U.S. Supreme Court
Throckmorton v. Holt, 180 U.S. 552 (1901)
Throckmorton v. Holt
Argued December 7, 10, 1900
Decided March 26, 1901
180 U.S. 552
At the trial of this case before the jury, the main issue was upon the validity of the will of Adjutant General Holt. Tecumseh Sherman, a son of General Sherman, was called to prove that the signature of his mother as a witness was genuine. He was not inquired of as to the genuineness of the signature of his father, because his uncle, Senator Sherman, had testified that that signature was genuine. Subsequently Mr. Randolph testified that he was familiar with the signature of General Sherman, giving his sources of knowledge, and that he was of opinion, (giving his reasons for it) that it was not his signature. Tecumseh Sherman was recalled to prove that the objection found to the signature of his father was not an unusual feature in his signature, but the court, on objection, excluded the evidence. Held that the evidence was competent as rebuttal, and should have been received.
It is the general rule that, if evidence which may have been taken in the course of a trial be withdrawn from the consideration of the jury by the direction of the presiding judge, such direction cures any error which may have been committed by its introduction, but there may be instances (and the present case is one) where such a strong impression has been made upon the minds of the jury by illegal and improper testimony that its subsequent withdrawal will not remove the effect caused by its admission, and in that case the general objection may avail on appeal or writ of error. There may also be a defect in the language of the attempted withdrawal. In such a case, and under the particular facts in this case, the names of the witnesses should have been given, and the specific evidence which was given by them, and which was to be withdrawn should have been pointed out.
The opinion of a witness as to the genuineness of the handwriting found in a paper, based in part upon his knowledge of the character and style of the composition and the legal and literary attainments of the individual whose handwriting it purports to be, are not competent to go to the jury upon the question raised in this case.
Declarations, either oral or written, made by a testator either before or after the date of an alleged will, unless made near enough to the time of its execution to become part of the res gestae, are not admissible as evidence in favor of or against the validity of the will.
If not admissible generally, they are inadmissible even as merely corroborative of evidence denying the genuine character of the handwriting.
No presumption of revocation of the will by the testator, or under his direction, chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
arises from the appearance of this will when first received by the register of wills. There must be some evidence of an act by the deceased, or under his direction, sufficient to show the fact, or the instrument must have been found among the papers of the deceased, mutilated, torn or defaced, under such circumstances that the revocation might be presumed.
As the production of the will in this case created no presumption of revocation, it was necessary to prove that the act of mutilation was performed by him or by his direction, with an intention to revoke, and his declarations, not being part of the res gestae, cannot be used for that purpose.
This was a proceeding in the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia for the purpose of proving an alleged will of the late Joseph Holt, a distinguished lawyer and for many years Judge Advocate General of the United States Army, who died at the age of eighty-seven, in Washington on August 1, 1894, after a residence of many years in that city. The proceeding resulted in the rejection of the paper on the ground that it was not the will of Judge Holt, but was a forged document, and judgment refusing probate was entered upon the verdict of the jury. The proponents of the will appealed to the Court of Appeals of the District, but before the appeal was brought on for argument, Miss Hynes, one of the legatees named in the will, withdrew her appeal. The judgment of the Supreme Court upon the appeal of the other proponents was subsequently affirmed by the Court of Appeals, and the proponents of the paper, excepting Miss Hynes, have brought the case here by writ of error.
The record shows that Judge Holt died leaving no relatives nearer than nieces and nephews, residents of the States of Indiana, Mississippi, and Kentucky, and of the City of Washington, D.C., all being respondents in this appeal. He had been twice married, and both wives had died long prior to his own demise. He had no children by either wife. Immediately upon his death, his nephews, Washington D. Holt and William G. Sterrett, came to his late residence in Washington, and the keys being delivered to them by one of the servants, a strict search was made for a will, but none was found. While the nephews were in possession of the house and the search was going on for the chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
will, papers were burned and destroyed, all of which the nephews testified were wholly unimportant, and consisted of letters from relatives of Judge Holt to him, and that no papers destroyed were of a testamentary character. No will having been found, the nephews above named, and another, named John W. Holt, filed a petition in the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, holding a special term for orphans' court business, in which the fact of intestacy was stated and the appointment of an administrator was asked. Pursuant to the petition, and on September 28, 1894, the National Safe Deposit, Savings & Trust Company of the District was appointed administrator of the estate, and has continued so to act since that time.
Up to August 26, 1895, nothing out of the ordinary occurred in the administration of the estate, but on the last-mentioned date, a sealed envelope, addressed to the register of wills in Washington, was received by that officer, which envelope was postmarked "Washington, D.C. August 24, 6 P.M. 1895, L." The envelope was opened by the register, who found therein a paper purporting to be a will signed by "J. Holt," dated February 7, 1873, and on the paper appeared what purported to be the signatures of Ellen B. E. Sherman, U.S. Grant, and W. T. Sherman as witnesses. By this paper Judge Holt gave one-half of his estate to Lizzie Hynes, her real name being Elizabeth Hynes, and the other half to Josephine Holt Throckmorton.
Lizzie Hynes had been left an orphan in infancy and had been committed to the care of her uncle, Dr. Harrison, and his daughter, the first Mrs. Holt, and she had taken special charge of the child up to the time of her own marriage to Judge Holt, who had promised his wife at the time of their marriage to care for the child, and Mrs. Holt, upon her deathbed, asked and received a promise from Judge Holt that he would always take care of Lizzie and treat her as if she were his own daughter. From that time until his death, Judge Holt fully and in all things kept his promise and always supported her, she living most of the time in Kentucky, though frequently visiting and traveling with him.
The other beneficiary, Miss Throckmorton, was Judge Holt's god-daughter, her mother being the cousin of his second wife, and chanroblesvirtualawlibrary