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1 Rollo, pp. 23-27

2 Id., at 29.

3 64 SCRA 56 (1975). Cited fn. 11 St. Martin Funeral Homes v. NLRC.

4 At pp. 13-14.

5 At p. 15.

6 Art. 223. x x x.

(a) If there is a prima facie evidence of abuse of discretion;

(b) If made purely on questions of law; and

(c) If there is a showing that the national security or social and economic stability is threatened.

7 68 SCRA 473 (1975).

8 64 SCRA 274 (1975)

9 Also Confederation of Citizens Labor Unions (CCLU) v. National Labor relations Commission, 60 SCRA 450 (1974).

10 See footnote no. 3.

11 Entitled "Further Amending Certain Provisions of Books V of Presidential Decree No. 442, Otherwise Known as the Labor Code of the Philippines, As Amended." Issued May 1, 1978.

12 Entitled "Amending Book V of the Labor Code of the Philippines to Insure Speedy Labor Justice and Further Stabilize Industrial Peace." Issued May 29, 1978.

13 Section 7, Rule II of the Rules Implementing Presidential Decree No. 1391 effective September 15, 1978 provides that "[t]here shall henceforth be no appeal from decisions [of the Commission] to the Minister of Labor except as provided in PD 1367 and its implementing rules concerning appeals to the prime minister, and the decisions of the Commission en banc or any of its Divisions shall be final and executory.

14 Issued by then Secretary of Labor Leonardo A. Quisumbing pursuant to Art. 5. Of the Labor Code.

15 Issued by then Secretary of Labor and Employment Franklin M. Drilon.

16 Issued by the Secretary of Labor Leonardo A. Quisumbing.

17 Observation made in St. Martin Funeral Home v. NLRC.

18 266 SCRA 111 (1997).

19 G.R. No. 107792, March 2, 1998.

20 267 SCRA 303 (1997).

21 269 SCRA 393 (1997).

22 G.R. No. 129742, September 16, 1998, where we declared invalid Section 27 of R.A. No. 6770 (Ombudsman Act of 1989), together with Section 7, Rule III of Administrative Order No. 07 (Rules of Procedure of the Office of the Ombudsman), and any other provision of law or issuance implementing the aforesaid Act and insofar as they provide for appeals in administrative disciplinary cases from the Office of the Ombudsman to the Supreme Court, on the ground that these violate the proscription in Section 30, Article VI of the Constitution against a law which increases the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

We note parenthetically that rules and regulations issued by administrative or executive officers in accordance with, and as authorized by, law have the force and effect of law or partake the nature of a statute. Victorias Milling Co., Inc. v. Social Security Commission, 114 Phil. 555 (1962).

23 Santiago v. Vasquez, 217 SCRA 633 (1993), cited at p. 15.

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