SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

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Endnotes:


1 Records, pp. 159-166.

2 Presided by Executive Judge Ernesto P. Pagayatan.

3 Records, p. 1.

4 Id., at 11.

5 TSN, August 8, 1996, p. 16; November 15, 1996, p. 3.

6 TSN, August 8, 1996, pp. 4, 18.

7 Id. at 6.

8 Id.

9 id

10 TSN, August 6, 1996, p. 7.

11 id. at 8.

12 id. at 15.

13 id. at 14-15. Exhibit D, Records, p. 48.

14 id. at 8.

15 id. at 9.

16 id. at 19.

17 Exhibit B, Records, p. 46.

18 TSN, August 8, 1996, p. 11.

19 TSN, August 7, 1996, pp. 3, 8.

20 Exhibit A, Records, p. 45.

21 TSN, August 7, 1996, p. 4.

22 Id. at 4, 7.

23 TSN, August 19, 1996, p. 5.

24 Exhibit E, Records, p. 49.

25 TSN, August 19, 1996, p. 8.

26 TSN, November 15, 1996, p. 3.

27 Id. at 4.

28 Id.

29 TSN, November 15, 1996, p. 6.

30 Id. at 5.

31 Records, p. 166.

32 Appellants Brief, Rollo, p. 35.

33 27 Phil. 421 (1914).

34 People v. Dimapilis, G.R. Nos. 128619-21, December 17, 1998.

35 People v. Bugarin, 273 SCRA 384, 399 (1997) citing People v. Empleo, 226 SCRA 454 (1993).

36 People v. Hortillano, 177 SCRA 729, 736 (1989)

37 People v. Dimapilis, supra note 34, citing Sta. Rita v. Court of Appeals, 247 SCRA 484 (1995).

38 US v. Dichao, supra note 33 at 426.

39 281 SCRA 463 (1997).

40 Id., at 472-473.

41 Id. at 473-474. Underscoring supplied.

42 193 SCRA 152 (1991).

43 People v. Garcia, supra note 39, at 474.

44 Id. at 473, citing Francisco, Criminal Procedure, 1969, Second Ed., p. 610.

4545 TSN, August 8, 1996, p.

46 Id. at 4-8.

47 People v. Bernaldez, 294 SCRA 317, 329 (1998) citing People v. Nazareno, 260 SCRA 256 (1996).

48 People v. Victor, 292 SCRA 186, 198 (1998) citing People v. Macagaling, 237 SCRA 299 (1994).

49 Ibid. citing People v. Abonada, 169 SCRA 530 (1989).

50 Id. at 199, citing People v. Pama, 216 SCRA 385 (1992).

51 People v. Godoy, 250 SCRA 676, 732 (1995).

52 Section 22, Article III, of the 1987 Constitution states:

Section 22. No ex-post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.

An ex post facto law has been defined as one which:

(a) makes criminal an act before the passage of the law and which was innocent when done, and punishes such an act;

(b) aggravate a crime, or makes it greater than it was, when committed;

(c) changes the punishment and inflicts a greater punishment than the law annexed to the crime when committed;

(d) alters the legal rules of evidence, and authorizes conviction upon less or different testimony than the law required at the time of the commission of the offense;

(e) assuming to regulate civil rights and remedies only, in effect imposes penalty or deprivation of a right for something which when done was lawful; and

(f) deprives a person accused of a crime of some lawful protection to which he has become entitled, such as the protection of a former conviction or acquittal, or a proclamation of amnesty. (In Re: Kay Villegas Kami, Inc. 35 SCRA 429, 431 (1970) (Underscoring supplied.)

53 G.R. No. 122764, September 24, 1998.

54 People v. Lucanas, G.R. Nos. 130599-600, April 21, 1999; People v. Ilao, G.R. No. 129529, September 29, 1998; People v. Ramos, G.R. No. 129439, September 25, 1998.

55 People v. Garcia, supra note 39, at 489.

56 People v. Mijano, G.R. No. 129112, July 23, 1999.




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