CANON 1 - A LAWYER
UPHOLD THE CONSTITUTION, OBEY THE LAWS OF THE LAND AND PROMOTE RESPECT
FOR LAW OF AND LEGAL PROCESSES.
Rule 1.01 - A
shall not engage in unlawful, dishonest, immoral or deceitful conduct.
CANON 2 - A LAWYER
MAKE HIS LEGAL SERVICES AVAILABLE IN AN EFFICIENT AND CONVENIENT MANNER
COMPATIBLE WITH THE INDEPENDENCE, INTEGRITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE
Rule 1.02 - A lawyer
not counsel or abet activities aimed at defiance of the law or at
confidence in the legal system.
Rule 1.03 - A lawyer
not, for any corrupt motive or interest, encourage any suit or
or delay any man's cause.
Rule 1.04 - A lawyer
encourage his clients to avoid, end or settle a controversy if it will
admit of a fair settlement.
Rule 2.01 - A
shall not reject, except for valid reasons, the cause of the
or the oppressed.
CANON 3 - A LAWYER
MAKING KNOWN HIS LEGAL SERVICES SHALL USE ONLY TRUE, HONEST, FAIR,
AND OBJECTIVE INFORMATION OR STATEMENT OF FACTS.
Rule 2.02 - In such
even if the lawyer does not accept a case, he shall not refuse to
legal advice to the person concerned if only to the extent necessary to
safeguard the latter's rights.
Rule 2.03 - A lawyer
not do or permit to be done any act designed primarily to solicit legal
Rule 2.04 - A lawyer
not charge rates lower than those customarily prescribed unless the
Rule 3.01 - A
shall not use or permit the use of any false, fraudulent, misleading,
undignified, self-laudatory or unfair statement or claim regarding his
qualifications or legal services.
CANON 4 - A LAWYER
PARTICIPATE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGAL SYSTEM BY INITIATING OR
EFFORTS IN LAW REFORM AND IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF
Rule 3.02 - In the
of a firm name, no false, misleading or assumed name shall be used. The
continued use of the name of a deceased partner is permissible provided
that the firm indicates in all its communications that said partner is
Rule 3.03 - Where a
accepts public office, he shall withdrawal from the firm and his name
be dropped from the firm name unless the law allows him to practice law
Rule 3.04 - A lawyer
not pay or give anything of value to representatives of the mass media
in anticipation of, or in return for, publicity to attract legal
CANON 5 - A LAWYER
KEEP ABREAST OF LEGAL DEVELOPMENTS, PARTICIPATE IN CONTINUING LEGAL
PROGRAMS, SUPPORT EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE HIGH STANDARDS IN LAW SCHOOLS AS
AS IN THE PRACTICAL TRAINING OF LAW STUDENTS AND ASSIST IN
THE LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE.
CANON 6 - THESE CANONS
APPLY TO LAWYERS IN GOVERNMENT SERVICES IN THE DISCHARGE OF THEIR TASKS.
Rule 6.01 -
primary duty of a lawyer engaged in public prosecution is not to
but to see that justice is done. The suppression of facts or the
of witnesses capable of establishing the innocence of the accused is
reprehensible and is cause for disciplinary action.
Rule 6.02 - A lawyer
government service shall not use his public position to promote or
his private interests, nor allow the latter to interfere with his
Rule 6.03 - A lawyer
not, after leaving government service, accept engagement or employment
in connection with any matter in which he had intervened while in said
CHAPTER II. THE LAWYER
AND THE LEGAL PROFESSION
CANON 7 - A LAWYER
AT ALL TIMES UPHOLD THE INTEGRITY AND DIGNITY OF THE LEGAL PROFESSION
SUPPORT THE ACTIVITIES OF THE INTEGRATED BAR.
Rule 7.01 - A lawyer
be answerable for knowingly making a false statement or suppressing a
fact in connection with his application for admission to the bar.
Rule 7.02 - A lawyer
not support the application for admission to the bar of any person
by him to be unqualified in respect to character, education, or other
Rule 7.03 - A lawyer
not engage in conduct that adversely reflects on his fitness to
law, nor shall he whether in public or private life, behave in a
manner to the discredit of the legal profession.
CANON 8 - A LAWYER SHALL
CONDUCT HIMSELF WITH COURTESY, FAIRNESS AND CANDOR TOWARDS HIS
COLLEAGUES, AND SHALL AVOID HARASSING TACTICS AGAINST OPPOSING COUNSEL.
Rule 8.01 - A lawyer
not, in his professional dealings, use language which is abusive,
or otherwise improper.
Rule 8.02 - A lawyer
not, directly or indirectly, encroach upon the professional employment
of another lawyer, however, it is the right of any lawyer, without fear
or favor, to give proper advice and assistance to those seeking relief
against unfaithful or neglectful counsel.
CANON 9 - A LAWYER SHALL
NOT, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, ASSIST IN THE UNAUTHORIZED PRACTICE OF LAW.
Rule 9.01 - A lawyer
not delegate to any unqualified person the performance of any task
by law may only be performed by a member of the bar in good standing.
Rule 9.02 - A lawyer
not divide or stipulate to divide a fee for legal services with persons
not licensed to practice law, except:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
is a pre-existing agreement with a partner or associate that, upon the
latter's death, money shall be paid over a reasonable period of time to
his estate or to persons specified in the agreement; or
(b) Where a lawyer
to complete unfinished legal business of a deceased lawyer; or
(c) Where a lawyer
firm includes non-lawyer employees in a retirement plan even if the
is based in whole or in part, on a profit sharing agreement.
CHAPTER III. THE LAWYER
AND THE COURTS
CANON 10 - A LAWYER
CANDOR, FAIRNESS AND GOOD FAITH TO THE COURT.
Rule 10.01 - A lawyer
not do any falsehood, nor consent to the doing of any in Court; nor
he mislead, or allow the Court to be misled by any artifice.
Rule 10.02 - A lawyer
not knowingly misquote or misrepresent the contents of a paper, the
or the argument of opposing counsel, or the text of a decision or
or knowingly cite as law a provision already rendered inoperative by
or amendment, or assert as a fact that which has not been proved.
Rule 10.03 - A lawyer
observe the rules of procedure and shall not misuse them to defeat the
ends of justice.
CANON 11 - A LAWYER SHALL
OBSERVE AND MAINTAIN THE RESPECT DUE TO THE COURTS AND TO JUDICIAL
AND SHOULD INSIST ON SIMILAR CONDUCT BY OTHERS.
Rule 11.01 - A lawyer
appear in court properly attired.
Rule 11.02 - A lawyer
punctually appear at court hearings.
Rule 11.03 - A lawyer
abstain from scandalous, offensive or menacing language or behavior
Rule 11.04 - A lawyer
not attribute to a Judge motives not supported by the record or have no
materiality to the case.
Rule 11.05 - A lawyer
submit grievances against a Judge to the proper authorities only.
CANON 12 - A LAWYER SHALL
EXERT EVERY EFFORT AND CONSIDER IT HIS DUTY TO ASSIST IN THE SPEEDY AND
EFFICIENT ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE.
Rule 12.01 - A lawyer
not appear for trial unless he has adequately prepared himself on the
and the facts of his case, the evidence he will adduce and the order of
its proferrence. He should also be ready with the original documents
comparison with the copies.
Rule 12.02 - A lawyer
not file multiple actions arising from the same cause.
Rule 12.03 - A lawyer
not, after obtaining extensions of time to file pleadings, memoranda or
briefs, let the period lapse without submitting the same or offering an
explanation for his failure to do so.
Rule 12.04 - A lawyer
not unduly delay a case, impede the execution of a judgment or misuse
Rule 12.05 - A lawyer
refrain from talking to his witness during a break or recess in the
while the witness is still under examination.
Rule 12.06 - A lawyer
not knowingly assist a witness to misrepresent himself or to
Rule 12.07 - A lawyer
not abuse, browbeat or harass a witness nor needlessly inconvenience
Rule 12.08 - A lawyer
avoid testifying in behalf of his client, except:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
such as the mailing, authentication or custody of an instrument, and
(b) on substantial
in cases where his testimony is essential to the ends of justice, in
event he must, during his testimony, entrust the trial of the case to
CANON 13 - A LAWYER SHALL
RELY UPON THE MERITS OF HIS CAUSE AND REFRAIN FROM ANY IMPROPRIETY
TENDS TO INFLUENCE, OR GIVES THE APPEARANCE OF INFLUENCING THE COURT.
Rule 13.01 - A lawyer
not extend extraordinary attention or hospitality to, nor seek
for cultivating familiarity with Judges.
Rule 13.02 - A lawyer
not make public statements in the media regarding a pending case
to arouse public opinion for or against a party.
Rule 13.03 - A lawyer
not brook or invite interference by another branch or agency of the
in the normal course of judicial proceedings.
CHAPTER IV. THE LAWYER
AND THE CLIENT
CANON 14 - A LAWYER
NOT REFUSE HIS SERVICES TO THE NEEDY.
Rule 14.01 - A lawyer
not decline to represent a person solely on account of the latter's
sex. creed or status of life, or because of his own opinion regarding
guilt of said person.
Rule 14.02 - A lawyer
not decline, except for serious and sufficient cause, an appointment as
counsel de officio or as amicus curiae, or a request
the Integrated Bar of the Philippines or any of its chapters for
of free legal aid.
Rule 14.03 - A lawyer
not refuse to accept representation of an indigent client unless:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
(a) he is
a position to carry out the work effectively or competently;
Rule 14.04 - A lawyer
the cause of a person unable to pay his professional fees shall observe
the same standard of conduct governing his relations with paying
(b) he labors under
of interest between him and the prospective client or between a present
client and the prospective client.
CANON 15 - A LAWYER SHALL
OBSERVE CANDOR, FAIRNESS AND LOYALTY IN ALL HIS DEALINGS AND
WITH HIS CLIENTS.
Rule 15.01. - A lawyer,
in conferring with a prospective client, shall ascertain as soon as
whether the matter would involve a conflict with another client or his
own interest, and if so, shall forthwith inform the prospective client.
Rule 15.02.- A lawyer
be bound by the rule on privilege communication in respect of matters
to him by a prospective client.
Rule 15.03. - A
not represent conflicting interests except by written consent of all
given after a full disclosure of the facts.
Rule 15.04. - A
with the written consent of all concerned, act as mediator, conciliator
or arbitrator in settling disputes.
Rule 15.05. - A
advising his client, shall give a candid and honest opinion on the
and probable results of the client's case, neither overstating nor
the prospects of the case.
Rule 15.06. - A
not state or imply that he is able to influence any public official,
or legislative body.
Rule 15.07. - A
impress upon his client compliance with the laws and the principles of
Rule 15.08. - A
is engaged in another profession or occupation concurrently with the
of law shall make clear to his client whether he is acting as a lawyer
or in another capacity.
CANON 16 - A LAWYER SHALL
HOLD IN TRUST ALL MONEYS AND PROPERTIES OF HIS CLIENT THAT MAY COME
Rule 16.01 - A lawyer
account for all money or property collected or received for or from the
Rule 16.02 - A lawyer
keep the funds of each client separate and apart from his own and those
of others kept by him.
Rule 16.03 - A lawyer
deliver the funds and property of his client when due or upon demand.
he shall have a lien over the funds and may apply so much thereof as
be necessary to satisfy his lawful fees and disbursements, giving
promptly thereafter to his client. He shall also have a lien to the
extent on all judgments and executions he has secured for his client as
provided for in the Rules of Court.
Rule 16.04 - A lawyer
not borrow money from his client unless the client's interest are fully
protected by the nature of the case or by independent advice. Neither
a lawyer lend money to a client except, when in the interest of
he has to advance necessary expenses in a legal matter he is handling
CANON 17 - A LAWYER OWES
FIDELITY TO THE CAUSE OF HIS CLIENT AND HE SHALL BE MINDFUL OF THE
AND CONFIDENCE REPOSED IN HIM.
CANON 18 - A LAWYER
SERVE HIS CLIENT WITH COMPETENCE AND DILIGENCE.
Rules 18.01 - A lawyer
not undertake a legal service which he knows or should know that he is
not qualified to render. However, he may render such service if, with
consent of his client, he can obtain as collaborating counsel a lawyer
who is competent on the matter.
Rule 18.02 - A lawyer
not handle any legal matter without adequate preparation.
Rule 18.03 - A lawyer
not neglect a legal matter entrusted to him, and his negligence in
therewith shall render him liable.
Rule 18.04 - A lawyer
keep the client informed of the status of his case and shall respond
a reasonable time to the client's request for information.
CANON 19 - A LAWYER SHALL
REPRESENT HIS CLIENT WITH ZEAL WITHIN THE BOUNDS OF THE LAW.
Rule 19.01 - A lawyer
employ only fair and honest means to attain the lawful objectives of
client and shall not present, participate in presenting or threaten to
present unfounded criminal charges to obtain an improper advantage in
case or proceeding.
Rule 19.02 - A lawyer
has received information that his client has, in the course of the
perpetrated a fraud upon a person or tribunal, shall promptly call upon
the client to rectify the same, and failing which he shall terminate
relationship with such client in accordance with the Rules of Court.
Rule 19.03 - A lawyer
not allow his client to dictate the procedure in handling the case.
CANON 20 - A LAWYER SHALL
CHARGE ONLY FAIR AND REASONABLE FEES.
Rule 20.01 - A lawyer
be guided by the following factors in determining his fees:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
(a) the time
and the extent of the service rendered or required;
Rule 20.02 - A lawyer
in case of referral, with the consent of the client, be entitled to a
of fees in proportion to the work performed and responsibility assumed.
(b) the novelty and
of the questions involved;
(c) The importance
(d) The skill
(e) The probability
other employment as a result of acceptance of the proffered case;
(f) The customary
for similar services and the schedule of fees of the IBP chapter to
(g) The amount
the controversy and the benefits resulting to the client from the
(h) The contingency
(i) The character
employment, whether occasional or established; and
of the lawyer.
Rule 20.03 - A lawyer
not, without the full knowledge and consent of the client, accept any
reward, costs, commission, interest, rebate or forwarding allowance or
other compensation whatsoever related to his professional employment
anyone other than the client.
Rule 20.04 - A lawyer
avoid controversies with clients concerning his compensation and shall
resort to judicial action only to prevent imposition, injustice or
CANON 21 - A LAWYER SHALL
PRESERVE THE CONFIDENCE AND SECRETS OF HIS CLIENT EVEN AFTER THE
RELATION IS TERMINATED.
Rule 21.01 - A lawyer
not reveal the confidences or secrets of his client except;
by the client after acquainting him of the consequences of the
Rule 21.02 - A lawyer
not, to the disadvantage of his client, use information acquired in the
course of employment, nor shall he use the same to his own advantage or
that of a third person, unless the client with full knowledge of the
(b) When required
(c) When necessary
his fees or to defend himself, his employees or associates or by
Rule 21.03 - A lawyer
not, without the written consent of his client, give information from
files to an outside agency seeking such information for auditing,
bookkeeping, accounting, data processing, or any similar purpose.
Rule 21.04 - A lawyer
disclose the affairs of a client of the firm to partners or associates
thereof unless prohibited by the client.
Rule 21.05 - A lawyer
adopt such measures as may be required to prevent those whose services
are utilized by him, from disclosing or using confidences or secrets of
Rule 21.06 - A lawyer
avoid indiscreet conversation about a client's affairs even with
of his family.
Rule 21.07 - A lawyer
not reveal that he has been consulted about a particular case except to
avoid possible conflict of interest.
CANON 22 - A LAWYER SHALL
WITHDRAW HIS SERVICES ONLY FOR GOOD CAUSE AND UPON NOTICE APPROPRIATE
Rule 22.01 - A lawyer
withdraw his services in any of the following case:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
(a) When the
pursues an illegal or immoral course of conduct in connection with the
matter he is handling;
Rule 22.02 - A lawyer
or is discharged shall, subject to a retainer lien, immediately turn
all papers and property to which the client is entitled, and shall
with his successor in the orderly transfer of the matter, including all
information necessary for the proper handling of the matter.
(b) When the client
that the lawyer pursue conduct violative of these canons and rules;
(c) When his
work with co-counsel will not promote the best interest of the client;
(d) When the mental
condition of the lawyer renders it difficult for him to carry out the
(e) When the client
fails to pay the fees for the services or fails to comply with the
(f) When the lawyer
or appointed to public office; and
(g) Other similar