[G.R. NO. 148233. June 8, 2004]
PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Appellee, v. LUISITO D. BUSTINERA, Appellant.
D E C I S I O N
CARPIO MORALES, J.:
From the decision1 of the Regional Trial Court, Branch 217, Quezon City finding appellant Luisito D. Bustinera guilty beyond reasonable doubt of qualified theft2 for the unlawful taking of a Daewoo Racer GTE Taxi and sentencing him to suffer the penalty of reclusion perpetua, he comes to this Court on appeal.
In an information3 dated June 17, 1997, appellant was indicted as follows:ςηαñrοblεš νιr†υαl lαω lιbrαrÿ
The undersigned accuses LUISITO D. BUSTINERA of the crime of Qualified Theft, committed as follows:ςηαñrοblεš νιr†υαl lαω lιbrαrÿ
That on or about the 25th day of December up to the 9th
day of January, 1997, in Quezon City, Philippines, the said accused being
then employed as one [of] the taxi Drivers of Elias S. Cipriano, an Operator of
several taxi cabs with business address at corner 44 Commonwealth Avenue,
this City, and as such has free access to the taxi he
being driven, did then and there willfully, unlawfully and feloniously with
intent to gain, with grave abuse of confidence reposed upon him by his employer
and without the knowledge and consent of the owner thereof, take, steal and
carry away a Daewoo Racer GTE Taxi with Plate No. PWH-266 worth
CONTRARY TO LAW.
Upon arraignment4 on March 27, 2000, appellant, assisted by counsel de oficio, entered a plea of not guilty.Thereafter, trial on the merits ensued.
From the evidence for the prosecution, the following version is established.
Sometime in 1996, Edwin Cipriano (Cipriano),
who manages ESC
Transport, the taxicab business of his father, hired appellant as a taxi driver
and assigned him to drive a Daewoo Racer with plate number PWH-266.
It was agreed that appellant would drive the
taxi from 6:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m, after which he would return it to ESC
Transports garage and remit the boundary fee in the amount of
On December 25, 1996, appellant admittedly reported for work and drove the taxi, but he did not return it on the same day as he was supposed to.
Q: Now, Mr. Witness, on December 25, 1996, did you report for work?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
A: Yes, sir.
Q: Now, since you reported for work, what are your duties and responsibilities as taxi driver of the taxi company?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
A: That we have to bring back the taxi at night with the boundary.
Q: How much is your boundary?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
Q: On December 25, 1996, did you bring out any taxi?
A: Yes, sir.
Q: Now, when ever (sic) you bring out a taxi, what procedure [do] you follow with that company?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
A: That we have to bring back the taxi to the company and before we leave we also sign something, sir.
Q: What is that something you mentioned?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
A: On the record book and on the daily trip ticket, sir.
Q: You said that you have to return your taxi at the end of the day, what is then the procedure reflect (sic) by your company when you return a taxi?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
A: To remit the boundary and to sign the record book and daily trip ticket.
Q: So, when you return the taxi, you sign the record book?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
A: Yes, sir.
Q: You mentioned that on December 25, 1996, you brought out a taxi?
A: Yes, sir.
Q: What kind of taxi?
A: Daewoo taxi, sir.
Q: Now did you return the taxi on December 25, 1996?
A: I was not able to bring back the taxi because I was short of my boundary, sir.6 ςrνll
The following day, December 26, 1996, Cipriano went to appellants house to ascertain why the taxi was not returned.7 Arriving at appellants house, he did not find the taxi there, appellants wife telling him that her husband had not yet arrived.8 Leaving nothing to chance, Cipriano went to the Commonwealth Avenue police station and reported that his taxi was missing.9 ςrνll
On January 9, 1997, appellants wife went to the garage of ESC Transport and revealed that the taxi had been abandoned in Regalado Street, Lagro, Quezon City.10 Cipriano lost no time in repairing to Regalado Street where he recovered the taxi.11 ςrνll
Upon the other hand, while appellant does not deny that he did
not return the taxi on December 25, 1996 as he was short of the boundary fee,
he claims that hedid not
abandon the taxi but actually returned it on January 5, 1997;12 and that on December 27, 1996, he gave the
Appellant, however, admits that his wife informed him that when she went to the garage to remit the boundary fee on the very same day (December 27, 1996),16 Cipriano was already demanding the return of the taxi.17 ςrνll
Appellant maintains though that he returned the taxi on January
5, 1997 and signed the record book,18 which was company procedure, to show that he indeed returned it and gave his
claims that as he still had a balance in the boundary fee, he left his
drivers license with Cipriano;20 that as he could not drive, which was the only work he had ever known, without
his drivers license, and with the obligation to pay the balance of the
boundary fee still lingering, his wife started working on February 18, 1997 as
a stay-in maid for Cipriano, with a monthly salary of
Brushing aside appellants claim that he returned the taxi on
January 5, 1997 and that he had in fact paid the total amount of
WHEREFORE, judgment is hereby rendered finding accused guilty beyond reasonable doubt as charged, and he is accordingly sentenced to suffer the penalty of Reclusion Perpetuaand to pay the costs.
In the service of his sentence, accused is ordered credited with four-fifths (4/5) of the preventive imprisonment undergone by him there being no showing that he agreed in writing to abide by the same disciplinary rules imposed upon convicted prisoners.
SO ORDERED.24 (Emphasis and italics in the original)
Hence, the present appeal anchored on the following assigned errors:
THE COURT A QUO GRAVELY ERRED IN CONCLUDING WITHOUT CONCRETE BASIS THAT THE ACCUSED-APPELLANT HAS INTENT TO GAIN WHEN HE FAILED TO RETURN THE TAXI TO ITS GARAGE.
THE COURT A QUO GRAVELY ERRED IN FINDING ACCUSED-APPELLANT GUILTY BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT OF THE CRIME OF QUALIFIED THEFT.25 ςrνll
It is settled that an appeal in a criminal proceeding throws the whole case open for review, and it becomes the duty of the appellate court to correct such errors as may be found in the judgment even if they have not been specifically assigned.26 ςrνll
Appellant was convicted ofqualified theft under Article 310 of the Revised Penal Code, as amended for the unlawful taking of a motor vehicle.However, Article 310 has been modified, with respect to certain vehicles,27 by Republic Act No. 6539, as amended, otherwise known as "AN ACT PREVENTING AND PENALIZING CARNAPPING.
When statutes are in pari materia28 or when they relate to the same person or thing, or to the same class of persons or things, or cover the same specific or particular subject matter,29 or have the same purpose or object,30 the rule dictates that they should be construed together interpretare et concordare leges legibus, est optimus interpretandi modus.31 Every statute must be so construed and harmonized with other statutes as to form a uniform system of jurisprudence,32 as this Court explained in City of Naga v. Agna,33 viz:ςηαñrοblεš νιr†υαl lαω lιbrαrÿ
The elements of the crime of theft as provided for in Article 308 of the Revised Penal Code are: (1) that there be taking of personal property; (2) that said property belongs to another; (3) that the taking be done with intent to gain; (4) that the taking be done without the consent of the owner; and (5) that the taking be accomplished without the use of violence against or intimidation of persons or force upon things.35 ςrνll
Theft is qualified when any of the following circumstances is present: (1) the theft is committed by a domestic servant; (2) the theft is committed with grave abuse of confidence; (3) the property stolen is either a motor vehicle, mail matter or large cattle; (4) the property stolen consists of coconuts taken from the premises of a plantation; (5) the property stolen is fish taken from a fishpond or fishery; and (6) the property was taken on the occasion of fire, earthquake, typhoon, volcanic eruption, or any other calamity, vehicular accident or civil disturbance.36 ςrνll
On the other hand, Section 2 of Republic Act No. 6539, as amended defines carnapping as the taking, with intent to gain, of a motor vehicle belonging to another without the latter's consent, or by means of violence against or intimidation of persons, or by using force upon things. The elements of carnapping are thus: (1) the taking of a motor vehicle which belongs to another; (2) the taking is without the consent of the owner or by means of violence against or intimidation of persons or by using force upon things; and (3) the taking is done with intent to gain.37 ςrνll
In the 2000 case of People v. Tan 40 where the accused took a Mitsubishi Gallant and in the later case of People v. Lobitania 41 which involved the taking of a Yamaha motorized tricycle, this Court held that the unlawful taking of motor vehicles is now covered by the anti-carnapping law and not by the provisions on qualified theft or robbery.
There is no arguing that the anti-carnapping law is a special law, different from the crime of robbery and theft included in the Revised Penal Code. It particularly addresses the taking, with intent to gain, of a motor vehicle belonging to another without the latter's consent, or by means of violence against or intimidation of persons, or by using force upon things. But a careful comparison of this special law with the crimes of robbery and theft readily reveals their common features and characteristics, to wit: unlawful taking, intent to gain, and that personal property belonging to another is taken without the latter's consent. However, the anti-carnapping law particularly deals with the theft and robbery of motor vehicles. Hence a motor vehicle is said to have been carnapped when it has been taken, with intent to gain, without the owner's consent, whether the taking was done with or without the use of force upon things. Without the anti-carnapping law, such unlawful taking of a motor vehicle would fall within the purview of either theft or robbery which was certainly the case before the enactment of said statute.42 (Emphasis and underscoring supplied; citations omitted.)
It is to be noted, however, that while the anti-carnapping law penalizes the unlawful taking of motor vehicles, it excepts from its coverage certain vehicles such as roadrollers, trolleys, street-sweepers, sprinklers, lawn mowers, amphibian trucks and cranes if not used on public highways, vehicles which run only on rails and tracks, and tractors, trailers and tractor engines of all kinds and used exclusively for agricultural purposes. By implication, the theft or robbery of the foregoing vehicles would be covered by Article 310 of the Revised Penal Code, as amended and the provisions on robbery, respectively.43 ςrνll
From the foregoing, since appellant is being accused of the unlawful taking of a Daewoo sedan, it is the anti-carnapping law and not the provisions of qualified theft which would apply as the said motor vehicle does not fall within the exceptions mentioned in the anti-carnapping law.
The designation in the information of the offense committed by appellant as one for qualified theft notwithstanding, appellant may still be convicted of the crime of carnapping. For while it is necessary that the statutory designation be stated in the information,a mistake in the caption of an indictment in designating the correct name of the offense is not a fatal defect as it is not the designation that is controlling but the facts alleged in the information which determines the real nature of the crime.44 ςrνll
In the case at bar, the information alleges that appellant, with intent to gain, took the taxi owned by Cipriano without the latters consent.45 Thus, the indictment alleges every element of the crime of carnapping,46 and the prosecution proved the same.
Appellants appeal is thus bereft of merit.
That appellant brought out the taxi on December 25, 1996 and did not return it on the same day as he was supposed to is admitted.47 ςrνll
Unlawful taking, or apoderamiento, is the taking of the motor vehicle without the consent of the owner, or by means of violence against or intimidation of persons, or by using force upon things; it is deemed complete from the moment the offender gains possession of the thing, even if he has no opportunity to dispose of the same.48 ςrνll
While the nature of appellants possession of the taxi was initially lawful as he was hired as a taxi driver and was entrusted possession thereof, his act of not returning it to its owner, which is contrary to company practice and against the owners consent transformed the character of the possession into an unlawful one.49 Appellant himself admits that he was aware that his possession of the taxi was no longer with Ciprianos consent as the latter was already demanding its return.
Q: Also you said that during your direct testimony that when you gave
your wife the
A: He did not allow me, sir, and he even [got] angry with me.
Q: So, when did you learn that the company was not agreeable to your making use of the taxicab without first returning it to the company?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
A: Before the new year, sir.
Q: When you said new year, you were referring to January 1, 1997?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
A: Either December 29 or December 30, 1996, sir.
Q: So, are you telling us that even if you knew already that the company was not agreeable to your making use of the taxicab continually (sic) without returning the same to the company, you still went ahead and make (sic) use of it and returned it only on January 5, 1997.
A: Yes, sir.50 (Emphasis and underscoring supplied)ςrαlαωlιbrαrÿ
Appellant assails the trial courts conclusion that there was intent to gain with the mere taking of the taxi without the owners consent. He maintains that his reason for failing to return the taxi was his inability to remit the boundary fee, his earnings that day not having permitted it; and that there was no intent to gain since the taking of the taxi was not permanent in character, he having returned it.
Appellants position does not persuade.
Intent to gain or animus lucrandi is an internal act, presumed from the unlawful taking of the motor vehicle.51 Actual gain is irrelevant as the important consideration is the intent to gain.52 The term gain is not merely limited to pecuniary benefit but also includes the benefit which in any other sense may be derived or expected from the act which is performed.53 Thus, the mere use of the thing which was taken without the owners consent constitutes gain.54 ςrνll
In Villacorta v. Insurance Commission55 which was reiterated in Association of Baptists for World Evangelism, Inc. v. Fieldmens Insurance Co, Inc.,56 Justice Claudio Teehankee (later Chief Justice), interpreting the theft clause of an insurance policy, explained that, when one takes the motor vehicle of another without the latters consent even if the motor vehicle is later returned, there is theft, there being intent to gain as the use of the thing unlawfully taken constitutes gain:ςηαñrοblεš νιr†υαl lαω lιbrαrÿ
Assuming, despite the totally inadequate evidence, that the taking was temporary and for a joy ride, the Court sustains as the better view57 that which holds that when a person, either with the object of going to a certain place, or learning how to drive, or enjoying a free ride, takes possession of a vehicle belonging to another, without the consent of its owner, he is guilty of theftbecause by taking possession of the personal property belonging to another and using it, his intent to gain is evident since he derives therefrom utility, satisfaction, enjoyment and pleasure. Justice Ramon C. Aquino cites in his work Groizard who holds that the use of a thing constitutes gain and Cuello Calon who calls it hurt de uso.58 (Emphasis and underscoring supplied; citation omitted)
Besides, the trial court did not believe appellants claim that he in fact returned the taxi on January 5, 1997.
The Court can not (sic) believe accuseds assertion that he
returned the subject vehicle on January 5, 1997 to the garage and that he had
in fact paid the amount of
The rule is well-entrenched that findings of fact of the trial court are accorded the highest degree of respect and will not be disturbed on appeal absent any clear showing that the trial court had overlooked, misunderstood or misapplied some facts or circumstances of weight and significance which, if considered, would alter the result of the case.60 The reason for the rule being that trial courts have the distinct advantage of having heard the witnesses themselves and observed their deportment and manner of testifying or their conduct and behavior during the trial.61 ςrνll
Other than his bare and self-serving allegations, appellant has not shown any scintilla of evidence that he indeed returned the taxi on January 5, 1997.
Q: You said that you returned the taxi on January 5, 1997, correct?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
A: Yes, sir.
Q: Now, Mr. Witness, did you sign any record when you returned the taxi?
A: Yes, sir.
Q: Do you have any copy of that record?
A: They were the one (sic) in-charge of the record book and I even voluntarily left my drivers license with them, sir.
Q: You said that you did not return the taxi because you were short of (sic) boundary, did you turn over any money to your employer when you returned the taxi?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
A: I gave them [an]
Q: At the time when you returned the taxi, how much was your short indebtedness (sic) or short boundary (sic) ?chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
A: I was short for ten (10)
days, and I was able to pay
Q: Do you have any receipt to show receipt of payment for this
A: They were the ones having the record of my payment, and our agreement was that I have to pay the balance in installment.62 (Emphasis supplied)ςrαlαωlιbrαrÿ
While appellant maintains that he signed on January 5, 1997 the
record book indicating that he returned the taxi on the said date and paid
Cipriano the amount of
The trial court having convicted appellant of qualified theft instead of carnapping, it erred in the imposition of the penalty. While the information alleges that the crime was attended with grave abuse of confidence, the same cannot be appreciated as the suppletory effect of the Revised Penal Code to special laws, as provided in Article 10 of said Code, cannot be invoked when there is a legal impossibility of application, either by express provision or by necessary implication.64 ςrνll
Moreover, when the penalties under the special law are different from and are without reference or relation to those under the Revised Penal Code, there can be no suppletory effect of the rules, for the application of penalties under the said Code or by other relevant statutory provisions are based on or applicable only to said rules for felonies under the Code.65 ςrνll
Thus, in People v. Panida66 which involved the crime of carnapping and the penalty imposed was the indeterminate sentence of 14 years and 8 months, as minimum, to 17 years and 4 months, as maximum, this Court did not apply the provisions of the Revised Penal Code suppletorily as the anti-carnapping law provides for its own penalties which are distinct and without reference to the said Code.
The charge being simple carnapping, the imposable penalty is imprisonment for not less than 14 years and 8 months and not more than 17 years and 4 months. There can be no suppletory effect of the rules for the application of penalties under the Revised Penal Code or by other relevant statutory provisions based on, or applicable only to, the rules for felonies under the Code. While it is true that the penalty of 14 years and 8 months to 17 years and 4 months is virtually equivalent to the duration of the medium period of reclusion temporal, such technical term under the Revised Penal Code is not given to that penalty for carnapping. Besides, the other penalties for carnapping attended by the qualifying circumstances stated in the law do not correspond to those in the Code. The rules on penalties in the Code, therefore, cannot suppletorily apply to Republic Act No. 6539 and special laws of the same formulation. For this reason, we hold that the proper penalty to be imposed on each of accused-appellants is an indeterminate sentence of 14 years and 8 months, as minimum, to 17 years and 4 months, as maximum.67 (Emphasis and underscoring supplied; citations omitted)
Appellant being then culpable for carnapping under the first clause of Section 14 of Republic Act No. 6539, as amended, the imposable penalty is imprisonment for not less than 14 years and 8 months, not more than 17 years and 4 months,68 for, as discussed above, the provisions of the Revised Penal Code cannot be applied suppletorily and, therefore, the alleged aggravating circumstance of grave abuse of confidence cannot be appreciated.
Applying Section 1 of Act No. 4103,69 as amended, otherwise known as the Indeterminate Sentence Law, if the offense is punishable by a special law, the court shall sentence the accused to an indeterminate sentence, the maximum term of which shall not exceed the maximum fixed by said law and the minimum term shall not be less than the minimum prescribed by the same the penalty imposed being a range.70 ςrνll
WHEREFORE, the judgment of the Regional Trial Court of Quezon City, Branch 217, in Crim Case No. Q-97-71956, finding appellant Luisito D. Bustinera guilty beyond reasonable doubt of qualified theft, is REVERSED and SET ASIDE, and another judgment entered in its place, finding him guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of carnapping under Republic Act No. 6539, as amended and sentencing him to an indeterminate penalty of Fourteen (14) Years and Eight (8) Months, as minimum, to Seventeen (17) Years and Four (4) Months, as maximum.
Vitug, (Chairman), Sandoval-Gutierrez, and Corona, JJ., concur.
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