U.S. Supreme Court
Evanston v. Gunn, 99 U.S. 660 (1878)
Evanston v. Gunn
99 U.S. 660
1. A party specifying his objection to the admission of evidence must be considered as waiving all others or as conceding that there is no ground upon which they can be maintained.
2. The record kept by a person employed in the Signal Service of the United States, whose public duty it is to record truly the facts therein stated, is competent evidence of such facts.
3. During its change from a town to a village organization, under the statute of Illinois of April 10, 1872, the corporation is not released from the obligation to exercise the power with which it is invested to keep its streets and sidewalks in a safe condition. For neglect in that regard it is liable to a party who thereby sustains special damages.
4. Inasmuch as the village succeeds to all the property and funds as well as to the liabilities of the town, and has power to borrow money to provide for improvements rendered necessary by any casualty or accident happening after the annual appropriation, it cannot, when sued by such party, set up that its board of trustees were unauthorized to make that appropriation for the year in which the plaintiff's injury occurred, nor that the board and the other officers of the village were prohibited by law from adding to the corporate expenditures in any one year an amount above that provided for in the annual appropriation bill for that year.
5. Where the charge to the jury taken as a whole fully and fairly submits the law of the case, the judgment will not be reversed because passages extracted therefrom and read apart from their connection need qualification.
This was an action of trespass on the case brought by Jessie Gunn against the Village of Evanston, Ill., to recover damages which she had sustained April 22, 1873, by reason of the alleged neglect of duty on the part of the defendant.
The old town of Evanston was in 1863 incorporated under the General Laws of 1845, and the defendant, its successor, became incorporated as a municipal corporation, and assumed its present name, Oct. 15, 1872, under an act of the General Assembly, entitled "An Act to provide for the incorporation of cities and villages," approved April 10, 1872.
The laws of 1845 authorized the corporation, among other things, to keep open and in repair its streets and alleys by making pavements or sidewalks as to it might seem needful, and to levy and collect a tax for the purpose, and provided that it should be its duty to cause all its streets and alleys, and chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
all the public roads passing from and through it for one mile from the centre thereof, to be kept in good repair.
The corporation, to fulfill these duties, was authorized to require male residents to work on the roads, and it could make appropriations from the annual tax levy. The duties of a street commissioner were to be prescribed by ordinance. An ordinance of the town of Evanston declared them to be "to keep in repair streets, ditches, drains, crosswalks, and sidewalks, under the direction of the board of trustees."
The Act of April 10, 1872, under which the new organization was effected, confers the following among other powers:
"To lay out, establish, open, alter, widen, extend, grade, pave, or otherwise improve streets, alleys, avenues, sidewalks, wharves, parks, and public grounds, and vacate the same; to prevent and remove encroachments or obstructions upon the same; to construct and keep in repair culverts, drains, sewers, and cesspools, and regulate the use thereof; to construct and keep in repair bridges, viaducts, and tunnels, and regulate the use thereof."
The act also authorizes the assessment and levy of taxes for corporate purposes; the making of annual appropriations to defray all necessary expenses and liabilities; and the borrowing of money under certain contingencies, for the same general purposes. It further provides that when a majority of the votes of the town cast at an election to be held for that purpose shall be for a village organization,
"such town shall, from and henceforth, be deemed to be duly incorporated as a village under this act; but the town officers then in office shall continue as like officers of such village until their successors shall be elected or appointed under the provisions of this act."
The election for village officers is held on the third Tuesday in April of each year, and the fiscal year commences at that date.
It is further provided that
"From the time of such change of organization, the provisions of this act shall be applicable to such cities and villages, and all laws in conflict therewith shall no longer be applicable. But all laws or parts of laws, not inconsistent with the provisions of this act, shall continue in force and be applicable to any such city or village,
the same as if such change of organization had not taken place. All ordinances, resolutions, and bylaws in force in any city or town when it shall organize under this act shall continue in full force and effect until repealed or amended, notwithstanding such change of organization, and the making of such change of organization shall not be construed to effect a change in the legal identity, as a corporation, of such city or town."
Sec. 12 provides:
"All rights and property of every kind and description, which were vested in any municipal corporation under its former organization, shall be deemed and held to be vested in the same municipal corporation upon its becoming incorporated under the provisions of this act, but no rights or liabilities, either in favor of or against such corporation, existing at the time of so becoming incorporated under this act, and no suit or prosecution of any kind, shall be affected by such change."
It is further provided that the board of trustees
"shall, within the first quarter of each fiscal year, pass an ordinance, to be termed the annual appropriation bill, in which such corporate authorities may appropriate such sum or sums of money as may be deemed necessary to pay all necessary expenses and liabilities of such corporation. . . . No further appropriations shall be made at any other time within such fiscal year, unless the proposition to make such has been first sanctioned by a majority of the legal voters of such village, either by a petition signed by them, or at a general or special election duly called therefor. . . . Neither the board of trustees, nor any department or officer of the corporation, shall add to the corporation expenditures in any one year any thing over and above the amount provided for in the annual appropriation bill of that year, except as is herein otherwise specially provided, and no expenditures for an improvement to be paid for out of the general fund of the corporation shall exceed in any one year the amount provided for such improvement in the annual appropriation bill, provided, however, that nothing herein contained shall prevent the board of trustees from adding, by a two-thirds vote, any improvement, the necessity of which is caused by any casualty or accident happening after such annual
appropriation is made. The board of trustees may, by a like vote, order the president of the board of trustees and finance committee to borrow a sufficient amount to provide for the expense necessary to be incurred in making any improvements, the necessity of whicance committee to borrow a sufficient amount to provide for the expense necessary to be incurred in making any improvements, the necessity of whic