executed judgment.
    Where the executed judgment is reversed totally or partially, or annulled, on appeal or otherwise, the trial court may, on motion, issue such orders of restitution or reparation of damages as equity and justice may warrant under the circumstances.

Sec. 6. Execution by motion or by independent action.
    A final and executory judgment or order may be executed on motion within five (5) years from the date of its entry. After the lapse of such time, and before it is barred by the statute of limitations, a judgment may be enforced by action. The revived judgment may also be enforced by motion within five (5) years from the date of its entry and thereafter by action before it is barred by the statute of limitations.

Sec. 7. Execution in case of death of party.
    In case of the death of party, execution may issue or be enforced in the following manner:
     
    (a) In case of the death of the judgment obligee, upon the application of his executor or administrator, or successor in interest;

    (b) In case of the death of the judgment obligor, against his executor or administrator or successor in interest, if the judgment be for the recovery of real or personal property, or the enforcement of the lien thereon;

    (c) In case of the death of the judgment obligor, after execution is actually levied upon any of his property, the same may be sold for the satisfaction of the judgment obligation, and the officer making the sale shall account to the corrsponding executor or administrator for any surplus in his hands.

Sec. 8. Issuance, form and contents of a writ of execution.
    The writ of execution shall: (1) issue in the name of the Republic of the Philippines from the court which granted the motion; (2) state the name of the court, the case number and title, the dispositive part of the subject judgment or order; and (3) require the sheriff or other proper officer to whom it is directed to enforce the writ according to its terms, in the manner herein after provided:
     
    (a) If the execution be against the property of the judgment obligor, to satisfy the judgment, with interest, out of the real or personal property of such judgment obligor;

    (b) If it be against real or personal property in the jands of personal representatives, heirs, devisees, legatees, tenants, or trustees of the judgment obligor, to satisfy the judgment, with interest, out of such properties;

    (c) If it be for the sale of real or personal property, to sell such property, describing it, and apply the proceeds in conformity with the judgment, the material parts of which shall be recited in the writ of execution;

    (d) If it be for the delivery of the possession of real or personal property, to deliver the possession of the same, describing it, to the party entitled thereto, and to satisfy any costs, damages, rents, or profits covered by the judgment out of the personal property of the person against whom it was rendered, and if sufficient personal property cannot be found, then out of the real property; and

    (e) In all cases, the writ of execution shall specifically state the amount of the interest, costs, damages, rents, or profits due as of the date of the issuance of the writ, aside from the principal obligation under the judgment. For this purpose, the motion for execution shall specify the amounts of the foregoing reliefs sought by the movant.

     
Sec. 9. Execution of judgments for money, how enforced.
    (a) Immediate payment on demand. - The officer shall enforce an execution of a judgment for money by demanding from the judgment obligor the immediate payment of the full amount stated in the writ of execution and all lawful fees. The judgment obligor shall pay in cash, certified bank check payable to the judgment obligee or his authorized representative if present at the time of payment. The lawful fees shall be handed under proper receipt to the executing sheriff who shall turn over the said amount within the same day to the clerk of court of the court that issued the writ.

    If the judgment obligee or his authorized representative is not present to receive payment, the judgment obligor shall deliver the aforesaid payment to the executing sheriff. The latter shall turn over all the amounts coming into his possesssion within the same day to the clerk of court of the court that issued the writ, or if the same is not practicable, deposit said amount to a fiduciary account in the nearest government depository bank of the Regional Trial Court of the locality.

    The clerk of court shall thereafter arrange for the remittance of the deposit to the account of the court that issued the writ whose clerk of court shall then deliver said payment to the judgment obligee in satisfactionn of the judgmen. The excess, if any, shall be delivered to the judgment obligor while the lawful fees shall be retained by the clerk of court for disposition as provided by law. In no case shall the executing sheriff demand that any payment by check be made payable to him.

    (b) Satisfaction by levy. - If the judgment obligor cannot pay all or part of the obligation in cash, certified bank check or other mode of payment acceptable to the judgment obligee, the officer shall levy upon the properties of the judgment obligor of every kind and nature whatsoever which may be disposed of for value and not otherwise exempt from execution giving the latter the option to immediately choose which property or part thereof may be levied upon, sufficient to satisfy the judgment. If the judgment obligor does not exercise the option, the officer shall first levy on the personal properties, if any, an then on the real properties if the personal properties are insufficient to answer for the judgment.

    The sheriff shall sell only a sufficient portion of the personal or real property of the judgment obligor which has been levied upon.

    When there is more property of the judgment obligor than is sufficient to satisfy the judgment and lawful fees, he must sell only so much of the personal or real property as is sufficient to satisfy the judgment and lawful fees.

    Real property, stocks, shares, debts, credits, and other personal property, or any interest in either real or persoanl property, may be levied upon in like manner and with like effect as under a writ of attachment.

    (c) Garnishment of debts and credits. - The officer may levy on debts due the judgment obligor and other credits, including bank deposits, financial interests, royalties, commissions and other personal property not capable of manual delivery in the posssession or control of third parties. Levy shall be made by serving notice upon the person owing such debts or having in his possession or control such credits to which the judgment obligor is entitled. The garnishment shall cover only such amount as will satisfy the judgment and all lawful fees.

    The garnishee shall make a written report to the court within five (5) days from service of the notice of garnishment stating whether or not the judgment obligor has sufficient funds or credits to satisfy the amount of the judgment. If not, the report shall state how much funds or credits the garnishee holds for the judgment obligor. The garnished amount in cash, or certified bank check issued in the name of the judgment obligee, shall be delivered directly to the judgment obligee within ten (10) working days from service of notice on said garnishing requiring such delivery, except the lawful fees which shall be paid directly to the court.

    In the event there are two or more garnishees holding deposits or credits sufficient to satisfy the judgment, the judgment obligor, if available, shall have the right to indicate the garnishee or garnishees who shall be required to deliver the amount due; otherwise, the choice shall be made by the judgment obligee.

    The executing sheriff shall observe the same procedure under paragraph (a) with respect to delivery of payment to the judgment obligee.


Sec. 10. Execution of judgments for specific act.
    (a) Conveyance, delivery of deeds, or other specific acts; vesting title. - If a judgment directs a party who execute a conveyance of land or personal property, or to deliver deeds or other documents, or to perform any other specific act in connection therewith, and the party fails to comply within the time specified, the court may direct the act to be done at the cost of the disobedient party by some other person appointed by the court and the act when so done shall have like effect as if done by the party. If real or personla property is situated within the Philippines, the court in lieu of directing a conveyance thereof may be an order divest the title of any party and vest it in others, which shall have the force and effect of a conveyance executed in due form of law.

    (b) Sale of real or personal property.— If the judgment be for the sale of real or personal property, to sell such property, describing it, and apply the proceeds in conformity with the judgment.

    (c) Delivery or restitution of real property.- The officer shall demand of the person against whom the judgment for the delivery or restitution of real property is rendered and all person claiming rights under him to peaceably vacate the property within three (3) working days, and restore possession thereof to the judgment obligee; otherwise, the officer shall oust and such persons therefrom with the assistance, if necessary of appropriate peace officers, and employing such means as may be reasonably necessary to retake possession, and place the judgment obligee in possession of such property. Any costs, damages, rents or profits awarded by the judgment shall be satisfied in the same manner as a judgment for money.

    (d) Removal of improvements on property subject of execution.- When the property subject of the execution contains improvements constructed or planted by the judgment obligor or his agent, the officer shall not destroy, demolish or remove said improvements except upon special order of the court issued upon motion of the judgment obligee after due hearing and after the former has failed to remove the same within a reasonable time fixed by the court.

    (e) Delivery of personal property.- In judgments for the delivery of personal property, the officer shall take possession of the same and forthwith deliver it to the party entitled thereto and satisfy any judgment for money as therein provided.


Sec. 11. Execution of special judgments.
    When a judgment requires the performance of any act other than those mentioned in the two preceding sections, a certified copy of the judgment shall be attached to the writ of execution and shall be served by the officer upon the party against whom the same is rendered, or upon any other person required thereby, or by law, to obey the same, and such party or person may be punished for contempt if he disobeys such judgment.

Sec. 12. Effect of levy on execution as to third persons.
    The levy on execution shall create a lien in favor of the judgment obligee over the right, title and interest of the judgment obligor in such property at the time of the levy, subject to liens and encumbrances then existing.

Sec. 13. Property exempt from execution.
    Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, the following property, and no other, shall be exempt from execution:
    (a) The judgment obligor's family home as provided by law, or the homestead in which he resides, and land necessarily used in connection therewith;

    (b) Ordinary tools and implements personally used by him in hs trade, employment, or livelihood;

    (c) Three horses, or three cows, or three carabaos, or other beasts of burden such as the judgment obligor may select necessarily used by him in his ordinary occupation;

    (d) His necessary clothing and articles for ordinary personal use, excluding jewelry;

    (e) Household furniture and utensils necessary for housekeeping, and used for that purpose by the judgment obligor and his family, such as the judgment obligor may select, of a value not exceeding one hundred thousand pesos;

    (f) Provisions for individual or family use sufficient for four months;

    (g) The professional libraries and equipment of judges, lawyers, physicians, pharmacists, dentists, engineers, surveyors, clergymen, teachers, and other professionals, not exceeding three hundred thousand pesos in value;

    (h) One fishing boat and accessories not exceeding the total value of one hundred thousand pesos owned by a fisherman and by the lawful use of which he earns his livelihood;

    (i) So much of the salaries, wages, or earnings of the judgment obligor of his personal services within the four months preceding the levy as are necessary for the support of his family;

    (j) Lettered gravestones;

    (k) Monies benefits, privileges, or annuities accruing or in any manner growing out of any life insurance;

    (l) The right to receive legal support, or money or property obtained as such support, or any pension or gratuity from the Government;

    (m) Properties specially exempt by law.

    But no article or species of property mentioned in his section shall be exempt from executio issued upon a judgment recovered for its price or upon a judgment of foreclosure of a mortgage thereon.

Sec. 14. Return of writ of execution.
    The writ of execution shall be returnable to the court issuing it immediately after the judgment has been satisfied in part or in full. If the judgment cannot be satisfied in full within thirty (30) days after his receipt of the writ, the officer shall report to the court and state the reason therefor. Such writ shall continue in effect during the period within which the judgment may be enforced by motion. The officer shall make a report to the court every thirty (30) days on the proceedings taken thereon until the judgment is satisfied in full, or its effectivity expires. The returns or periodic reports shall set forth the whole of the proceedings taken, and shall be filed with the court and copies thereof promptly furnished the parties.

Sec. 15. Notice of sale of property on execution.
    Before the sale of property on execution, notice thereof must be given as follows:
     
    (a) In case of perishable property, by posting written notice of the time and place of the sale in three (3) public places, preferably in conspicuous areas of the municipal or city hall, post office and public market in the municipality or city where the sale is to take place, for such time as may be reasonable, considering the character and condition of the property;

    (b) In case of other personal property, by posting a similar notice in the three (3) public places above-mentioned for not less than five (5) days;

    (c) In case of real property, by posting for twenty (20) days in the three (3) public places above-mentioned a similar notice particularly describing the property and stating where the property is to be sold, and if the assessed value of the property exceeds fifty thousand (P50,000.00) pesos, by publishing a copy of the notice once a week for two (2) consecutive weeks in one newspaper selected by raffle, whether in English, Filipino, or any major regional language published, edited and circulated or, in the absence thereof, having general circulation in the province or city;

    (d) In all cases, written notice of the sale shall be given to the judgment obligor, at least three (3) days before the sale, except as provided in paragraph (a) hereof where notice shall be given at any time before the sale, in the same manner as personal service of pleadings and other papers as provided by Section 6 of Rule 13.

    The notice shall specify the place, date and exact time of the sale which should not be earlier than nine o’clock in the morning and not later than two o’clock in the afternoon. The place of the sale may be agreed upon by the parties. In the absence of such agreement, the sale of real property or personal property not capable of manual delivery shall be held in the office of the clerk of court of the Regional Trial Court or the Municipal Trial Court which issued the writ or which was designated by the appellate court. In the case of personal property capable of manual delivery, the sale shall be held in the place where the property is located.

Sec. 16. Proceedings where property claimed by third person.
    If the property levied on is claimed by any person other than the judgment obligor or his agent, and such person makes an affidavit of his title thereto or right to the possession thereof, stating the grounds of such right or title, and serves the same upon the officer making the levy and a copy thereof upon the judgment obligee, the officer shall not be bound to keep the property, unless such judgment obligee, on demand of the officer, files a bond approved by the court to indemnify the third-party claimant in a sum not less than the value of the property levied on. In case of disagreement as to such value, the same shall be determined by the court issuing the writ of execution. No claim for damages for the taking or keeping of the property may be enforced against the bond unless the action therefor is filed within one hundred twenty (120) days from the date of the filing of the bond.

    The officer shall not be liable for damages for the taking or keeping of the property, to any third-party claimant if such bond is filed. Nothing herein contained shall prevent such claimant or any third person from vindicating his claim to the property in a separate action, or prevent the judgment obligee from claiming damages in the same or a separate action against a third-party claimant who filed a frivolous or plainly spurious claim.

    When the writ of execution is issued in favor of the Republic of the Philippines, or any officer duly representing it, the filing of such bond shall not be required, and in case the sheriff or levying officer is sued for damages as a result of the levy, he shall be represented by the Solicitor General and if held liable therefor, the actual damages adjudged by the court shall be paid by the National Treasurer out of such funds as may be appropriated for the purpose.


Sec. 17. Penalty for selling without notice, or removing or defacing notice.
    An officer selling without the notice prescribed by section 15 of this Rule shall be liable to pay punitive damages in the amount of five thousand (P5,000.00) pesos to any person injured thereby, in addition to his actual damages, both to be recovered by motion in the same action; and a person willfully removing or defacing the notice posted, if done before the sale, or before the satisfaction of the judgment if it be satisfied before the sale, shall be liable to pay five thousand (P5,000.000) pesos to any person injured by reason thereof, in addition to his actual damages, to be recovered by motion in the same action.

Sec. 18. No sale if judgment and costs paid.
    At any time before the sale of property on execution, the judgment obligor may prevent the sale by paying the amount required by the execution and the costs that have been incurred therein.

Sec. 19. How property sold on execution; who may direct manner and order of sale.
    All sales of property under execution must be made at public auction, to the highest bidder, to start at the exact time fixed in the notice. After sufficient property has been sold to satisfy the execution, no more shall be sold and any excess property or proceeds of the sale shall be promptly delivered to the judgment obligor or his authorized representative, unless otherwise directed by the judgment or order of the court. When the sale is of real property, consisting of several known lots, they must be sold separately; or, when a portion of such real property is claimed by a third person, he may require it to be sold separately. When the sale is of personal property capable of manual delivery, it must be sold within view of those attending the same and in such parcels as are likely to bring the highest price. The judgment obligor, if present at the sale, may direct the order in which property, real or personal, shall be sold, when such property consists of several known lots or parcels which can be sold to advantage separately. Neither the officer conducting the execution sale, nor his deputies, can become a purchaser, nor be interested directly or indirectly in any purchase at such sale.

Sec. 20. Refusal of purchaser to pay.
    If a purchaser refuses to pay the amount bid by him for property struck off to him at a sale under execution, the officer may again sell the property to the highest bidder and shall not be responsible for any loss occasioned thereby; but the court may order the refusing purchaser to pay into the court the amount of such loss, with costs, and may punish him for contempt if he disobeys the order. The amount of such payment shall be for the benefit of the person entitled to the proceeds of the execution, unless the execution has been fully satisfied, in which event such proceeds shall be for the benefit of the judgment obligor. The officer may thereafter reject any subsequent bid of such purchaser who refuses to pay.

Sec. 21. Judgment obligee as purchaser.
    When the purchaser is the judgment obligee, and no third-party claim has been filed, he need not pay the amount of the bid if it does not exceed the amount of his judgment. If it does, he shall pay only the excess.

Sec. 22. Adjournment of sale.
    By written consent of the judgment obligor and obligee, or their duly authorized representatives, the officer may adjourn the sale to any date and time agreed upon by them. Without such agreement, he may adjourn the sale from day to day if it becomes necessary to do so for lack of time to complete the sale on the day fixed in the notice or the day to which it was adjourned.

Sec. 23. Conveyance to purchaser of personal property capable of manual delivery.
    When the purchaser of any personal property, capable of manual delivery, pays the purchase price, the officer making the sale must deliver the property to the purchaser and, if desired, execute and deliver to him a certificate of sale. The sale conveys to the purchaser all the rights which the judgment obligor had in such property as of the date of the levy on execution or preliminary attachment.

Sec. 24. Conveyance to purchaser of personal property not capable of manual delivery.
    When the purchaser of any personal property, not capable of manual delivery, pays the purchase price, the officer making the sale must execute and deliver to the purchaser a certificate of sale. Such certificate conveys to the purchaser all the rights which the judgment obligor had in such property as of the date of the levy on execution or preliminary attachment.

Sec. 25. Conveyance of real property; certificate thereof given to purchaser and filed with registry of deeds.
    Upon a sale of real property, the officer must give to the purchaser a certificate of sale containing:
     
    (a) A particular description of the real property sold;

    (b) The price paid for each distinct lot or parcel;

    (c) The whole price paid by him;

    (d) A statement that the right of redemption expires one (1) year from the date of the registration of the certificate of sale.

    Such certificate must be registered in the registry of deeds of the place where the property is situated.

Sec. 26. Certificate of sale where property claimed by third person.
    When a property sold by virtue of a writ of execution has been claimed by a third person, the certificate of sale to be issued by the sheriff pursuant to sections 23, 24 and 25 of this Rule shall make express mention of the existence of such third-party claim.
Sec. 27. Who may redeem real property so sold.
    Real property sold as provided in the last preceding section, or any part thereof sold separately, may be redeemed in the manner hereinafter provided, by the following persons:
     
    (a) The judgment obligor, or his successor in interest in the whole or any part of the property;

    (b) A creditor having a lien by virtue of an attachment, judgment or mortgage on the property sold, or on some part thereof, subsequent to the lien under which the property was sold. Such redeeming creditor is termed a redemptioner.

Sec. 28. Time and manner of, and amounts payable on, successive redemptions; notice to be given and filed.
    The judgment obligor, or redemptioner, may redeem the property from the purchaser, at any time within one (1) year from the date of the registration of the certificate of sale, by paying the purchaser the amount of his purchase, with one per centum per month interest thereon in addition, up to the time of redemption, together with the amount of any assessments or taxes which the purchaser may have paid thereon after purchase, and interest on such last named amount at the same rate; and if the purchaser be also a creditor having a prior lien to that of the redemptioner, other than the judgment under which such purchase was made, the amount of such other lien, with interest.

    Property so redeemed may again be redeemed within sixty (60) days after the last redemption upon payment of the sum paid on the last redemption, with two per centum thereon in addition, and the amount of any assessments or taxes which the last redemptioner may have paid thereon after redemption by him, with interest on such last-named amount, and in addition, the amount of any liens held by said last redemptioner prior to his own, with interest. The property may be again, and as often as a redemptioner is so disposed, redeemed from any previous redemptioner within sixty (60) days after the last redemption, on paying the sum paid on the last previous redemption, with two per centum thereon in addition, and the amounts of any assessments or taxes which the last previous redemptioner paid after the redemption thereon, with interest thereon, and the amount of any liens held by the last redemptioner prior to his own, with interest.

    Written notice of any redemption must be given to the officer who made the sale and a duplicate filed with the registry of deeds of the place, and if any assessments or taxes are paid by the redemptioner or if he has or acquires any lien other than that upon which the redemption was made, notice thereof must in like manner be given to the officer and filed with the registry of deeds; if such notice be not filed, the property may be redeemed without paying such assessments, taxes, or liens.


Sec. 29. Effect of redemption by judgment obligor, and a certificate to be delivered and recorded thereupon; to whom payments on redemption made.
    If the judgment obligor redeems, he must make the same payments as are required to effect a redemption by a redemptioner, whereupon, no further redemption shall be allowed and he is restored to his estate. The person to whom the redemption payment is made must execute and deliver to him a certificate of redemption acknowledged before a notary public or other officer authorized to take acknowledgments of conveyances of real property. Such certificate must be filed and recorded in the registry of deeds of the place in which the property is situated, and the registrar of deeds must note the record thereof on the margin of the record of the certificate of sale. The payments mentioned in this and the last preceding sections may be made to the purchaser or redemptioner, or for him to the officer who made the sale.

Sec. 30. Proof required of redemptioner.
    A redemptioner must produce to the officer, or person from whom he seeks to redeem, and serve with his notice to the officer a copy of the judgment or final order under which he claims the right to redeem, certified by the clerk of the court wherein the judgment or final order is entered; or, if he redeems upon a mortgage or other lien, a memorandum of the record thereof, certified by the registrar of deeds; or an original or certified copy of any assignment necessary to establish his claim; and an affidavit executed by him or his agent, showing the amount then actually due on the lien.

Sec. 31. Manner of using premises pending redemption; waste restrained.
    Until the expiration of the time allowed for redemption, the court may, as in other proper cases, restrain the commission of waste on the property by injunction, on the application of the purchaser or the judgment obligee, with or without notice; but it is not waste for a person in possession of the property at the time of the sale, or entitled to possession afterwards, during the period allowed for redemption, to continue to use it in the same manner in which it was previously used; or to use it in the ordinary course of husbandry; or to make the necessary repairs to buildings thereon while he occupies the property.

Sec. 32. Rents, earnings and income of property pending redemption.
    The purchaser or a redemptioner shall not be entitled to receive the rents, earnings and income of the property sold on execution, or the value of the use and occupation thereof when such property is in the possession of a tenant. All rents, earnings and income derived from the property pending redemption shall belong to the judgment obligor until the expiration of his period of redemption.

Sec. 33. Deed and possession to be given at expiration of redemption period; by whom executed or given.
    If no redemption be made within one (1) year from the date of the registration of the certificate of sale, the purchaser is entitled to a conveyance and possession of the property; or, if so redeemed whenever sixty (60) days have elapsed and no other redemption has been made, and notice thereof given, and the time for redemption has expired, the last redemptioner is entitled to the conveyance and possession; but in all cases the judgment obligor shall have the entire period of one (1) year from the date of the registration of the sale to redeem the property. The deed shall be executed by the officer making the sale or by his successor in office, and in the latter case shall have the same validity as though the officer making the sale had continued in office and executed it.

    Upon the expiration of the right of redemption, the purchaser or redemptioner shall be substituted to and acquire all the rights, title, interest and claim of the judgment obligor to the property as of the time of the levy. The possession of the property shall be given to the purchaser or last redemptioner by the same officer unless a third party is actually holding the property adversely to the judgment obligor.


Sec. 34. Recovery of price if sale not effective; revival of judgment.
    If the purchaser of real property sold on execution, or his successor in interest, fails to recover the possession thereof, or is evicted therefrom, in consequence of irregularities in the proceedings concerning the sale, or because the judgment has been reversed or set aside, or because the property sold was exempt from execution, or because a third person has vindicated his claim to the property, he may on motion in the same action or in a separate action recover from the judgment obligee the price paid, with interest, or so much thereof as has not been delivered to the judgment obligor; or he may, on motion, have the original judgment revived in his name for the whole price with interest, or so much thereof as has been delivered to the judgment obligor. The judgment so revived shall have the same force and effect as an original judgment would have as of the date of the revival and no more.

Sec. 35. Right to contribution or reimbursement.
    When property liable to an execution against several persons is sold thereon, and more than a due proportion of the judgment is satisfied out of the proceeds of the sale of the property of one of them, or one of them pays, without a sale, more than his proportion, he may compel a contribution from the others; and when a judgment is upon an obligation of one of them, as security for another, and the surety pays the amount, or any part thereof, either by sale of his property or before sale, he may compel repayment from the principal.

Sec. 36. Examination of judgment obligor when judgment unsatisfied.
    When the return of a writ of execution issued against property of a judgment obligor, or any one of several obligors in the same judgment, shows that the judgment remains unsatisfied, in whole or in part, the judgment obligee, at any time after such return is made, shall be entitled to an order from the court which rendered the said judgment, requiring such judgment obligor to appear and be examined concerning his property and income before such court or before a commissioner appointed by it, at a specified time and place; and proceedings may thereupon be had for the application of the property and income of the judgment obligor towards the satisfaction of the judgment. But no judgment obligor shall be so required to appear before a court or commissioner outside the province or city in which such obligor resides or is found.

Sec. 37. Examination of obligor of judgment obligor.
    When the return of a writ of execution against the property of a judgment obligor shows that the judgment remains unsatisfied, in whole or in part, and upon proof to the satisfaction of the court which issued the writ, that a person, corporation, or other juridical entity has property of such judgment obligor or is indebted to him, the court may, by an order, require such person, corporation, or other juridical entity, or any officer or member thereof, to appear before the court or a commissioner appointed by it, at a time and place within the province or city where such debtor resides or is found, and be examined concerning the same. The service of the order shall bind all credits due the judgment obligor and all money and property of the judgment obligor in the possession or in the control of such person, corporation, or juridical entity from the time of service; and the court may also require notice of such proceedings to be given to any party to the action in such manner as it may deem proper.

Sec. 38. Enforcement of attendance and conduct of examination.
    A party or other person may be compelled, by an order or subpoena, to attend before the court or commissioner to testify as provided in the two preceding sections, and upon failure to obey such order or subpoena or to be sworn, or to answer as a witness or to subscribe his deposition, may be punished for contempt as in other cases. Examinations shall not be unduly prolonged, but the proceedings may be adjourned from time to time, until they are completed. If the examination is before a commissioner, he must take it in writing and certify it to the court. All examinations and answers before a court or commissioner must be under oath, and when a corporation or other juridical entity answers, it must be on the oath of an authorized officer or agent thereof.

Sec. 39. Obligor may pay execution against obligee.
    After a writ of execution against property has been issued, a person indebted to the judgment obligor may pay to the sheriff holding the writ of execution the amount of his debt or so much thereof as may be necessary to satisfy the judgment, in the manner prescribed in section 9 of this Rule, and the sheriff’s receipt shall be a sufficient discharge for the amount so paid or directed to be credited by the judgment obligee on the execution.

Sec. 40. Order for application of property and income to satisfaction of judgment.
    The court may order any property of the judgment obligor, or money due him, not exempt from execution, in the hands of either himself or another person, or of a corporation or other juridical entity, to be applied to the satisfaction of the judgment, subject to any prior rights over such property.

    If, upon investigation of his current income and expenses, it appears that the earnings of the judgment obligor for his personal services are more than necessary for the support of his family, the court may order that he pay the judgment in fixed monthly installments, and upon his failure to pay any such installment when due without good excuse, may punish him for indirect contempt.


Sec. 41. Appointment of receiver.
    The court may appoint a receiver of the property of the judgment obligor; and it may also forbid a transfer or other disposition of, or any interference with, the property of the judgment obligor not exempt from execution.

Sec. 42. Sale of ascertainable interest of judgment obligor in real estate.
    If it appears that the judgment obligor has an interest in real estate in the place in which proceedings are had, as mortgagor or mortgagee or otherwise, and his interest therein can be ascertained without controversy, the receiver may be ordered to sell and convey such real estate or the interest of the obligor therein; and such sale shall be conducted in all respects in the same manner as is provided for the sale of real estate upon execution, and the proceedings thereon shall be approved by the court before the execution of the deed.

Sec. 43. Proceedings when indebtedness denied or another person claims the property.
    If it appears that a person or corporation, alleged to have property of the judgment obligor or to be indebted to him, claims an interest in the property adverse to him or denies the debt, the court may authorize, by an order made to that effect, the judgment obligee to institute an action against such person or corporation for the recovery of such interest or debt, forbid a transfer or other disposition of such interest or debt within one hundred twenty (120) days from notice of the order, and may punish disobedience of such order as for contempt. Such order may be modified or vacated at any time by the court which issued it, or by the court in which the action is brought, upon such terms as may be just.

Sec. 44. Entry of satisfaction of judgment by clerk of court.
    Satisfaction of a judgment shall be entered by the clerk of court in the court docket, and in the execution book, upon the return of a writ of execution showing the full satisfaction of the judgment, or upon the filing of an admission to the satisfaction of the judgment executed and acknowledged in the same manner as a conveyance of real property by the judgment obligee or by his counsel unless a revocation of his authority is filed, or upon the endorsement of such admission by the judgment obligee or his counsel on the face of the record of the judgment.

Sec. 45. Entry of satisfaction with or without admission.
    Whenever a judgment is satisfied in fact, or otherwise than upon an execution, on demand of the judgment obligor, the judgment obligee or his counsel must execute and acknowledge, or indorse, an admission of the satisfaction as provided in the last preceding section, and after notice and upon motion the court may order either the judgment obligee or his counsel to do so, or may order the entry of satisfaction to be made without such admission.

Sec. 46. When principal bound by judgment against surety.
    When a judgment is rendered against a party who stands as surety for another, the latter is also bound from the time that he has notice of the action or proceeding, and an opportunity at the surety’s request to join in the defense.

Sec. 47. Effect of judgments or final orders.
    The effect of a judgment or final order rendered by a court of the Philippines, having jurisdiction to pronounce the judgment or final order, may be as follows:
     
    (a) In case of a judgment or final order against a specific thing, or in respect to the probate of a will, or the administration of the estate of a deceased person, or in respect to the personal, political, or legal condition or status of a particular person or his relationship to another, the judgment or final order is conclusive upon the title to the thing, the will or administration, or the condition, status or relationship of the person; however, the probate of a will or granting of letters of administration shall only be prima facie evidence of the death of the testator or intestate;

    (b) In other cases, the judgment or final order is, with respect to the matter directly adjudged or as to any other matter that could have been raised in relation thereto, conclusive between the parties and their successors in interest by title subsequent to the commencement of the action or special proceeding, litigating for the same thing and under the same title and in the same capacity; and

    (c) In any other litigation between the same parties or their successors in interest, that only is deemed to have been adjudged in a former judgment or final order which appears upon its face to have been so adjudged, or which was actually and necessarily included therein or necessary thereto.

Sec. 48. Effect of foreign judgments or final orders.
    The effect of a judgment or final order of a tribunal of a foreign country, having jurisdiction to render the judgment or final order is as follows:
    (a) In case of a judgment or final order upon a specific thing, the judgment or final order is conclusive upon the title to the thing; and

    (b) In case of a judgment or final order against a person, the judgment or final order is presumptive evidence of a right as between the parties and their successors in interest by a subsequent title.

    In either case, the judgment or final order may be repelled by evidence of a want of jurisdiction, want of notice to the party, collusion, fraud, or clear mistake of law or fact.
 

PHILIPPINE JUDICIAL SYSTEM 
Background on the Philippine Judicial System
Philippine Judicial Hierarchy
Regular Courts
Special Courts
Collegiate Courts
Lower Courts
The Supreme Court
The Court of Appeals
Sandiganbayan
Court of Tax Appeals
Regional Trial Courts
Shari'a District Courts
Shari'a Circuit Courts
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Metropolitan Trial Courts
Municipal Circuit Trial Courts
Municipal Trial Courts in Cities
Constitutional Provisions on the Judiciary
Rules of Court of the Philippines
Supreme Court Decisions
Supreme Court Circulars
Philippine Law Update:  The Supreme Court & the Judiciary

2006 DIRECTORY OF JUSTICES AND JUDGES 
of the following courts:

PHILIPPINE JUDICIAL SYSTEM
DIRECTORY OF JUSTICES AND JUDGES
 
Supreme Court
Court of Appeals
Sandiganbayan
Court of Tax Appeals
Regional Trial Courts
Metropolitan Trial Courts in Cities
Municipal Trial Courts/Municipal Circuit Courts
Shari'a District Courts
Shari'a Circuit Courts

 


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