NORFOLK SOUTHERN RAILWAY CO. v. JAMES N. KIRBY, PTY LTD., dba KIRBY ENGINEERING, et al., 543 U.S. ---Subscribe to Cases that cite 02-1028
NORFOLK SOUTHERN RAILWAY CO. v. JAMES N. KIRBY, PTY LTD., dba KIRBY ENGINEERING, et al.
CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE ELEVENTH CIRCUIT
No. 02-1028.Argued October 6, 2004--Decided November 9, 2004
Respondent James N. Kirby, Pty Ltd., an Australian manufacturer, hired International Cargo Control (ICC) to arrange for delivery of machinery from Australia to Huntsville, Ala., by "through" (i.e., end-to-end) transportation. The bill of lading (essentially, contract) that ICC issued to Kirby (ICC bill) designated Savannah, Ga., as the discharge port and Huntsville as the ultimate destination, and set ICC's liability limitation lower than the cargo's true value, using the default liability rule in the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (COGSA) ($500 per package) for the sea leg and a higher amount for the land leg. The bill also contained what is known as a "Himalaya Clause," which extends liability limitations to downstream parties, including, here, "any servant, agent, or other person (including any independent contractor)." Kirby separately insured the cargo for its true value with co-respondent, Allianz Australia Insurance Ltd. When ICC hired a German shipping company (hereinafter Hamburg Süd) to transport the containers, Hamburg Süd issued its own bill of lading to ICC (Hamburg Süd bill), designating Savannah as the discharge port and Huntsville as the ultimate destination. That bill also adopted COGSA's default rule, extended it to any land damages, and extended it in a Himalaya Clause to "all agents ... (including inland) carriers ... and all independent contractors." Hamburg Süd hired petitioner Norfolk Southern Railway (Norfolk) to transport the machinery from Savannah to Huntsville. The train derailed, causing an alleged $1.5 million in damages. Allianz reimbursed Kirby for the loss and then joined Kirby in suing Norfolk in a Georgia Federal District Court, asserting diversity jurisdiction and alleging tort and contract claims. Norfolk responded that, among other things, Kirby's potential recovery could not exceed the liability limitations in the two bills of lading. The District Court granted Norfolk partial summary judgment, limiting Norfolk's liability to $500 per container, and certified the decision for interlocutory review. In reversing, the Eleventh Circuit held that Norfolk could not claim protection under the ICC bill's Himalaya Clause because it had not been in privity with ICC when that bill was issued and because linguistic specificity was required to extend the clause's benefits to an inland carrier. It also held that Kirby was not bound by the Hamburg Süd bill's liability limitation because ICC was not acting as Kirby's agent when it received that bill.