26 C.F.R. § 1.1502-96   Miscellaneous rules.


Title 26 - Internal Revenue


Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 1—INCOME TAXES
Administrative Provisions and Other Rules

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§ 1.1502-96   Miscellaneous rules.

(a) End of separate tracking of losses—(1) Application. This paragraph (a) applies to a member (or a loss subgroup) with a net operating loss carryover that arose (or is treated under §1.1502–21(c) as arising) in a SRLY, or a member (or loss subgroup) with a net unrealized built-in loss determined at the time that the member (or loss subgroup) becomes a member of the consolidated group if there is—

(i) An ownership change of the member (or loss subgroup) within six months before, on, or after becoming a member of the group; or

(ii) A period of 5 consecutive years following the day that the member (or loss subgroup) becomes a member of a group during which the member (or loss subgroup) has not had an ownership change.

(2) Effect of end of separate tracking—(i) Net operating loss carryovers. If this paragraph (a) applies with respect to a member (or loss subgroup) with a net operating loss carryover, then, starting on the day after the earlier of the change date (but not earlier than the day the member (or loss subgroup) becomes a member of the consolidated group) or the last day of the 5 consecutive year period described in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, such loss carryover is treated as described in §1.1502–91(c)(1)(i). The preceding sentence also applies for purposes of determining whether there is an ownership change with respect to such loss carryover following such change date or 5 consecutive year period. Thus, for example, starting the day after the change date (but not earlier than the day the member (or loss subgroup) becomes a member of the consolidated group) or the end of the 5 consecutive year period—

(A) The consolidated group which includes the new loss member or loss subgroup is no longer required to separately track owner shifts of the stock of the new loss member or subgroup parent to determine if an ownership change occurs with respect to the loss carryover of the new loss member or members included in the loss subgroup;

(B) The group is a loss group because the member's loss carryover is treated as a loss described in §1.1502–91(c)(1)(i);

(C) There is an ownership change with respect to such loss carryover only if the group has an ownership change; and

(D) If the group has an ownership change, such loss carryover is a pre-change consolidated attribute subject to the loss group's consolidated section 382 limitation.

(ii) Net unrealized built-in losses. If this paragraph (a) applies with respect to a new loss member described in §1.1502–94(a)(1)(ii) (or a loss subgroup described in §1.1502–91(d)(2)) then, starting on the day after the earlier of the change date (but not earlier than the day the member (or loss subgroup) becomes a member of the group) or the last day of the 5 consecutive year period described in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, the member (or members of the loss subgroup) are treated, for purposes of applying §1.1502–91(g)(2)(ii), as if they have been affiliated with the common parent for 5 consecutive years. Starting on that day, the member's (or the members of the loss subgroup's) separately computed net unrealized built-in loss is included in the determination whether the group has a net unrealized built-in loss, and there is an ownership change with respect to the member's separately computed net unrealized built-in loss only if the group (including the member) has a net unrealized built-in loss and has an ownership change. Thus, for example, starting the day after the change date (but not earlier than the day the member (or loss subgroup) becomes a member of the consolidated group), or the end of the 5 consecutive period

(A) The consolidated group which includes the new loss member or loss subgroup is no longer required to separately track owner shifts of the stock of the new loss member or subgroup parent to determine if an ownership change occurs with respect to the net unrealized built-in loss of the new loss member or members of the loss subgroup;

(B) The group includes the member's (or the loss subgroup members') separately computed net unrealized built-in loss in determining whether it is a loss group under §1.1502–91(c)(1)(iii);

(C) There is an ownership change with respect to such net unrealized built-in loss only if the group is a loss group and has an ownership change; and

(D) If the group has an ownership change, the member's separately computed net unrealized built-in loss and its assets are taken into account in determining the group's pre-change consolidated attributes described in §1.1502–91(e)(1) (relating to recognized built-in losses) that are subject to the group's consolidated section 382 limitation.

(iii) Common parent not common parent for five years. If the common parent has become the common parent of an existing group within the previous 5-year period in a transaction described in §1.1502–75(d)(2)(ii) or (3), appropriate adjustments must be made in applying paragraphs (a)(2)(ii) and (3) of this section. In such a case, as the context requires, references to the common parent are to the former common parent.

(3) Continuing effect of end of separate tracking—(i) In general. As the context may require, a current group determines which of its members are included in a loss subgroup on any testing date by taking into account the application of this section in the former group. See the example in §1.1502–91(f)(2). For this purpose, corporations that are treated under paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section as having been affiliated with the common parent of the former group for 5 consecutive years are also treated as having been affiliated with any other members that have been (or are treated as having been) affiliated with the common parent. The corporations are treated as having been affiliated with such other members for the same period of time that those members have been (or are treated as having been) affiliated with the common parent. If two or more corporations become members of the group at the same time, but paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to every such corporation, then immediately after the corporations become members of the group, the corporations to which paragraph (a)(1) of this section applied are treated as not having been previously affiliated, for purposes of applying this paragraph (a)(3), with the corporations to which paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section did not apply.

(ii) Example. The following example illustrates the principles of this paragraph (a)(3):

Example.  (i) L has owned all the stock of L1 for three years. At the close of December 31, Year 1, the M group purchases all the L stock, and L and L1 become members of the M group. Other than the stock of L1, L has one asset (the L loss asset) with a net unrealized built-in loss of $200 on this date. L1 has one asset with a net unrealized built-in gain of $50 (the L1 gain asset). L and L1 do not compose a loss subgroup because they do not meet the five year affiliation requirement of §1.1502–91(d)(2)(i). L is a new loss member, and M's purchase of L causes an ownership change of L. At the close of December 31, Year 4, at a time when L1 has been affiliated with the M group for three years and has been affiliated with L for six years, the S group purchases all the M stock. On this date, the L loss asset has a net unrealized built-in loss of $300, the L1 gain asset has a net unrealized built-in gain of $80, and M, the common parent of the M group, has one asset with a net unrealized built-in gain of $200.

(ii) Paragraph (a)(1) of this section applies to L because L is a new loss member described in §1.1502–94(a)(1)(ii) that has an ownership change upon becoming a member of the M group on December 31, Year 1. Accordingly, L is treated as having been affiliated with M for 5 consecutive years, and the L loss asset with a net unrealized built-in loss of $300 is included in the determination whether the M group has a net unrealized built-in loss.

(iii) The S group determines which of its members are included in a loss subgroup by taking into account application of paragraph (a) of this section in the M group. For this purpose, application of paragraph (a) of this section causes L to be treated as having been affiliated with M (or as having been a member of the M group) for 5 consecutive years as of January 1, Year 2. Therefore, the S group includes L in the determination whether the M subgroup acquired by S on December 31, Year 4, has a net unrealized built-in loss.

(iv) Because paragraph (a)(1) of this section applied to L when L became a member of the M group, but did not apply to L1, L is treated as not having been affiliated with L1 before L and L1 joined the M group. Also, L1 is not included in the determination whether the M subgroup has a net unrealized built-in loss because L1 has not been continuously affiliated with members of the M group for the five consecutive year period ending immediately before they become members of the S group. See §1.1502–91(g)(2).

(4) Special rule for testing period. For purposes of determining the beginning of the testing period for a loss group, the member's (or loss subgroup's) net operating loss carryovers (or net unrealized built-in loss) described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section are considered to arise—

(i) In a case described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, in a taxable year that begins not earlier than the later of the day following the change date or the day that the member becomes a member of the group; and

(ii) In a case described in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, in a taxable year that begins 3 years before the end of the 5 consecutive year period.

(5) Limits on effects of end of separate tracking. The rule contained in this paragraph (a) applies solely for purposes of §§1.1502–91 through 1.1502–95 and this section (other than paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B) of this section (relating to the definition of pre-change attributes of a subsidiary)) and §1.1502–98, and not for purposes of other provisions of the consolidated return regulations. However, the rule contained in this paragraph (a) does apply in §§1.1502–15(g), 1.1502–21(g) and 1.1502–22(g) for purposes of determining the composition of loss subgroups defined in §1.1502–91(d). See also paragraph (c) of this section for the continuing effect of an ownership change with respect to pre-change attributes.

(b) Ownership change of subsidiary—(1) Ownership change of a subsidiary because of options or plan or arrangement. Notwithstanding §1.1502–92, a subsidiary may have an ownership change for purposes of section 382 with respect to its attributes which a group or loss subgroup includes in making a determination under §1.1502–91(c)(1) (relating to the definition of loss group) or §1.1502–91(d) (relating to the definition of loss subgroup). The subsidiary has such an ownership change if it has an ownership change under the principles of §1.1502–95(b) and section 382 and the regulations thereunder (determined on a separate entity basis by treating the subsidiary as not being a member of a consolidated group) in the event of—

(i) The deemed exercise under §1.382–4(d) of an option or options (other than an option with respect to stock of the common parent) held by a person (or persons acting pursuant to a plan or arrangement) to acquire more than 20 percent of the stock of the subsidiary; or

(ii) An increase by 1 or more 5-percent shareholders, acting pursuant to a plan or arrangement to avoid an ownership change of a subsidiary, in their percentage ownership interest in the subsidiary by more than 50 percentage points during the testing period of the subsidiary through the acquisition (or deemed acquisition pursuant to §1.382–4(d)) of ownership interests in the subsidiary and in higher-tier members with respect to the subsidiary.

(2) Effect of the ownership change—(i) In general. If a subsidiary has an ownership change under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the amount of consolidated taxable income for any post-change year that may be offset by the pre-change losses of the subsidiary shall not exceed the section 382 limitation for the subsidiary. For purposes of this limitation, the value of the subsidiary is determined solely by reference to the value of the subsidiary's stock.

(ii) Pre-change losses. The pre-change losses of a subsidiary are—

(A) Its allocable part of any consolidated net operating loss which is attributable to it under §1.1502–21(b) (determined on the last day of the consolidated return year that includes the change date) that is not carried back and absorbed in a taxable year prior to the year including the change date;

(B) Its net operating loss carryovers that arose (or are treated under §1.1502–21(c) as having arisen) in a SRLY; and

(C) Its recognized built-in loss with respect to its separately computed net unrealized built-in loss, if any, determined on the change date.

(3) Coordination with §§1.1502–91, 1.1502–92, and 1.1502–94. If an increase in percentage ownership interest causes an ownership change with respect to an attribute under this paragraph (b) and under §1.1502–92 on the same day, the ownership change is considered to occur only under §1.1502–92 and not under this paragraph (b). See §1.1502–94 for anti-duplication rules relating to value.

(4) Example. The following example illustrates paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section:

Example. Plan to avoid an ownership change of a subsidiary.  (i) L owns all the stock of L1, L1 owns all the stock of L2, L2 owns all the stock of L3, and L3 owns all the stock of L4. The L group has a consolidated net operating loss arising in Year 1 that is carried over to Year 2. L has assets other than its L1 stock with a value of $900. L1, L2, and L3 own no assets other than their L2, L3, and L4 stock. L4 has assets with a value of $100. During Year 2, A, B, C, and D, acting pursuant to a plan to avoid an ownership change of L4, acquire the following ownership interests in the members of the L loss group: (A) on September 11, Year 2, A acquires 20 percent of the L1 stock from L and B acquires 20 percent of the L2 stock from L1; and (B) on September 20, Year 2, C acquires 20 percent of the stock of L3 from L2 and D acquires 20 percent of the stock of L4 from L3.

(ii) The acquisitions by A, B, C, and D pursuant to the plan have increased their respective percentage ownership interests in L4 by approximately 10, 13, 16, and 20 percentage points, for a total of approximately 59 percentage points during the testing period. This more than 50 percentage point increase in the percentage ownership interest in L4 causes an ownership change of L4 under paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(c) Continuing effect of an ownership change. A loss corporation (or loss subgroup) that is subject to a limitation under section 382 with respect to its pre-change losses continues to be subject to the limitation regardless of whether it becomes a member or ceases to be a member of a consolidated group. See §1.382–5(d) (relating to successive ownership changes and absorption of a section 382 limitation).

(d) Losses reattributed under §1.1502–20(g)—(1) In general. This paragraph (d) contains rules relating to net operating carryovers that are reattributed to the common parent under §1.1502–20(g). References in this paragraph (d) to a subsidiary are references to the subsidiary (or lower tier subsidiary) whose net operating loss carryover is reattributed to the common parent.

(2) Deemed section 381(a) transaction. Under §1.1502–20 (g)(1), the common parent succeeds to the reattributed losses as if the losses were succeeded to in a transaction described in section 381(a). In general, §§1.1502–91 through 1.1502–95, this section, and §1.1502–98 are applied to the reattributed net operating loss carryovers in accordance with that characterization. See generally, §1.382–2(a)(1)(ii) (relating to distributor or transferor loss corporations in transactions under section 381), §1.1502–(1)(f)(4) (relating to the definition of predecessor and successor) and §1.1502–91(j) (relating to predecessor and successor corporations). For example, if the reattributed net operating loss carryover is a pre-change attribute subject to a section 382 limitation, it remains subject to that limitation following the reattribution. In certain cases, the limitation applicable to the reattributed loss is zero unless the common parent apportions all or part of the limitation to itself. (See paragraph (d)(4) of this section.)

(3) Rules relating to owner shifts—(i) In general. Any owner shift of the subsidiary (including any deemed owner shift resulting from section 382(g)(4)(D) or 382(l)(3)) in connection with the disposition of the stock of the subsidiary is not taken into account in determining whether there is an ownership change with respect to the reattributed net operating loss carryover. However, any owner shift with respect to the successor corporation that is treated as continuing in existence under §1.382–2(a)(1)(ii) must be taken into account for such purpose if such owner shift is effected by the reattribution and an owner shift of the stock of the subsidiary not held directly or indirectly by the common parent would have been taken into account if such shift had occurred immediately before the reattribution. See paragraph (d)(3)(ii) Example 2 of this section.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of this paragraph (d)(3):

Example 1. No owner shift for reattributed loss.  (i) P, the common parent of a consolidated group, owns 60% of the stock of L, and B owns the remaining 40%. L has a net operating loss carryover of $100 from year 1 that it carries over to Years 2, 3, and 4. At the beginning of Year 2, P purchases 40% of the L stock from B, which does not cause an ownership change of L. On December 31, Year 3, P sells all of the L stock to M. Pursuant to §1.1502–20(g), P reattributes $10 of L's $100 net operating loss carryover to itself, and L carries $90 of its net operating loss carryover to its Year 4.

(ii) The sale of the L stock to M does not cause an owner shift that is taken into account in determining if there is an ownership change with respect to the $10 reattributed loss. Following the reattribution, §1.1502–94(b) continues to apply to determine if there is an ownership change with respect to the $10 reattributed loss, until, under paragraph (a) of this section, the loss is treated as described in §1.1502–91(c)(1)(i). In applying §1.1502–94(b), the 40 percentage point increase by the P shareholders prior to the reattribution is taken into account. The sale of the L stock to M does cause an ownership change of L with respect to the $90 of its net operating loss that it carries over to Year 4.

Example 2. Owner shift for reattributed loss.  The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that P only purchases 20% of the L stock from B and sells 80% of the L stock to M. L is a new loss member, and, under §1.1502–94(b)(1), an owner shift of the stock of L not held directly or indirectly by the common parent (the 20% of L stock still held by B) would have been taken into account if such shift had occurred immediately before the reattribution. Following the reattribution, §1.1502–94(b) continues to apply to determine if there is an ownership change with respect to the $10 reattributed loss, until, under paragraph (a) of this section, the loss is treated as described in §1.1502–91(c)(1)(i). With respect to the $10 reattributed loss, the P shareholders have increased their percentage ownership interest by 40 percentage points. The P shareholders have increased their ownership interests by 20 percentage points as a result of P's purchase of stock from B, and, under §1.382–2(a)(1)(ii), are treated as increasing their interests by an additional 20 percentage points as a result of the reattribution. (The acquisition of the L stock by M does not, however, effect an owner shift for the $10 of reattributed loss.) The sale of the L stock to M causes an ownership change of L with respect to the $90 of net operating loss that L carries over to Year 4.

(4) Rules relating to the section 382 limitation—(i) Reattributed loss is a pre-change separate attribute of a new loss member. If the reattributed net operating loss carryover is a pre-change separate attribute of a new loss member that is subject to a separate section 382 limitation prior to the disposition of subsidiary stock, the common parent's limitation with respect to that loss is zero, except to the extent that the common parent apportions to itself, under paragraph (d)(5) of this section, all or part of such limitation. A separate section 382 limitation is the limitation described in §1.1502–94(b) that applies to a pre-change separate attribute.

(ii) Reattributed loss is a pre-change subgroup attribute. If the reattributed net operating loss carryover is a pre-change subgroup attribute subject to a subgroup section 382 limitation prior to the disposition of subsidiary stock, and, immediately after the reattribution, the common parent is not a member of the loss subgroup, the section 382 limitation with respect to that net operating loss carryover is zero, except to the extent that the common parent apportions to itself, under paragraph (d)(5) of this section, all or part of the subgroup section 382 limitation. See, however, §1.1502–95(d)(3) Example 6, for an illustration of a case where the common parent, as successor to the subsidiary, is a member of the loss subgroup immediately after the reattribution.

(iii) Potential application of section 382(l)(1). In general, the value of the stock of the common parent is used to determine the section 382 limitation for an ownership change with respect to the reattributed net operating loss carryover that occurs at the time of, or after, the reattribution. For example, if the net operating loss carryover is a pre-change consolidated attribute, the value of the stock of the common parent is used to determine the section 382 limitation, and no adjustment to that value is required because of the deemed section 381(a) transaction. However, if the net operating loss carryover is a pre-change separate attribute of a new loss member (or is a pre-change attribute of a loss subgroup member and the common parent was not the loss subgroup parent immediately before the reattribution), the deemed section 381(a) transaction is considered to constitute a capital contribution with respect to the new loss member (or loss subgroup member) for purposes of section 382(l)(1). Accordingly, if that section applies because the deemed capital contribution is (or is considered under section 382(l)(1)(B) to be) part of a plan described in section 382(l)(1)(A), the value of the stock of the common parent after the deemed section 381(a) transaction must be adjusted to reflect the capital contribution. Ordinarily, this will require the value of the stock of the common parent to be reduced to an amount that represents the value of the stock of the subsidiary (or loss subgroup of which the subsidiary was a member) when the reattribution occurred.

(iv) Duplication or omission of value. In determining any section 382 limitation with respect to the reattributed net operating loss carryover and with respect to other pre-change losses, appropriate adjustments must be made so that value is not improperly omitted or duplicated as a result of the reattribution. For example, if the subsidiary has an ownership change upon its departure, and the common parent (as successor) has an ownership change with respect to the reattributed pre-change separate attribute upon its reattribution under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, proper adjustments must be made so that the value of the subsidiary is not taken into account more than once in determinining the section 382 limitation for the reattributed loss and the loss that is not reattributed.

(v) Special rule for continuity of business requirement. If the reattributed net operating loss carryover is a pre-change attribute of new loss member and the reattribution occurs within the two year period beginning on the change date, then, starting immediately after the reattribution, the continuity of business requirement of section 382(c)(1) is applied with respect to the business enterprise of the common parent. Similar principles apply if the reattributed net operating loss carryover is a pre-change subgroup attribute and, on the day after the reattribution, the common parent is not a member of the loss subgroup.

(5) Election to reattribute section 382 limitation—(i) Effect of election. The common parent may elect to apportion to itself all or part of any separate section 382 limitation or subgroup section 382 limitation to which the net operating loss carryover is subject immediately before the reattribution. However, no net unrealized built-in gain of the member (or loss subgroup) whose net operating loss carryover is reattributed can be apportioned to the common parent. The principles of §1.1502–95(c) apply to the apportionment, treating, as the context requires, references to the former member as references to the common parent, and references to the consolidated section 382 limitation as references to the separate section 382 limitation (or subgroup section 382 limitation) that is being apportioned. Thus, for example, the common parent can reattribute to itself all or part of the value element or adjustment element of the limitation, and any part of such element that is apportioned requires a corresponding reduction in such element of the separate section 382 limitation of the subsidiary whose net operating loss carryover is reattributed (or in the subgroup section 382 limitation if the reattributed loss is a pre-change subgroup attribute). Appropriate adjustments must be made to the separate section 382 limitation (or subgroup section 382 limitation) for the consolidated return year in which the reattribution is made to reflect that the reattributed net operating loss carryover is an attribute acquired by the common parent during the year in a transaction to which section 381(a) applies. The election is made by the common parent as part of the election to reattribute the net operating loss carryover. See §1.1502–20(g)(4) for the time and manner of making the election.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of this paragraph (d)(5):

Example 1. Consequence of apportionment.  (i) P, the common parent of a consolidated group, purchases all of the stock of L on December 31, Year 1. L carries over a net operating loss arising in Year 1 to each of the next 5 taxable years. The purchase of the L stock causes an ownership change of L, and results in a separate section 382 limitation of $10 for L's net operating loss carryover based on the value of the L stock. On July 2, Year 3, P sells 30 percent of the L stock to A. Under §1.1502–20(g), P elects to apportion to itself $110 of L's $200 net operating loss carryover. P also elects to apportion to itself $6 of the $10 value element of the separate section 382 limitation.

(ii) For the consolidated return years ending after December 31, Year 3, P's separate section 382 limitation with respect to the reattributed net operating loss carryover is $6, adjusted as appropriate for any short taxable year, unused section 382 limitation, or other adjustment. For the P group's consolidated return year ending December 31, Year 3, the separate section 382 limitation for L's net operating loss carryover is $8, the sum of $5 and $3. Five dollars of the limitation is the amount that bears the same relationship to $10 as the number of days in the period ending with the deemed section 381(a) transaction, 183 days, bears to 365. Three dollars of the limitation is the amount that bears the same relationship to $6 as the number of days in the period between July 3 and December 31, 182, bears to 365.

(iii) For L's taxable years ending after December 31, Year 3, L's separate section 382 limitation for its $90 of net operating loss carryover that was not reattributed to P is $4, adjusted as appropriate for any short taxable year, unused section 382 limitation, or other adjustment. For L's short taxable year ending December 31, Year 3, the section 382 limitation for its $90 of net operating loss carryover is $2, the amount that bears the same relationship to $4 (the portion of the value element that was not apportioned to P), as the number of days during the short taxable year, 182 days, bears to 365. See §1.382–5(c).

Example 2. No apportionment required for consolidated pre-change attribute.  (i) P, the common parent of a consolidated group, forms L. For Year 1, L has an operating loss of $70 that is not absorbed and is included in the group's consolidated net operating loss that is carried over to subsequent years. On January 1 of Year 3, A buys all of the P stock and the P group has an ownership change. The consolidated section 382 limitation based on the value of the P stock is $10.

(ii) On April 13 of Year 4, P sells all of the stock of L to B and, under §1.1502–20(g), elects to reattribute to itself $45 of L's net operating loss carryover. Following the reattribution, the $45 portion of the Year 1 net operating loss carryover retains its character as a pre-change consolidated attribute, and remains subject to so much of the $10 consolidated section 382 limitation as P does not elect to apportion to L under §1.1502–95(c).

(e) Time and manner of making election under §1.1502–91(d)(4)—(1) In general. This paragraph (e) prescribes the time and manner of making the election under §1.1502–91(d)(4), relating to treating two or more corporations as treating the section 1504(a)(1) requirement of §1.1502–91(d)(1)(ii) and (d)(2)(ii) as satisfied.

(2) Election statement. An election under §1.1502–91(d)(4) must be made by the common parent. The election must be made in the form of the following statement: “THIS IS AN ELECTION UNDER §1.1502–91(d)(4) TO TREAT THE FOLLOWING CORPORATIONS AS MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF §1.1502–91 (d)(1)(ii) AND (d)(2)(ii) IMMEDIATELY AFTER THEY BECAME MEMBERS OF THE GROUP.” [List separately the name of each corporation, its E.I.N., and the date that it became a member of the group]. If separate elections are being made for corporations that became members at different times or that were acquired from different affiliated groups, provide a separate statement and list for each election.

(3) The election statement must be filed by the common parent with its income tax return for the consolidated return year in which the members with respect to which the election is made become members of the group. Such election must be filed on or before the due date for such income tax return, including extensions.

(4) An election made under this paragraph (e) is irrevocable.

[T.D. 8824, 64 FR 36170, July 2, 1999]

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