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 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                                                                                             U.S. real                                                                             Gains or      Distributions   Distributions   Section 1445      property                   Date                              Parcel sold              (loss)           to C        to B (before     withholding      interest                                                                             realized                      withholding)      35% rate         account-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1/01/94..................................  ............................  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............             -0- 3/01/94..................................  Parcel 1....................        140,000   ..............  ..............  ..............         140,000 3/05/94..................................  ............................  ..............           5,000          10,000           3,500         125,000 3/15/94..................................  ............................  ..............          10,000           5,000           1,750         110,000 5/01/94..................................  Parcel 2....................        300,000   ..............  ..............  ..............         410,000 5/15/94..................................  Parcel 3....................        (50,000)  ..............  ..............  ..............         360,00012/01/94..................................  ............................  ..............         170,000         170,000          59,500          20,000 1/01/95..................................  ............................  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............             -0---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(iv) Disposition by grantor trust. The trustee or equivalent fiduciary of a trust that is subject to the provisions of subpart E of part 1 of subchapter J (sections 671 through 679) must withhold a tax equal to 35 percent (or the highest rate specified in section 1445(e)(1)) of the gain realized from each disposition of a U.S. real property interest to the extent such gain is allocable to a portion of the trust treated as owned by a foreign person under subpart E of part 1 of subchapter J.

(2) Withholding not required under paragraph (c)—(i) [Reserved]

(ii) Interest-holder not a foreign person—(A) In general. A domestic partnership, trust, or estate that disposes of a U.S. real property interest shall not be required to withhold with respect to any partner or beneficiary that it determines, pursuant to the rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section, not to be a foreign person.

(B) Belated notice of false certification. If after the date of the transfer a partnership or fiduciary learns that a partner's or beneficiary's certification of non-foreign status is false, then that partnership or fiduciary shall be required to withhold, with respect to the foreign partner or beneficiary that gave the false certification, the lessor of—

(1) The amount otherwise required to be withheld under the rules of this paragraph (c), or

(2) An amount equal to that partner's or beneficiary's remaining interests in the income or assets of the partnership, trust, or estate. Amounts so withheld must be reported and paid over by the 60th day following the date on which the partnership or fiduciary learns that the certification is false. For rules concerning the notifications of false certifications that may be required to be given to partnerships and fiduciaries, see §1.1445–4(b).

(iii) Property disposed of not a U.S. real property interest—(A) In general. No withholding is required under this paragraph (c) if a domestic partnership, trust, or estate that disposes of property determines pursuant to the rules of paragraph (b)(4) of this section that the property disposed of is not a U.S. real property interest.

(B) Belated notice of false statement. If after the date of the transfer a partnership or fiduciary learns that a corporation's statement (that an interest in the corporation is not a U.S. real property interest) is false, then that partnership or fiduciary shall be required to withhold, with respect to each foreign partner or beneficiary, the lesser of—

(1) The amount otherwise required to be withheld under the rules of this paragraph (c), or

(2) An amount equal to that partner's or beneficiary's remaining interests in the income or assets of the parnership, trust, or estate.

Amounts so withheld must be reported and paid over by the 60th day following the date on which the partnership or fiduciary learns that the statement is false. For rules concerning the notifications of false statements that may be required to be given to partnerships or fiduciaries, see §1.1445–4(b).

(iv) Withholding certificate. No withholding is required under this paragraph (c) with respect to the transfer of a U.S. real property interest if the Internal Revenue Service issues a withholding certificate that so provides. For rules concerning the issuance of withholding certificates, see §1.1445–6.

(v) Nonrecognition transactions. For special rules concerning transactions entitled to nonrecognition of gain or loss, see paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(3) Large partnerships or trusts—(i) In general. If a partnership or trust has more than 100 partners or beneficiaries, then the partnership or fiduciary of the trust may elect to withhold in accordance with the provisions of this §1.1445–5(c)(3) in lieu of withholding in the manner required by §1.1445–5(c)(1). However, the rules of this §1.1445–5(c)(3) shall not apply to any partnership or trust interests in which are regularly traded on an established securities market except as described in §1.1445–8(c)(1). The rules of this §1.1445–5(c)(3) shall not apply to any real estate investment trust. See §1445–8.

(ii) Amount to be withheld. A partnership or trust electing to withhold under this §1.1445–5(c)(3) shall withhold from each distribution to a foreign person an amount equal to 35 percent (or the highest rate specified in section 1445(e)(1)) of the amount attributable to section 1445(e)(1) transfers.

(iii) Amounts attributable to section 1445(e)(1) transfers. A distribution is attributable to section 1445(e)(1) transfers to the extent of the partner's or beneficiary's proportionate share of the current balance of the entity's section 1445(e)(1) account. A distribution from a partnership or trust that has made an election under this §1.1445–5(c)(3) shall be deemed first to be attributable to a section 1445(e)(1) transfer to the extent of the balance in the section 1445(e)(1) account. An entity's section 1445(e)(1) account shall be equal to—

(A) The total amount of net gain realized by the entity upon all transfers of U.S. real property interests carried out by the entity after the date of its election under this §1.1445–5(c)(3); minus

(B) The total amount of all distributions by the entity to domestic and foreign distributees from such account.

(iv) Special rules for entities that make recurring sales of growing crops and timber. An entity that makes an election under §1.1445–5(c)(3) and that makes recurring sales of growing crops and timber may further elect to determine the amount subject to withholding under the rules of this §1.1445–5(c)(3)(iv). Such an entity must withhold from each distribution to a foreign partner or beneficiary an amount equal to 10 percent of such partner's or beneficiary's proportionate share of the current balance of the entity's gross section 1445(e)(1) account. An entity's gross section 1445(e)(1) account equals—

(A) The total amount realized by the entity upon all transfers of U.S. real property interests carried out by the entity after the date of its election under this §1.1445–5(c)(3)(iv); minus

(B) The total amount of all distributions to domestic and foreign distributees from such account.

An entity that elects to compute the amount subject to withholding under this §1.1445–5(c)(3)(iv), shall make such election in accordance with §1.1445–5(c)(3)(vi) and shall be subject to the provisions otherwise applicable under §1.1445–5(c)(3).

(v) Procedural rules. An election under paragraph (c)(3) may be made by filing a notice thereof with the Director, Philadelphia Service Center, at the address provided in §1.1445–1(g)(10). The notice must be submitted by a general partner (in the case of a partnership) or the trustee or equivalent fiduciary (in the case of a trust). The notice must set forth the name, office address, and identifying number of the partnership or fiduciary making the election, and, in the case of a partnership, must include the name, office address, and identifying number of the general partner submitting the election. An election under this paragraph (c)(3) may be revoked only with the consent of the Internal Revenue Service. Consent of the Service may be requested by filing an application to revoke the election with the Director, Philadelphia Service Center at the address stated above. This application must include all information provided to the Service with the election notice and must provide an explanation of the reasons for revoking the election. The application to revoke an election must also specify the amount remaining to be distributed in the section 1445(e)(1) account or the gross section 1445(e)(1) account.

An entity that ceases to qualify under section 1.1445–5(c)(3) because such entity does not have more than 100 partners or beneficiaries may revoke its election only with the consent of the Internal Revenue Service.

(d) Distributions of U.S. real property interests by foreign corporations—(1) In general. A foreign corporation that distributes a U.S. real property interest must deduct and withhold a tax equal to 35 percent (or the rate specified in section 1445(e)(2)) of the amount of gain recognized by the corporation on the distribution. The amount of gain required to be recognized by the corporation must be determined pursuant to the rules of section 897 and any other applicable section. For special rules concerning the applicability of a nonrecognition provision to a distribution, see paragraph (b)(2) of this section. The withholding liability imposed by this paragraph (d) applies to the same taxpayer that owes the related substantive income tax liability pursuant to the operation of section 897. Only one such liability will be assessed and collected from a foreign corporation, but separate penalties for failures to comply with the two requirements will be asserted.

(2) Withholding not required—(i) Property distributed not a U.S. real property interest—(A) In general. No withholding is required under this paragraph (d) if a foreign corporation that distributes property determines pursuant to the rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section that the property distributed is not a U.S. real property interest.

(B) Belated notice of false statement. If after the date of a distribution described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section a foreign corporation learns that another corporation's statement (that an interest in that other corporation is not a U.S. real property interest) is false, then the foreign corporation may not rely upon that statement for any purpose. Such a foreign corporation's withholding obligations under this paragraph (d) shall apply if a statement had never been given, and such a corporation may be held fully liable pursuant to §1.1445–5(b)(5) for any failure to withhold. Amounts withheld pursuant to the rule of this paragraph (d)(2)(i)(B) must be reported and paid over by the 60th day following the date on which the foreign corporation learns that the statement is false. No penalties or interest will be assessed for failures to withhold prior to that date. For rules concerning the notifications of false statements that may be required to be given to foreign corporations, see §1.1445–4(b).

(ii) Withholding certificate. No withholding is required under this paragraph (d) with respect to a foreign corporation's distribution of a U.S. real property interest if the distributing corporation obtains a withholding certificate from the Internal Revenue Service that so provides. For rules concerning the issuance of withholding certificates, see §1.1445–6.

(e) Distributions to foreign persons by U.S. real property holding corporations—(1) In general. A domestic corporation that distributes any property to a foreign person that holds an interest in the corporation must deduct and withhold a tax equal to 10 percent of the fair market value of the property distributed to the foreign person, if—

(i) The foreign person's interest in the corporation constitutes a U.S. real property interest under the provisions of section 897 and regulations thereunder; and

(ii) There is a distribution of property in redemption of stock treated as an exchange under section 302(a), in liquidation of the corporation pursuant to the provisions of Part II of subchapter C of the Internal Revenue Code (sections 331 through section 346), or with respect to stock under section 301 that is not made out of earnings and profits of the corporation.

(2) Coordination rules for Section 301 distributions. If a domestic corporation makes a distribution of property under section 301 to a foreign person whose interest in such corporation constitutes a U.S. real property interest under the provisions of section 897 and the regulations thereunder, then see §1.1441–3(c)(4) for rules coordinating withholding obligations under sections 1445 and 1441 (or 1442 or 1443)).

(3) Withholding not required—(i) Foreign person's interest not a U.S. real property interest. Withholding is required under this paragraph (e) only with respect to distributions to foreign persons holding interests in the corporation that constitute U.S. real property interests. In general, a foreign person's interest in a domestic corporation constitutes a U.S. real property interest if the corporation was a U.S real property holding corporation at any time during the shorter of (A) the period in which the foreign person held the interest or (B) the previous five years (but not earlier than June 19, 1980). See section 897(c) and §§1.897–1(c) and 1.897–2 (b) and (h). However, an interest in such a corporation ceases to be a U.S. real property interest after all of the U.S. real property interests held by the corporation itself are disposed of in transactions on which gain or loss is recognized. See section 897(c)(1)(B) and §1.897–2(f)(2). Thus, if a U.S. real property holding corporation in the process of liquidation does not elect section 337 nonrecognition treatment upon its sale of all U.S. real property interests held by the corporation, and recognizes gain or loss upon such sales, interests in that corporation cease to be U.S. real property interests. Therefore, no withholding would be required with respect to that corporation's subsequent liquidating distribution to a foreign shareholder of property other than a U.S. real property interest.

(ii) Nonrecognition transactions. For special rules concerning the applicability of a nonrecognition provision to a distribution described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, see paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(iii) Interest-holder not a foreign person—(A) In general. A domestic corporation shall not be required to withhold under this paragraph (e) with respect to a distribution of property to any distributee that it determines, pursuant to the rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section, not to be a foreign person.

(B) Belated notice of false certification. If after the date of a distribution described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section a domestic corporation learns that an interest-holder's certification of non-foreign status is false, then the corporation may rely upon that certification only if the person providing the false certification holds (or held) less than 10 percent of the value of the outstanding stock of the corporation. With respect to less than 10 percent interest-holders, no withholding is required under this paragraph (e) upon receipt of a belated notice of false certification. With respect to 10 percent or greater interest-holders, the corporation's withholding obligations under this paragraph (e) shall apply as if a certification had never been given, and such a corporation may be held fully liable pursuant to §1.1445–5(b)(6) for any failure to withhold as of the date specified in this §1.1445–5(e)(3)(iii)(B). Amounts withheld pursuant to the rule of this paragraph (e)(3)(iii)(B) must be reported and paid over by the 60th day following the date on which the corporation learns that the certification is false. No penalties or interest for failures to withhold will be assessed prior to that date. For rules concerning the notifications of false certifications that may be required to be given to U.S. real property holding corporations, see §1.1445–4(b).

(iv) Withholding certificate. No withholding, or reduced withholding, is required under this paragraph (e) with respect to a domestic corporation's distribution of property if the distributing corporation obtains a withholding certificate from the Internal Revenue Service that so provides. For rules concerning the issuance of withholding certificates, see §1.1445–6.

(f) Taxable distributions by domestic or foreign partnerships, trusts, or estates. [Reserved]

(g) Dispositions of interests in partnerships, trusts, and estates. [Reserved]

(h) Effective date for taxpayer identification numbers. The requirement in paragraphs (b)(2)(ii)(B) and (C) of this section that taxpayer identification numbers be provided (in all cases) is applicable for dispositions of U.S. real property interests occurring after November 3, 2003.

[T.D. 8113, 51 FR 46642, Dec. 24, 1986; 52 FR 3796, 3917, Feb. 6, 1987, as amended at T.D. 8198, 53 FR 16230, May 5, 1988; T.D. 8321, 55 FR 50553, Dec. 7, 1990; T.D. 8647, 60 FR 66076, Dec. 21, 1995; 61 FR 7157, Feb. 26, 1996; T.D. 8734, 62 FR 53467, Oct. 14, 1997; T.D. 9082, 68 FR 46086, Aug. 5, 2003]

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