9 C.F.R. PART 424—PREPARATION AND PROCESSING OPERATIONS


Title 9 - Animals and Animal Products


Title 9: Animals and Animal Products

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PART 424—PREPARATION AND PROCESSING OPERATIONS

Section Contents

Subpart A—General

§ 424.1   Purpose and scope.

Subpart C—Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation

§ 424.21   Use of food ingredients and sources of radiation.
§ 424.22   Certain other permitted uses.
§ 424.23   Prohibited uses.


Authority:  7 U.S.C. 450, 1901–1906; 21 U.S.C. 451–470, 601–695; 7 CFR 2.18, 2.53.

Source:  64 FR 72175, Dec. 23, 1999, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A—General
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§ 424.1   Purpose and scope.
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This part of the regulations prescribes rules for the preparation of meat and the processing of poultry products. The rules in this part further the purposes of the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) and the Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA) by, among other things, preventing the adulteration or misbranding of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter A, Parts 318 and 319, Subpart C of this part, and 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, specify rules for the use of certain food ingredients (e.g., food additives and color additives) and sources of radiation that may render meat or poultry products adulterated or misbranded.

Subpart C—Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation
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§ 424.21   Use of food ingredients and sources of radiation.
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(a)(1) General. No meat or poultry product shall bear or contain any food ingredient that would render it adulterated or misbranded, or which is not approved in this part, part 318 or part 319 of this chapter, or by the Administrator in specific cases.

(2)(i) Poultry products and poultry broth used in the processing of poultry products shall have been processed in the United States only in an official establishment or imported from a foreign country listed in §381.196(b), and have been inspected and passed in accordance with the regulations. Detached ova and offal shall not be used in the processing of any poultry products, except that poultry feet may be processed for use as human food in a manner approved by the Administrator in specific cases and detached ova may be used in the processing of poultry products if the processor demonstrates that such ova comply with the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(ii) Liquid, frozen, and dried egg products used in the processing of any poultry product shall have been prepared under inspection and be so marked in accordance with the Egg Products Inspection Act.

(3)(i) Carcasses, parts thereof, and products of cattle, sheep, swine, goats, or equines may be used in the processing of poultry products only if they were prepared in the United States in an official meat packing establishment or imported from a foreign country listed in §327.2(b), were inspected and passed in accordance with the Federal Meat Inspection Act and the regulations under such Act (subchapter A of this chapter), and are so marked.

(ii) Pork from carcasses or carcass parts used as an ingredient in poultry products that has been found free of trichinae, as described under §318.10 (a)(2), (e) and (f) of the Federal meat inspection regulations (9 CFR 318.10 (a)(2), (e) and (f)), is not required to be treated for the destruction of trichinae.

(iii) Poultry products containing pork muscle tissue which the Administrator determines at the time the labeling for the product is submitted for approval in accordance with part 381 of the regulations in subchapter A or upon subsequent reevaluation of the product would be prepared in such a manner that the product might be eaten rare or without thorough cooking because of the appearance of the finished product or otherwise, shall be effectively heated, refrigerated, or cured to destroy any possible live trichinae, as prescribed in §318.10(c) of this chapter, at the official establishment where such products are prepared. In lieu of such treatment of poultry products containing pork, the pork ingredient may be so treated.

(b)(1) Food ingredients and sources of radiation. Food ingredients and sources of radiation listed or approved for use in the production of meat or poultry products in 21 CFR chapter I, subchapter A or subchapter B, shall be listed for such use under this chapter, subject to declaration requirements in parts 316 and 317, or subparts M and N, of part 381 of this chapter, unless precluded from such use or further restricted in parts 318 or 319, or subparts O and P, of part 381 of this chapter, or unless such use otherwise results in the adulteration or misbranding of meat or poultry products. Food ingredients and sources of radiation listed or approved for use in the production of meat or poultry products in 21 CFR Chapter I, subchapter A or subchapter B, may be listed or approved for such use under this chapter by the Administrator in §424.21, subject to declaration requirements in parts 316 and 317, or subparts M and N, of part 381 of this chapter.

(2) No food ingredients or sources of radiation may be used in the preparation of any meat or poultry product, for any purpose, unless the use is listed or approved in 21 CFR chapter I as a direct food additive (21 CFR part 172), a secondary direct food additive (21 CFR part 173), indirect food additive (21 CFR parts 174–178), radiation source (21 CFR part 179), an interim-listed direct food additive (21 CFR part 180), a prior-sanctioned substance (21 CFR part 181), a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) substance (21 CFR parts 182 or 184), or by a regulation in this chapter. Part 319 of this chapter also specifies other food ingredients that are acceptable in preparing specified products.

(3) No food ingredient, the intended use of which is to impart color in any meat or poultry product, shall be used unless such use is approved in 21 CFR Chapter I as a color additive (21 CFR Parts 73, 74, 81, and 82) or in a regulation in this chapter.

(4) Petitions to amend 21 CFR chapter I to provide for uses of food additives, or other substances or sources of radiation necessary in the preparation of meat or poultry products, or food ingredients used to impart color to product, should be sent to the Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with the provisions of 21 CFR parts 71 or 171, as appropriate.

(5) Inquiries concerning the regulatory status under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of any articles intended for use as components of, or in contact with, meat or poultry products, may be addressed to the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 200 C Street, SW, Washington, DC 20204, or the Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Office of Policy, Program Development and Evaluation, Washington, DC 20250–3700.

(6) Inquiries concerning the use in specific meat or poultry products of substances that are not affirmed by the Food and Drug Administration as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) or otherwise listed in 21 CFR Part 182 or Part 184, or of food or color additives listed in 21 CFR regulations for general use in foods or for use in meat, or poultry products, generally, including mixtures of such substances or additives, should be addressed to the Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Office of Policy, Program Development and Evaluation, Washington, DC 20250–3700.

(c) The food ingredients specified in the following chart are approved for use in the preparation of meat products, provided they are used for the purposes indicated, within the limit of the amounts stated, and under other conditions specified in this part and Part 317 of this chapter. Part 319 of this chapter specifies other food ingredients that are acceptable in preparing specified meat products. This chart also contains food ingredients that are acceptable for use in poultry products, provided they are used for the purpose indicated, within the limits of the amounts stated and under other conditions specified in this part. No meat or poultry product shall bear or contain any food ingredient that would render it adulterated or misbranded, or which is not approved in this part, or by the Administrator in specific cases.

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------       Class of substance              Substance            Purpose            Products             Amount----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Acidifiers......................  Acetic acid.......  To adjust acidity.  Various meat and    Sufficient for                                                                           poultry products    purpose.\3\                                                                           \2\.                                  Citric acid.......  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Glucono delta-      ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   lactone.                                  Lactic acid.......  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Phosphoric acid...  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Tartaric acid.....  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.Anti-coagulants.................  Citric acid.......  To prevent          Fresh blood of      0.2 percent with                                                       clotting.           livestock.          or without water.                                                                                               When water is                                                                                               used to make a                                                                                               solution of                                                                                               citric acid added                                                                                               to the blood of                                                                                               livestock, not                                                                                               more than 2 parts                                                                                               of water to 1                                                                                               part of citric                                                                                               acid shall be                                                                                               used.                                  Sodium citrate....  ......do..........  ......do..........  Not to exceed 0.5                                                                                               percent based on                                                                                               the ingoing                                                                                               weight of the                                                                                               product. When                                                                                               water is used to                                                                                               make a solution                                                                                               of sodium citrate                                                                                               added to                                                                                               livestock blood,                                                                                               not more than 2                                                                                               parts of water to                                                                                               1 part of sodium                                                                                               citrate shall be                                                                                               used.Antifoaming agent...............  Methyl              To retard foaming.  Soups (meat and     10 ppm.                                   polysilicone.                           poultry).                                                      ......do..........  Rendered fats        Do.                                                                           (meat and                                                                           poultry).                                                      ......do..........  Curing pickle       50 ppm.                                                                           (meat and                                                                           poultry).Antimicrobial Agents............  Potassium lactate.  To inhibit          Various meat and    4.8% by weight of                                                       microbial growth.   poultry products,   total                                                                           except infant       formulation.                                                                           formulas and                                                                           infant food.                                  Sodium diacetate..  ......do..........  ......do..........  0.25% by weight of                                                                                               total                                                                                               formulation.                                  Sodium lactate....  ......do..........  ......do..........  4.8% by weight of                                                                                               total                                                                                               formulation.                                  Trisodium           To reduce           Raw, chilled        8 to 12 percent;                                   phosphate.          microbial levels.   poultry carcasses.  solution to be                                                                                               maintained at 45                                                                                               °F. to 55                                                                                               °F. and                                                                                               applied by                                                                                               spraying or                                                                                               dipping carcasses                                                                                               for up to 15                                                                                               seconds when used                                                                                               in accordance                                                                                               with 21 CFR                                                                                               182.1778.Antioxidants and oxygen           Ascorbyl palmitate  To retard           Margarine or        0.02 percent (by interceptors.                                         rancidity.          oleomargarine.      wt. of finished                                                                                               product)                                                                                               individually or                                                                                               in combination                                                                                               with other                                                                                               antioxidants                                                                                               approved for use                                                                                               in margarine.                                  Ascorbyl stearate.                                  BHA (butylated                                   hydroxyanisole).                                  ......do..........  Dry sausage.......  0.003 based on      0.006 percent in                                                                           total weight.       combination with                                                                                               other anti-                                                                                               oxidants for use                                                                                               in meat.                                  ......do..........  Rendered animal     0.01 percent......  0.02 percent in                                                       fat or a                                combination with                                                       combination of                          other anti-                                                       such fat and                            oxidants for use                                                       vegetable fat.                          in meat.                                  ......do..........  Fresh pork,         0.01 percent based  0.02 percent in                                                       sausage, brown      on fat content.     combination with                                                       and serve                               other anti-                                                       sausages, fresh                         oxidants for use                                                       Italian sausage                         in meat, based on                                                       products,                               fat content.                                                       pregrilled beef                                                       patties, fresh                                                       sausage made from                                                       beef or beef and                                                       pork, cooked or                                                       raw pizza topping                                                       and cooked or raw                                                       meatballs.                                  ......do..........  Dried meats.......  0.01 percent based  0.01 percent in                                                                           on total weight.    combination with                                                                                               other anti-                                                                                               oxidants for use                                                                                               in meat.                                  ......do..........  Margarine or        0.02 percent (by                                                       oleomargarine.      wt. of the                                                                           finished product)                                                                           individually or                                                                           in combination                                                                           with other                                                                           antioxidants                                                                           approved for use                                                                           in margarine..                                  ......do..........  Various poultry     0.01 percent based                                                       products.           on fat content                                                                           (0.02 percent in                                                                           combination with                                                                           any other                                                                           antioxidant for                                                                           use in poultry)                                                                           based on fat                                                                           content..                                  BHT (butylated      ......do..........  Dry sausage.......  0.003 percent                                   hydroxytoluene).                                            based on total                                                                                               weight 0.006                                                                                               percent in                                                                                               combination with                                                                                               other anti-                                                                                               oxidants for use                                                                                               in meat.                                  ......do..........  Rendered animal     0.01 percent......  0.02 percent in                                                       fat or a                                combination with                                                       combination of                          other anti-                                                       such fat and                            oxidants for use                                                       vegetable fat.                          in meat.                                  ......do..........  Fresh pork,         0.01 percent based  0.02 percent in                                                       sausage, brown      on fat content.     combination with                                                       and serve                               other anti-                                                       sausages, fresh                         oxidants for use                                                       Italian sausage                         in meat, based on                                                       products,                               fat content.                                                       pregrilled beef                                                       patties, fresh                                                       sausage made from                                                       beef or beef and                                                       pork, cooked or                                                       raw pizza topping                                                       and cooked or raw                                                       meatballs.                                  ......do..........  Dried meats.......  0.01 percent based  0.01 percent in                                                                           on total weight.    combination with                                                                                               other anti-                                                                                               oxidants for use                                                                                               in meat.                                  ......do..........  Margarine or        0.02 percent (by                                                       oleomargarine.      wt. of the                                                                           finished product)                                                                           individually or                                                                           in combination                                                                           with other                                                                           antioxidants                                                                           approved for use                                                                           in margarine..                                  ......do..........  Various poultry     0.01 percent based                                                       products.           on fat content                                                                           (0.02 percent in                                                                           combination with                                                                           any other                                                                           antioxidant for                                                                           use in poultry)                                                                           based on fat                                                                           content..                                  Dodecyl gallate...  ......do..........  Margarine or        0.02 percent (by                                                                           oleomargarine.      wt. of the                                                                                               finished product)                                                                                               individually or                                                                                               in combination                                                                                               with other                                                                                               antioxidants                                                                                               approved for use                                                                                               in margarine.                                  Glycine...........  ......do..........  Rendered animal     0.01 percent 0.02                                                                           fat or a            percent in                                                                           combination of      combination with                                                                           such fat and        other anti-                                                                           vegetable fat.      oxidants for use                                                                                               in meat.                                  Octyl gallate.....  ......do..........  Margarine or        0.02 percent (by                                                                           oleomargarine.      wt. of the                                                                                               finished product)                                                                                               individually or                                                                                               in combination                                                                                               with other                                                                                               antioxidants                                                                                               approved for use                                                                                               in margarine.                                  Propyl gallate....  ......do..........  Dry sausage.......  0.003 percent                                                                                               based on total                                                                                               weight 0.006                                                                                               percent in                                                                                               combination with                                                                                               other anti-                                                                                               oxidants for use                                                                                               in meat.                                  ......do..........  Rendered animal     0.01 percent......  0.02 percent in                                                       fat or a                                combination with                                                       combination of                          other anti-                                                       such fat and                            oxidants for use                                                       vegetable fat.                          in meat.                                  ......do..........  Fresh pork,         0.01 percent based  0.02 percent in                                                       sausage, brown      on fat content.     combination with                                                       and serve                               other anti-                                                       sausages, fresh                         oxidants for use                                                       Italian sausage                         in meat, based on                                                       products,                               fat content.                                                       pregrilled beef                                                       patties, fresh                                                       sausage made from                                                       beef or beef and                                                       pork, cooked or                                                       raw pizza topping                                                       and cooked or raw                                                       meatballs.                                  ......do..........  Dried meats.......  0.01 percent based  0.01 percent in                                                                           on total weight.    combination with                                                                                               other anti-                                                                                               oxidants for use                                                                                               in meat.                                  ......do..........  Margarine or oleo-  0.02 percent (by                                                       margarine.          wt. of the                                                                           finished product)                                                                           individually or                                                                           in combination                                                                           with other                                                                           antioxidants                                                                           approved for use                                                                           in margarine..                                  ......do..........  Various poultry     0.01 percent based                                                       products.           on fat content                                                                           (0.02 percent in                                                                           combination with                                                                           any other                                                                           antioxidant for                                                                           use in poultry,                                                                           except TBHQ,                                                                           based on fat                                                                           content)..                                  Resin guaiac......  ......do..........  Rendered animal     0.02 percent in                                                                           fat or a            combination with                                                                           combination of      other                                                                           such fat and        antioxidants for                                                                           vegetable fat       use in meat.                                                                           0.01 percent.                                  TBHQ (tertiary      ......do..........  Dry sausage 0.003   0.006 percent in                                   butylhydroquinone                       percent based on    combina-tion only                                   ).                                      weight.             with BHA and/or                                                                                               BHT.                                  ......do..........  Rendered animal     0.01 percent......  0.02 percent in                                                       fat or a                                combina-tion only                                                       combination of                          with BHA or BHT.                                                       such fat and                                                       vegetable fat.                                  ......do..........  Fresh pork,         0.01 percent based  0.02 percent in                                                       sausage, brown      on fat content.     combin-ation only                                                       and serve                               with BHA and/ or                                                       sausages, fresh                         BHT, based on fat                                                       Italian sausage                         content.                                                       products,                                                       pregrilled beef                                                       patties, fresh                                                       sausage made from                                                       beef or beef and                                                       pork, cooked or                                                       raw pizza topping                                                       and cooked or raw                                                       meatballs.                                  ......do..........  Dried meats.......  0.01 percent based  0.01 percent in                                                                           on total weight.    combina-tion only                                                                                               with BHA and/or                                                                                               BHT.                                                      ......do..........  Margarine or oleo-  0.02 percent alone                                                                           margarine.          or in combination                                                                                               only with BHA and/                                                                                               or BHT, based on                                                                                               oil or fat                                                                                               content.                                                      ......do..........  Various poultry     0.01 percent based                                                                           products.           on fat content                                                                                               (0.02 percent in                                                                                               combination only                                                                                               with BHA and/or                                                                                               BHT, based on fat                                                                                               content).                                  Tocopherols.......  ......do..........  Rendered animal     0.03 percent. A 30                                                                           fat or a            percent                                                                           combination of      concentration of                                                                           such fat and        tocopherols in                                                                           vegetable fat.      vegetable oils                                                                                               shall be used                                                                                               when added as an                                                                                               antioxidant to                                                                                               products                                                                                               designated as                                                                                               ``lard'' or                                                                                               ``rendered pork                                                                                               fat.''                                                      ......do..........  Dry sausage,        Not to exceed 0.03                                                                           semidry sausage,    percent based on                                                                           dried meats,        fat content. Not                                                                           uncooked or         used in                                                                           cooked fresh        combination with                                                                           sausage made with   other                                                                           beef and/or pork,   antioxidants.                                                                           uncooked or                                                                           cooked Italian                                                                           sausage products,                                                                           uncooked or                                                                           cooked meatballs,                                                                           uncooked or                                                                           cooked meat pizza                                                                           toppings, brown                                                                           and serve                                                                           sausages,                                                                           pregrilled beef                                                                           patties, and                                                                           restructured                                                                           meats.                                                      ......do..........  Various poultry     0.03 percent based                                                                           products.           on fat content                                                                                               (0.02 percent in                                                                                               combination with                                                                                               any other                                                                                               antioxidant for                                                                                               use in poultry,                                                                                               except TBHQ,                                                                                               based on fat                                                                                               content).Artificial Sweeteners...........  Saccharin.........  To sweeten product  Bacon.............  0.01 percent.Binders and Extenders...........  Agar-agar.........  To stabilize and    Thermally           0.25 percent of                                                       thicken.            processed canned    finished product.                                                                           and jellied meat                                                                           food products.                                  Algin.............  To extend and       Breading mix;       Sufficient for                                                       stabilize product.  sauces (meat        purpose in                                                                           only) and various   accordance with                                                                           poultry products.   21 CFR 172.5.                                  A mixture of        To bind meat        Restructured meat   Sodium alginate                                   sodium alginate,    pieces.             food products.      not to exceed 1.0                                   calcium carbonate                                           percent; calcium                                   and calcium                                                 carbonate not to                                   lactate/lactic                                              exceed 0.2                                   acid (or glucono                                            percent; and                                   delta lactone).                                             lactic acid/                                                                                               calcium lactate                                                                                               (or glucono delta-                                                                                               lactone) not to                                                                                               exceed 0.3                                                                                               percent of                                                                                               product                                                                                               formulation.                                                                                               Added mixture may                                                                                               not exceed 1.5                                                                                               percent of                                                                                               product at                                                                                               formulation.                                                                                               Mixture                                                                                               ingredients must                                                                                               be added dry.                                  A mixture of        To bind poultry     Ground and formed   Sodium alginate                                   sodium alginate,    pieces.             raw or cooked       not more than 0.8                                   calcium                                 poultry pieces.     percent, calcium                                   carbonate, lactic                                           carbonate not                                   acid, and calcium                                           more than 0.15                                   lactate.                                                    percent; lactic                                                                                               acid and calcium                                                                                               lactate, in                                                                                               combination, not                                                                                               more than 0.6                                                                                               percent of                                                                                               product                                                                                               formulation.                                                                                               Added mixture may                                                                                               not exceed 1.55                                                                                               percent of                                                                                               product at                                                                                               formulation. The                                                                                               mixture must be                                                                                               added in dry                                                                                               form.                                  Bread.............  To bind and extend  Bockwurst.........  3.5 percent                                                       product.                                individually or                                                                                               collectively with                                                                                               other binders for                                                                                               use in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans.         collectively with                                                                                               other binders for                                                                                               use in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Spaghetti with      12 percent                                                                           meat balls and      individually or                                                                           sauce, spaghetti    collectively with                                                                           with meat and       other binders for                                                                           sauce and similar   use in meat.                                                                           products.                                  Carboxymethyl       To extend and       Baked pies (meat    Sufficient for                                   cellulose           stabilize product.  only) and various   purpose in                                   (cellulose gum).                        poultry products.   accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 172.5.                                  Carrageenan.......  To extend and       Breading mix;       Sufficient for                                                       stabilize product.  sauces (meat        purpose in                                                                           only) and various   accordance with                                                                           poultry products.   21 CFR 172.5.                                                      To prevent purging  Cured pork          Not to exceed 1.5                                                       of brine solution.  products as         percent of                                                                           provided in 9 CFR   product                                                                           319.104(d).         formulation;                                                                                               permitted in                                                                                               combination only                                                                                               with soy protein                                                                                               concentrate,                                                                                               combination not                                                                                               to exceed 1.5                                                                                               percent of                                                                                               product                                                                                               formulation; in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 172.620,                                                                                               172.623, and                                                                                               172.626.                                  Carrageenan,        ......do..........  ......do..........  In combination,                                   Locust bean gum,                                            not to exceed 0.5                                   and Xanthan gum                                             percent of                                   blend.                                                      formulation; not                                                                                               permitted in                                                                                               combination with                                                                                               other binders                                                                                               approved for use                                                                                               in cured pork                                                                                               products; in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 172.620,                                                                                               172.623, 172.626,                                                                                               184.1343, and                                                                                               172.695.                                  Cereal............  To bind and extend  Sausages as         3.5 percent                                                       product.            provided in 9 CFR   individually or                                                                           Part 319,           collectively with                                                                           bockwurst.          other binders for                                                                                               use in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans.         collectively with                                                                                               other binders for                                                                                               use in meat.                                  Dried milk........  ......do..........  Sausages as         3.5 percent                                                                           provided for in 9   individually or                                                                           CFR Part 319.       collectively with                                                                                               other binders for                                                                                               use in meat                                  Dried skim milk,    ......do..........  Sausages as          Do.                                   calcium reduced.                        provided in 9 CFR                                                                           9 CFR Part 319.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans.         collectively with                                                                                               other binders for                                                                                               use in meat.                                  Enzyme (rennet)     ......do..........  Sausages as         3.5 percent total                                   treated with                            provided for in 9   finished product                                   calcium reduced                         CFR Part 319.       (calcium lactate                                   dried skim milk                                             required at rate                                   and calcium                                                 of 10 percent of                                   lactate.                                                    binder.)                                                      ......do..........  Imitation           Sufficient for                                                                           sausages;           purpose in                                                                           nonspecific         accordance with                                                                           loaves; soups,      21 CFR 172.5                                                                           stews (meat only)   (calcium lactate                                                                           and various         required at a                                                                           poultry products.   rate of 10                                                                                               percent of                                                                                               binder).                                  Enzyme (rennet)     ......do..........  Imitation           Sufficient for                                   treated with                            sausages;           purpose in                                   sodium caseinate                        nonspecific         accordance with                                   and calcium                             loaves; soups,      21 CFR 172.5                                   lactate.                                stews (meat only)   (calcium lactate                                                                           and various         required at a                                                                           poultry products.   rate of 25                                                                                               percent of                                                                                               binder).                                  Food starch         To prevent purging  Cured pork          Not to exceed 2                                   modified.           of brine solution.  products as         percent of                                                                           provided for in 9   product                                                                           CFR 319.104(d).     formulation in                                                                                               ``Ham Water                                                                                               Added'' and ``Ham                                                                                               with Natural                                                                                               Juices''                                                                                               products; not to                                                                                               exceed 3.5                                                                                               percent of                                                                                               product                                                                                               formulation in                                                                                               ``Ham and Water                                                                                               Product_X percent                                                                                               of Weight is                                                                                               Added                                                                                               Ingredients''                                                                                               products;                                                                                               permitted in                                                                                               combination only                                                                                               with soy protein                                                                                               concentrate, with                                                                                               combination of                                                                                               modified food                                                                                               starch at 3                                                                                               percent of                                                                                               product                                                                                               formulation and                                                                                               soy protein                                                                                               concentrate at                                                                                               0.5 percent of                                                                                               product                                                                                               formulation; in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 172.892.                                  Gelatin...........  To bind and extend  Various poultry     Sufficient for                                                       product.            products.           purpose in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 172.5.                                  Gums, vegetable...  ......do..........  Egg roll (meat      Sufficient for                                                                           only) and various   purpose in                                                                           poultry products.   accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 172.5.                                  Isolated soy        ......do..........  Sausage as          2 percent.                                   protein.                                provided for in 9                                                                           CFR Part 319,                                                                           bockwurst.                                                      ......do..........  Imitation           Sufficient for                                                                           sausages;           purpose in                                                                           nonspecific         accordance with                                                                           loaves; soups;      21 CFR 172.5.                                                                           stews (meat only)                                                                           and various                                                                           poultry products.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans.         collectively with                                                                                               other binders for                                                                                               use in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Spaghetti with      12 percent                                                                           meatballs and       individually or                                                                           sauce, spaghetti    collectively with                                                                           with meat and       other binders and                                                                           sauce and similar   extenders for use                                                                           products.           in meat.                                                      To prevent purging  Cured pork          Not to exceed 2                                                       of brine solution.  products as         percent of                                                                           provided for in 9   product                                                                           CFR 319.104(d).     formulation, not                                                                                               permitted in                                                                                               combination with                                                                                               other binders                                                                                               approved for use                                                                                               in cured pork                                                                                               products.                                  Methyl cellulose..  To extend and       Meat and vegetable  0.15 percent.                                                       stabilize product   patties; various                                                       (also carrier).     poultry products.                                  Sodium caseinate..  To bind and extend  Imitation           Sufficient for                                                       product.            sausages,           purpose in                                                                           nonspecific         accordance with                                                                           loaves, soups,      21 CFR 182.1748                                                                           stews (meat only).  and 21 CFR 172.5.                                                      ......do..........  Sausages as         2 percent in                                                                           provided for in 9   accordance with                                                                           CFR Part 319.       21 CFR 182.1748.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans.         collectively with                                                                                               other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 182.1748.                                                      ......do..........  Spaghetti with      12 percent                                                                           meatballs and       individually or                                                                           sauce, spaghetti    collectively with                                                                           with meat and       other binders and                                                                           sauce and similar   extenders for use                                                                           products.           in meat in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 182.1748.                                                      To prevent purging  Cured pork          Not to exceed 2                                                       of brine solution.  products as         percent of                                                                           provided for in 9   product                                                                           CFR 319.104(d).     formulation; not                                                                                               permitted in                                                                                               combination with                                                                                               other binders                                                                                               approved for use                                                                                               in cured pork                                                                                               products, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 182.1748.                                                      To bind and extend  Various poultry     3 percent in                                                       product.            products.           cooked product, 2                                                                                               percent in raw                                                                                               product, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 172.5 and                                                                                               182.1748.                                  Soy flour.........  ......do..........  Sausages as         3.5 percent                                                                           provided for in 9   individually or                                                                           CFR Part 319,       collectively with                                                                           bockwurst.          other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans.         collectively with                                                                                               other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Spaghetti with      12 percent                                                                           meatballs and       individually or                                                                           sauce, spaghetti    collectively with                                                                           with meat and       other binders and                                                                           sauce and similar   extenders for use                                                                           products.           in meat.                                  Soy protein         ......do..........  Sausage as          3.5 percent                                   concentrate.                            provided for in 9   individually or                                                                           CFR Part 319,       collectively with                                                                           bockwurst.          other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans.         collectively with                                                                                               other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Spaghetti with      12 percent                                                                           meatballs and       individually or                                                                           sauce, spaghetti    collectively with                                                                           with meat and       other binders and                                                                           sauce and similar   extenders for use                                                                           products.           in meat.                                                      To prevent purging  Cured pork          Not to exceed 3.5                                                       of brine solution.  products as         percent of                                                                           provided for in 9   product                                                                           CFR 319.104(d).     formulation;                                                                                               permitted in                                                                                               combination only                                                                                               with modified                                                                                               food starch, with                                                                                               combination of                                                                                               modified food                                                                                               starch at 3                                                                                               percent of                                                                                               product                                                                                               formulation and                                                                                               soy protein                                                                                               concentrate at                                                                                               0.5 percent of                                                                                               product                                                                                               formulation; in                                                                                               combination only                                                                                               with carrageenan,                                                                                               combination not                                                                                               to exceed 1.5                                                                                               percent of                                                                                               product                                                                                               formulation.                                  Starchy vegetable   To bind and extend  Sausage as          3.5 percent                                   flour.              product.            provided for in 9   individually or                                                                           CFR Part 319,       collectively with                                                                           bockwurst.          other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans.         collectively with                                                                                               other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                  Tapioca dextrin...  ......do..........  Sausage as          3.5 percent                                                                           provided for in 9   individually or                                                                           CFR Part 319,       collectively with                                                                           bockwurst.          other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1277.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans.         collectively with                                                                                               other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1277.                                                      ......do..........  Spaghetti with      12 individually or                                                                           meatballs and       collectively with                                                                           sauce, spaghetti    other binders and                                                                           with meat and       extenders for use                                                                           sauce and similar   in meat, in                                                                           products.           accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1277.                                                      ......do..........  Various poultry     Sufficient for                                                                           products.           purpose in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1277.                                  Vegetable starch..  ......do..........  Sausage as          3.5 percent                                                                           provided for in 9   individually or                                                                           CFR Part 319,       collectively with                                                                           bockwurst.          other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans.         collectively with                                                                                               other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                  Wheat gluten......  To bind and extend  Sausage as          3.5 percent                                                       product.            provided for in 9   individually or                                                                           CFR Part 319,       collectively with                                                                           bockwurst.          other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1322.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans.         collectively with                                                                                               other binders for                                                                                               use in meat, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1322.                                                      ......do..........  Spaghetti with      12 percent                                                                           meatballs and       individually or                                                                           sauce, spaghetti    collectively with                                                                           with meat and       other binders and                                                                           sauce and similar   extenders for use                                                                           products.           in meat, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1322.                                                      ......do..........  Various poultry     Sufficient for                                                                           products.           purpose in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1322.                                  Whey, Dry or dried  To bind or thicken  Sausage as          3.5 percent                                                                           provided for in 9   individually or                                                                           CFR Part 319,       collectively with                                                                           bockwurst.          other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Imitation           8 percent                                                                           sausages,           individually or                                                                           nonspecific         collectively with                                                                           loaves, soups,      other binders and                                                                           stews (meat only).  extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans, pork    collectively with                                                                           or beef with        other binders and                                                                           barbecue sauce.     extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Various poultry     Sufficient for                                                                           products.           purpose in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1322.                                  Whey, Reduced       To bind or thicken  Sausage as          3.5 percent                                   lactose.                                provided for in 9   individually or                                                                           CFR Part 319,       collectively with                                                                           bockwurst.          other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Imitation           Sufficient for                                                                           sausages,           purpose in                                                                           nonspecific         accordance with                                                                           loaves, soups,      21 CFR 172.5.                                                                           stews (meat only).                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans, pork    collectively with                                                                           or beef with        other binders and                                                                           barbecue sauce.     extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                  Whey, Reduced       ......do..........  Sausage as          3.5 percent                                   minerals.                               provided for in 9   individually or                                                                           CFR Part 319,       collectively with                                                                           bockwurst.          other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                                      ......do..........  Imitation           Sufficient for                                                                           sausages,           purpose in                                                                           nonspecific         accordance with                                                                           loaves, soups,      21 CFR 172.5.                                                                           stews (meat only).                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans, pork    collectively with                                                                           or beef with        other binders and                                                                           barbecue sauce.     extenders for use                                                                                               in meat.                                  Whey protein        ......do..........  Sausage as          3.5 percent                                   concentrate.                            provided in 9 CFR   individually or                                                                           Part 319,           collectively with                                                                           bockwurst.          other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1979c.                                                      ......do..........  Imitation           Sufficient for                                                                           sausages,           purpose in                                                                           nonspecific         accordance with                                                                           loaves, soups,      21 CFR 184.1979c.                                                                           stews.                                                      ......do..........  Chili con carne,    8 percent                                                                           chili con carne     individually or                                                                           with beans, pork    collectively with                                                                           or beef with        other binders and                                                                           barbecue sauce.     extenders for use                                                                                               in meat, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1979c                                                      To bind meat        Restructured meat   3.5 percent                                                       pieces.             food products,      individually or                                                                           whole muscle meat   collectively with                                                                           cuts.               other binders and                                                                                               extenders for use                                                                                               in meat, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1979c.                                  Xanthan gum.......  To maintain:        Meat sauces,        Sufficient for                                                       uniform             gravies or sauces   purpose in                                                       viscosity;          and meats, canned   accordance with                                                       suspension of       or frozen and/or    21 CFR 172.5.                                                       particulate         refrigerated meat                                                       matter, emulsion    salads, canned or                                                       stability; freeze-  frozen meat                                                       thaw stability.     stews, canned                                                                           chili or chili                                                                           with beans, pizza                                                                           topping mixes and                                                                           batter or                                                                           breading mixes.                                                      ......do..........  Various poultry     Sufficient for                                                                           products, except    purpose                                                                           uncooked products                                                                           or sausages or                                                                           other products                                                                           with a moisture                                                                           limitation                                                                           established by                                                                           Subpart P of Part                                                                           381.Bleaching Agent.................  Hydrogen peroxide.  To remove color...  Tripe (substance    Sufficient for                                                                           must be removed     purpose.                                                                           from product by                                                                           rinsing with                                                                           clear water).Catalysts (substances must be     Nickel............  To accelerate       Rendered animal      Do. eliminated during process).                           chemical reaction.  fats or a                                                                           combination of                                                                           such fats and                                                                           vegetable fats.                                  Sodium amide......  Rearrangement of    ......do..........   Do.                                                       fatty acid                                                       radicals.                                  Sodium methoxide..  ......do..........  ......do..........  ..................Chilling Media..................  Salt (NaCl).......  To aid in chilling  Raw poultry         700 lbs. to 10,000                                                                           products.           gallons of water.Coloring Agents (artificial)....  Coal tar dyes       To color products.  Various poultry     Sufficient for                                   (FD&C                               products.           purpose.                                   certified).                                  Color additives     To color casings    Sausage casings,    Sufficient for                                   listed in 21 CFR    or rendered fats;   oleomargarine,      purpose (may be                                   Part 74, Subpart    marking and         shortening,         mixed with                                   A of Part 82,       branding product.   marking or          approved natural                                   Subpart B                               branding ink on     coloring matters                                   (operator must                          product (meat       or harmless inert                                   furnish evidence                        only).              material such as                                   to inspector in                                             common salt and                                   charge that color                                           sugar).                                   additive has been                                   certified for use                                   in connection                                   with foods by the                                   Food and Drug                                   Administration).                                  Titanium oxide....  To whiten.........  Canned ham salad    0.5 percent.                                                                           spread and                                                                           creamed-type                                                                           canned meat                                                                           products. Poultry                                                                           salads and                                                                           poultry spreads.Coloring Agents (natural).......  Alkanet, annatto,   To color casings    Sausage casings,    Sufficient for                                   carotene,           or rendered fats;   oleomargarine,      purpose (may be                                   cochineal, green    marking and         shortening,         mixed with                                   chlorophyll,        branding product.   marking or          approved                                   saffron and                             branding ink on     artificial dyes                                   tumeric.                                product (meat       or harmless inert                                                                           only).              material such as                                                                                               common salt and                                                                                               sugar).                                  Annatto, carotene.  To color products.  Various poultry     Sufficient for                                                                           products.           purpose.Curing accelerators (must be      Ascorbic acid.....  To accelerate       Cured pork and      75 oz to 100 gal used only in combination with                         color fixing or     beef cuts, cured    pickle at 10 curing agents).                                       preserve color      poultry, cured      percent pump                                                       during storage.     comminuted          level; \3/4\ oz                                                                           poultry and meat    to 100 lb meat,                                                                           food products.      meat byproduct or                                                                                               poultry product;                                                                                               10 percent                                                                                               solution to                                                                                               surfaces of cured                                                                                               meat cuts or                                                                                               poultry products                                                                                               prior to                                                                                               packaging. (The                                                                                               use of such                                                                                               solution shall                                                                                               not result in the                                                                                               addition of a                                                                                               significant                                                                                               amount of                                                                                               moisture to the                                                                                               product).                                  Citric acid or      To accelerate       Cured pork and      May be used in                                   sodium citrate.     color fixing or     beef cuts, cured    cured meat                                                       preserve color      comminuted meat     products or in 10                                                       during storage.     food product,       percent solution                                                                           cured comminuted    used to spray                                                                           poultry or          surfaces of cured                                                                           poultry products.   meat cuts prior                                                                                               to packaging to                                                                                               replace up to 50                                                                                               percent of the                                                                                               ascorbic acid,                                                                                               erythorbic acid,                                                                                               sodium ascorbate,                                                                                               or sodium                                                                                               erythorbate that                                                                                               is used. May be                                                                                               used in cured                                                                                               poultry products                                                                                               to replace 50                                                                                               percent of the                                                                                               ascorbic acid or                                                                                               sodium ascorbate                                                                                               that is used.                                  Erythorbic acid...  To accelerate       Cured pork and      75 oz to 100 gal                                                       color fixing or     beef cuts, cured    pickle at 10                                                       preserve color      poultry, cured      percent pump                                                       during storage.     comminuted          level; 3/4 oz to                                                                           poultry and meat    100 lb meat, meat                                                                           food products.      byproduct or                                                                                               poultry product;                                                                                               10 percent                                                                                               solution to                                                                                               surfaces of cured                                                                                               meat cuts or                                                                                               poultry products                                                                                               prior to                                                                                               packaging. (The                                                                                               use of such                                                                                               solution shall                                                                                               not result in the                                                                                               addition of a                                                                                               significant                                                                                               amount of                                                                                               moisture to the                                                                                               product).                                  Fumaric acid......  ......do..........  Cured, comminuted   0.065 percent (or                                                                           meat, poultry or    1 oz to 100 lb)                                                                           meat and poultry    of the weight of                                                                           products.           the meat, poultry                                                                                               or the meat or                                                                                               poultry                                                                                               byproducts before                                                                                               processing.                                  Glucono delta       ......do..........  Cured, comminuted   8 oz to each 100                                   lactone.                                meat or meat food   lb of meat or                                                                           product.            meat byproduct.                                                      ......do..........  Genoa salami......  16 oz to 100 lb of                                                                                               meat (1.0                                                                                               percent).                                  Sodium acid         ......do..........  Frankfurters,       Not to exceed                                   pyrophosphate.                          wieners, vienna,    alone or in                                                                           bologna, garlic     combination with                                                                           bologna,            other curing                                                                           knockwurst and      accelerators for                                                                           similar products.   use in meat the                                                                                               following: 8 oz                                                                                               in 100 lb of                                                                                               meat, or meat and                                                                                               meat byproducts,                                                                                               content of the                                                                                               formula; nor 0.5                                                                                               percent in the                                                                                               finished product.                                  Sodium ascorbate..  To accelerate       Cured pork and      87.5 oz to 100 gal                                                       color fixing or     beef cuts, cured    pickle at 10                                                       preserve color      comminuted meat     percent pump                                                       during storage.     food product,       level; \7/8\ oz                                                                           cured comminuted    to 100 lb meat,                                                                           poultry or          meat byproduct or                                                                           poultry products.   poultry product;                                                                                               10 percent                                                                                               solution to                                                                                               surfaces of cured                                                                                               meat cuts or                                                                                               poultry products                                                                                               prior to                                                                                               packaging. (The                                                                                               use of such                                                                                               solution shall                                                                                               not result in the                                                                                               addition of a                                                                                               significant                                                                                               amount of                                                                                               moisture to the                                                                                               product).                                  Sodium erythorbate  To accelerate       Cured pork and      87.5 oz to 100 gal                                                       color fixing or     beef cuts, cured    pickle at 10                                                       preserve color      comminuted meat     percent pump                                                       during storage.     food products,      level; \7/8\ oz                                                                           cured comminuted    to 100 lb meat,                                                                           poultry or          meat byproduct or                                                                           poultry products.   poultry product;                                                                                               10 percent                                                                                               solution to                                                                                               surfaces of cured                                                                                               meat cuts or                                                                                               poultry products                                                                                               prior to                                                                                               packaging. (The                                                                                               use of such                                                                                               solution shall                                                                                               not result in the                                                                                               addition of a                                                                                               significant                                                                                               amount of                                                                                               moisture to the                                                                                               product.)Curing Agents...................  Sodium or           Source of nitrite.  Cured meat          7 lb to 100 gal                                   potassium nitrate.                      products other      pickle; 3\1/2\ oz                                                                           than bacon.         to 100 lb meat or                                                                           Nitrates may not    poultry product                                                                           be used in baby,    (dry cure); 2\3/                                                                           junior, and         4\ oz to 100 lb                                                                           toddler foods.      chopped meat or                                                                           Cured, comminuted   poultry.                                                                           poultry or                                                                           poultry products.                                  Sodium or           To fix color......  Cured meat and      2 lb to 100 gal                                   potassium nitrite                       poultry products.   pickle at 10                                   (supplies of                            Nitrites may not    percent pump                                   sodium nitrite                          be used in baby,    level; 1 oz to                                   and potassium                           junior, or          100 lb meat or                                   nitrite and                             toddler foods.      poultry product                                   mixtures                                                    (dry cure); \1/4\                                   containing them                                             oz to 100 lb                                   must be kept                                                chopped meat,                                   under the care of                                           meat byproduct or                                   a responsible                                               poultry product.                                   employee of the                                             The use of                                   establishment.                                              nitrites,                                   The specific                                                nitrates or                                   nitrite content                                             combination shall                                   of such supplies                                            not result in                                   must be known and                                           more than 200 ppm                                   clearly marked                                              of nitrite,                                   accordingly).                                               calculated as                                                                                               sodium nitrite in                                                                                               finished product,                                                                                               except that                                                                                               nitrites may be                                                                                               used in bacon                                                                                               only in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               paragraph (b) of                                                                                               this section.Denuding Agents (may be used in   Lime (calcium       To denude mucous    Tripe.............  Sufficient for combination. Must be removed      oxide, calcium      membranes.                              purpose. from tripe by rinsing with        hydroxide). potable water.).                                  Sodium carbonate..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium citrate....  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium gluconate..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium hydroxide..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium persulfate.  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium silicates    ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   (ortho, meta, and                                   sesqui).                                  Trisodium           ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   phosphate.Emulsifying Agents..............  Actylated           To emulsify         Shortening and      Sufficient for                                   monoglycerides.     product.            various poultry     purpose.                                                                           products.                                  Diacetyl tartaric   ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   acid esters of                                   mono-and                                   diglycerides.                                  Glycerol-lacto      ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   stearate, oleate,                                   or palmitate.                                  Lecithin..........  To emulsify         Oleomargarine,      0.5 percent in                                                       product (also as    shortening,         oleomargarine,                                                       an antioxidant).    various meat and    use in other                                                                           poultry products.   products_sufficie                                                                                               nt amount for                                                                                               emulsification.                                  Mono and            To emulsify         Rendered animal     Sufficient for                                   diglycerides        product.            fat or a            purpose in lard                                   (glycerol                               combination of      and shortening;                                   palmitate, etc.).                       such fat with       0.5 percent in                                                                           vegetable fat;      oleomargarine.                                                                           oleomargarine.                                                      ......do..........  Various poultry     Sufficient for                                                                           products.           purpose.                                  Mono and            ......do..........  Margarine or        0.5 percent.                                   diglycerides of                         oleomargarine.                                   fatty acids                                   esterified with                                   any of the                                   following acids:                                   acetic,                                   acetyltartaric,                                   citric, lactic,                                   tartaric, and                                   their sodium and                                   calcium salts;                                   the sodium                                   sulfoacetate                                   derivatives of                                   these mono and                                   diglycerides.                                  Polyglycerol        ......do..........  Rendered animal     Sufficient for                                   esters of fatty                         fat or a            purpose for                                   acids                                   combination of      rendered animal                                   (polyglycerol                           such fat with       fat or                                   esters of fatty                         vegetable fat       combination with                                   acids are                               when use is not     vegetable fat;                                   restricted to                           precluded by        0.5 percent for                                   those up to and                         standards of        oleomargarine.                                   including the                           identity of                                   decaglycerol                            composition;                                   esters and                              oleomargarine.                                   otherwise meeting                                   the requirements                                   of §                                   172.854(a) of the                                   Food Additive                                   Regulations).                                  Polysorbate 60      ......do..........  Shortening for use  1 percent when                                   (polyoxyethylene                        in                  used alone. If                                   (20) sorbitan                           nonstandardized     used with                                   monostearate).                          baked goods,        polysorbate 80                                                                           baking mixes,       the combined                                                                           icings, fillings,   total shall not                                                                           and toppings and    exceed 1 percent.                                                                           in the frying of                                                                           foods (meat                                                                           only). Rendered                                                                           poultry fat or a                                                                           combination of                                                                           such fat with                                                                           vegetable fat.                                  Polysorbate 80      ......do..........  Shortening for use  1 percent when                                   (polyoxyethylene                        in                  used alone. If                                   (20) sorbitan                           nonstandardized     used with                                   monooleate).                            baked goods,        polysorbate 60                                                                           baking mixes,       the combined                                                                           icings, fillings,   total shall not                                                                           and toppings and    exceed 1 percent.                                                                           in the frying of                                                                           foods (meat                                                                           only). Various                                                                           poultry products.                                  1,2-propylene       ......do..........  Margarine or        2.0 percent.                                   glycol esters of                        oleomargarine.                                   fatty acids.                                  Propylene glycol    ......do..........  Rendered animal or  Sufficient for                                   mono and diesters                       poultry fat or a    purpose.                                   of fats and fatty                       combination of                                   acids.                                  such fat with                                                                           vegetable fat.                                  Stearyl-2-lactylic  ......do..........  Shortening to be    3.0 percent.                                   acid.                                   used for cake                                                                           icings and                                                                           fillings (meat                                                                           only).                                  Stearyl             ......do..........  Shortening........  Sufficient for                                   monoglyceridyl                                              purpose                                   citrate.Film Forming Agents.............  A mixture           To reduce cooler    Freshly dressed     Formulation may                                   consisting of       shrinkage and       meat carcasses.     not exceed 1.5                                   water, sodium       help protect        Such carcasses      percent of hot                                   alginate, calcium   surface.            must bear a         carcass weight                                   chloride, sodium                        statement           when applied.                                   carboxymethyl-                          ``Protected with    Chilled weight                                   cellulose, and                          a film of water,    may not exceed                                   corn syrup solids.                      corn syrup          hot weight.                                                                           solids, sodium                                                                           alginate, calcium                                                                           chloride and                                                                           sodium                                                                           carboxymethyl-                                                                           cellulose.''.Flavoring Agents; Protectors and  Artificial smoke    To flavor product.  Various (meat and   Sufficient for Developers.                       flavoring.                              poultry) \2\.       purpose.                                  Autolyzed yeast     ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   extract.                                  Benzoic acid        To retard flavor    Margarine or        0.1 percent                                   (sodium,            reversion.          oleomargarine.      individually, or                                   potassium and                                               if used in                                   calcium salts).                                             combination with                                                                                               other flavoring                                                                                               agents for use in                                                                                               meat or with                                                                                               sorbic acid and                                                                                               its salts, 0.2                                                                                               percent                                                                                               (expressed as the                                                                                               acids in the wt.                                                                                               of the finished                                                                                               foods).                                  Calcium lactate...  To protect flavor.  Cooked semi-dry     0.6 percent in                                                                           and dry products    product                                                                           including           formulation.                                                                           sausage,                                                                           imitation                                                                           sausage, and                                                                           nonspecific meat                                                                           food sticks.                                  Citric acid.......  ......do..........  Various poultry     Sufficient for                                                                           products.           purpose.                                                      Flavoring.........  Chili con carne...   Do.                                  Corn syrup solids;  To flavor product.  Various poultry      Do.                                   corn syrup;                             products,                                   glucose syrup.                          sausage,                                                                           hamburger, meat                                                                           loaf, luncheon                                                                           meat, chopped or                                                                           pressed ham.                                  Dextrose..........  ......do..........  Sausage, ham and     Do.                                                                           cured products.                                  Diacetyl..........  ......do..........  Oleomargarine.....   Do.                                  Disodium guanylate  ......do..........  Various meat and                                                                           poultry                                                                           products.\2\                                  Disodium inosinate  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Harmless bacteria   To develop flavor.  Dry sausage, pork   0.5 percent.                                   starters of the                         roll, thuringer,                                   acidophilus type,                       lebanon bologna,                                   lactic acid                             cervelat, and                                   starter or                              salami.                                   culture of                                   Pediococcus                                   cerevisiae.                                  Harmless lactic     To prevent the      Bacon.............  Sufficient for                                   acid producing      growth of                               purpose.                                   bacteria.           Clostridium                                                       botulinum.                                  Hydrolyzed plant    To flavor product.  Various meat and     Do.                                   protein.                                poultry                                                                           products.\2\                                  Isopropyl citrate.  To protect flavor.  Oleomargarine.....  0.02 percent.                                  Malt syrup........  To flavor product.  Cured meat          2.5 percent.                                                                           products.                                                      ......do..........  Various poultry     Sufficient for                                                                           products.           purpose.                                  Milk protein        ......do..........  Various meat and     Do.                                   hydrolysate.                            poultry                                                                           products.\2\                                  Monoammonium        ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   glutamate.                                  Monosodium          ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   glutamate.                                  Potassium lactate.  ......do..........  Various meat and    Not to exceed 2                                                                           meat food           percent of                                                                           products, poultry   formulation; in                                                                           and poultry food    accordance with                                                                           products, except    21 CFR 184.1639.                                                                           infant formula                                                                           and infant                                                                           food.\2\                                  Smoke flavoring...  To flavor product.  Various meat and    Sufficient for                                                                           poultry products.   purpose.                                  Sodium acetate....  To flavor products  Various meat and    Not to exceed                                                                           poultry products.   0.25% of                                                                                               formulate in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1721.                                  Sodium diacetate..  ......do..........  ......do..........  Not to exceed                                                                                               0.25% of                                                                                               formulate in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1754.                                  Sodium lactate....  ......do..........  Various meat and    Not to exceed 2                                                                           meat food           percent of                                                                           products, poultry   formulation in                                                                           and poultry food    accordance with                                                                           products, except    21 CFR 184.1768.                                                                           infant formula                                                                           and infant                                                                           food.\2\                                  Sodium              ......do..........  Various meat and    0.5 percent.                                   sulfoacetate                            poultry                                   derivative of                           products.\2\                                   mono and                                   diglycerids.                                  Sodium              To help protect     ``Fresh Beef,''     0.5 percent of                                   tripolyphosphate.   flavor.             \2\ ``Beef for      total product.                                                                           further cooking,                                                                           ``Cooked Beef,''                                                                           Beef Patties,                                                                           Meat Loaves, Meat                                                                           Toppings, and                                                                           similar products                                                                           derived from                                                                           pork, lamb, veal,                                                                           mutton, and goat                                                                           meat which are                                                                           cooked or frozen                                                                           after processing.                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   tripolyphosphate                                   and sodium                                   mixtures,                                   metaphosphate,                                   insoluble; and                                   sodium                                   polyphosphates,                                   glassy.                                  Sorbitol..........  To flavor, to       Cooked sausage      Not to exceed 2                                                       facilitate the      labeled             percent of the                                                       removal of          frankfurter,        weight of the                                                       casings from        frank, furter,      formula excluding                                                       product, and to     wiener, and         the formula                                                       reduce              knockwurst; cured   weight of water                                                       caramelization      pork and pork       or ice, when used                                                       and charring.       products, as        in accordance                                                                           provided for in 9   with 21 CFR                                                                           CFR Part 319.       184.1835.                                  Starter distillate  To help protect     Oleomargarine.....  Sufficient for                                                       flavor.                                 purpose.                                  Stearyl citrate...  ......do..........  ......do..........  0.15 percent.                                  Sugars (sucrose     To flavor product.  Various meat and    Sufficient for                                   and dextrose).                          poultry products.   purpose.Gases...........................  Carbon dioxide      Contact freezing..  Various poultry      Do.                                   liquid.                                 products.                                  Carbon dioxide      To cool product...  Chopping of meat,   Sufficient for                                   solid (dry ice).                        packing of          purpose.                                                                           product.                                                      To cool product or  Various poultry      Do.                                                       facilitate          products.                                                       chopping or                                                       packaging.                                  Nitrogen..........  To exclude oxygen   Various meat and     Do.                                                       from sealed         poultry products.                                                       containers.                                  Nitrogen, liquid..  Contact freezant..  ......do..........   Do.Hog Scald Agents (must be         Caustic soda......  To remove hair....  Hog carcasses.....  Sufficient for removed by subsequent cleaning                                                                purpose. operations).                                  Dicotyl sodium      ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   sulfosuccinate.                                  Dimethylpolysiloxa  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   ne.                                  Disodium-calcium    ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   ethylenediaminete                                   tra-acetate.                                  Disodium phosphate  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Ethylenediaminetet  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   ra-acetic acid                                   (sodium salts).                                  Lime (calcium       ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   oxide, calcium                                   hydroxide).                                  Potassium                                                    Do.                                   hydroxide.                                  Propylene glycol..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Soap (prepared by   ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   the reaction of                                   calcium,                                   potassium, or                                   sodium with rosin                                   or fatty acids of                                   natural fats and                                   oils).                                  Sodium acid         ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   pyrophosphate.                                  Sodium carbonate..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   dodecylbenzene                                   sulfonate.                                  Sodium gluconate..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   hexametaphosphate.                                  Sodium lauryl       ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   sulfate.                                  Sodium mono and     ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   dimethylnaphthale                                   ne sulfonate                                   (molecular weight                                   245-260).                                  Sodium n-           ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   alkylbenzene                                   sulfonate (alkyl                                   group                                   predominantly C12                                   and C13 and not                                   less than 95                                   percent C10 and                                   C16).                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   pyrophosphate.                                  Sodium silicates    ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   (ortho, meta, and                                   sesqui).                                  Sodium sulfate....  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   tripolyphosphate.                                  Sucrose...........  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Triethanolamine     ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   dodecylbenzene                                   sulfonate.                                  Trisodium           ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   phosphate.Miscellaneous...................  Adipic acid.......  To acidify........  Margarine or        Sufficient for                                                                           oleomargarine.      purpose.                                  Ascorbic acid,      To delay            Fresh beef cuts,    Not to exceed,                                   erythorbic acid,    discoloration.      fresh lamb cuts,    singly or in                                   citric acid,                            and fresh pork      combination, 500                                   sodium ascorbate                        cuts.               ppm or 1.8 mg/sq                                   and sodium                                                  inch of product                                   citrate, singly                                             surface of                                   or in combination.                                          ascorbic acid (in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 182.3013),                                                                                               erythorbic acid                                                                                               (in accordance                                                                                               with 21 CFR                                                                                               182.3041), or                                                                                               sodium ascorbate                                                                                               (in accordance                                                                                               with 21 CFR                                                                                               182.3731); and/or                                                                                               not to exceed,                                                                                               singly or in                                                                                               combination, 250                                                                                               ppm or 0.9 mg/sq                                                                                               inch of product                                                                                               surface of citric                                                                                               acid (in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 182.6033),                                                                                               or sodium citrate                                                                                               (in accordance                                                                                               with 21 CFR                                                                                               182.6751).                                  Calcium disodium,   To preserve         Margarine or        75 ppm by weight                                   EDTA (calcium       product and to      oleomargarine.      of the finished                                   disodium ethylene-  protect flavor.                         oleomargarine or                                   diaminetetraaceta                                           margarine.                                   te.                                  Calcium propionate  To retard mold      Pizza crust.......  0.32 percent alone                                                       growth.                                 or in combination                                                                                               based on weight                                                                                               of the flour                                                                                               brace used.                                                      ......do..........  Fresh pie dough     0.3 percent of                                                                           (poultry only).     calcium                                                                                               propionate or                                                                                               sodium propionate                                                                                               alone, or in                                                                                               combination,                                                                                               based on weight                                                                                               of flour used.                                  Citric acid.......  To preserve cured   Cured pork cuts...  Not to exceed 30                                                       color during                            percent in water                                                       storage.                                solution used to                                                                                               spray surfaces of                                                                                               cured cuts, prior                                                                                               to packaging, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 184.1033.                                                                                               (The use of such                                                                                               solution shall                                                                                               not result in the                                                                                               addition of a                                                                                               significant                                                                                               amount of                                                                                               moisture to the                                                                                               product and shall                                                                                               be applied only                                                                                               once to product).                                  Citric acid         To acidify........  Margarine and       Sufficient for                                   (sodium and                             oleomargarine.      purpose.                                   potassium salts).                                  d- and dl-alpha-    To inhibit          Pump-cured bacon..  500 ppm; by                                   tocopherol.         nitrosamine                             injection or                                                       formation.                              surface                                                                                               application.                                  Dipotassium         To decrease the     Meat food products  For meat food                                   phosphate.          amount of cooked    except where        products, 5                                                       out juices.         otherwise           percent of                                                                           prohibited by the   phosphate in                                                                           meat inspection     pickle at 10                                                                           regulations and     percent pump                                                                           poultry food        level; 0.5                                                                           products except     percent of                                                                           where otherwise     phosphate in meat                                                                           prohibited by the   food product                                                                           poultry products    (only clear                                                                           inspection          solution may be                                                                           regulations..       injected into                                                                                               meat food                                                                                               product). For                                                                                               poultry food                                                                                               products, 0.5                                                                                               percent of total                                                                                               product.                                  Disodium phosphate  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Glycerine.........  Humectant.........  Shelf stable meat   Not to exceed 2                                                                           snacks.             percent of the                                                                                               formulation                                                                                               weight of the                                                                                               product in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 182.1320.                                  Hydrochloric acid.  To acidify........  Margarine or        Sufficient for                                                                           oleomargarine.      purpose.                                  Lactic acid         ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   (sodium and                                   potassium salts).                                  L-Tartaric acid     ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   (sodium and                                   sodium potassium                                   salts).                                  Monopotassium       To decrease the     Meat food products  For meat food                                   phosphate.          amount of cooked    except where        products, 5                                                       out juices.         otherwise           percent of                                                                           prohibited by the   phosphate in                                                                           meat inspection     pickle at 10                                                                           regulations and     percent pump                                                                           poultry food        level; 0.5                                                                           products except     percent of                                                                           where otherwise     phosphate in meat                                                                           prohibited by the   food product                                                                           poultry products    (only clear                                                                           inspection          solution may be                                                                           regulations..       injected into                                                                                               meat food                                                                                               product). For                                                                                               poultry products,                                                                                               0.5 percent of                                                                                               total product.                                  Monosodium          ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   phosphate.                                  Phosphoric acid...  To acidify........  Margarine or        Sufficient for                                                                           oleomargarine.      purpose.                                  Potassium           To alkalize.......  Margarine or        Sufficient for                                   bicarbonate.                            oleomargarine.      purpose.                                  Potassium           ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   carbonate.                                  Potassium           To decrease the     Meat food products  5 percent of                                   pyrophosphate.      amount of cooked    except where        phosphate in                                                       out juices.         otherwise           pickle at 10                                                                           prohibited by the   percent pump                                                                           meat inspection     level; 0.5                                                                           regulations and     percent of                                                                           poultry food        phosphate in meat                                                                           products except     food product                                                                           where otherwise     (only clear                                                                           prohibited by the   solution may be                                                                           poultry products    injected into                                                                           inspection          meat food                                                                           regulations..       product). For                                                                                               poultry food                                                                                               products, 0.5                                                                                               percent of total                                                                                               product.                                  Potassium sorbate.  To retard mold      Dry sausage.......  10 percent in                                                       growth.                                 water solution                                                                                               may be applied to                                                                                               casings after                                                                                               stuffing or                                                                                               casings may be                                                                                               dipped in                                                                                               solution prior to                                                                                               stuffing.                                  Potassium           To decrease the     Meat food products  5 percent of                                   tripolyphosphate.   amount of cooked    except where        phosphate in                                                       out juices.         otherwise           pickle at 10                                                                           prohibited by the   percent pump                                                                           meat inspection     level; 0.5                                                                           regulations and     percent of                                                                           poultry food        phosphate in meat                                                                           products except     food product                                                                           where otherwise     (only clear                                                                           prohibited by the   solution may be                                                                           poultry products    injected into                                                                           inspection          meat food                                                                           regulations.        product). For                                                                                               poultry food                                                                                               products, 0.5                                                                                               percent of total                                                                                               product.                                  Propyl paraben      To retard mold      Dry sausage.......  3.5 percent in                                   (propyl p-hydroxy-  growth.                                 water solution                                   benzoate).                                                  may be applied to                                                                                               casings after                                                                                               stuffing or                                                                                               casings may be                                                                                               dipped in                                                                                               solution prior to                                                                                               stuffing.                                  Silicon dioxide...  Processing aid/     Tocopherol          At level not to                                                       dispersant.         containing bacon    exceed 4.0                                                                           curing mixes.       percent in the                                                                                               dry mix.                                  Sodium acid         To decrease the     Meat food products  For meat food                                   pyrophosphate.      amount of cooked    except where        products, 5                                                       out juices.         other prohibited    percent of                                                                           by the meat         phosphate in                                                                           inspection          pickle at 10                                                                           regulations and     percent pump                                                                           poultry food        level; 0.5                                                                           products except     percent of                                                                           where otherwise     phosphate in meat                                                                           prohibited by the   food product                                                                           poultry products    (only clear                                                                           inspection          solution may be                                                                           regulations..       injected into                                                                                               meat food                                                                                               product). For                                                                                               poultry products,                                                                                               0.5 percent of                                                                                               total product.                                  Sodium bicarbonate  To neutralize       Rendered fats,      Sufficient for                                                       excess acidity,     soups, curing       purpose.                                                       cleaning            pickle (meat and                                                       vegetables.         poultry).                                                      To alkalize.......  Margarine or         Do.                                                                           oleomargarine.                                  Sodium carbonate..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium citrate      To inhibit the      Cured and uncured,  Not to exceed 1.3                                   buffered with       growth of micro-    processed whole     percent of the                                   citric acid to a    organisms and       muscle meat and     formulation                                   pH of 5.6.          retain product      poultry food        weight of the                                                       flavor during       products, e.g.,     product in                                                       storage.            ham, chicken        accordance with                                                                           breasts.            21 CFR 184.1751.                                  Sodium hydroxide..  To alkalize.......  Margarine or        Sufficient for                                                                           oleomargarine.      purpose.                                                      To decrease the     Poultry food        May be used only                                                       amount of cooked    products            in combination                                                       out juices.         containing          with phosphate in                                                                           phosphates.         a ratio not to                                                                                               exceed one part                                                                                               sodium hydroxide                                                                                               to four parts                                                                                               phosphate.                                                      ......do..........  Meat food products  May be used only                                                                           containing          in combination                                                                           phosphates.         with phosphates                                                                                               in a ratio not to                                                                                               exceed one part                                                                                               sodium hydroxide                                                                                               to four parts                                                                                               phosphate; the                                                                                               combination shall                                                                                               not exceed 5                                                                                               percent in pickle                                                                                               at 10 percent                                                                                               pump level; 0.5                                                                                               percent in                                                                                               product.                                  Sodium              ......do..........  Meat food products  For meat food                                   metaphosphate,                          except where        products, 5                                   insoluble.                              other prohibited    percent of                                                                           by the meat         phosphate in                                                                           inspection          pickle at 10                                                                           regulations, and    percent pump                                                                           poultry food        level; 0.5                                                                           products except     percent of                                                                           where otherwise     phosphate in meat                                                                           prohibited by the   food product                                                                           poultry products    (only clear                                                                           inspection          solution may be                                                                           regulations.        injected into                                                                                               meat food                                                                                               product). For                                                                                               poultry products,                                                                                               0.5 percent of                                                                                               total product.                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   polyphosphate,                                   glassy.                                  Sodium proprionate  To retard mold      Pizza crust.......  0.32 percent alone                                                       growth.                                 or in combination                                                                                               based on weight                                                                                               of the flour                                                                                               brace used.                                                      ......do..........  Fresh pie dough     0.3 percent of                                                                           (poultry only).     calcium                                                                                               proprionate or                                                                                               sodium                                                                                               proprionate                                                                                               alone, or in                                                                                               combination,                                                                                               based on weight                                                                                               of flour used.                                  Sodium              To decrease the     Meat food products  For meat food                                   pryophosphate.      amount of cooked    except where        products, 5                                                       out juices.         otherwise           percent of                                                                           prohibited by the   phosphate in                                                                           meat inspection     pickle at 10                                                                           regulations and     percent pump                                                                           poultry food        level; 0.5                                                                           products except     percent of                                                                           where otherwise     phosphate in meat                                                                           prohibited by the   food product                                                                           poultry products    (only clear                                                                           inspection          solution may be                                                                           regulations.        injected into                                                                                               meat food                                                                                               product). For                                                                                               poultry products,                                                                                               0.5 percent of                                                                                               total product.                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   tripolyphosphate.                                  Sorbic acid         To preserve         Margarine or        0.1 percent                                   (sodium,            product and to      oleomargarine.      individually, or                                   potassium, and      retard mold                             if used in                                   calcium salts).     growth.                                 combination or                                                                                               with benzoic acid                                                                                               or its salts, 0.2                                                                                               percent                                                                                               (expressed as the                                                                                               acids in the wt.                                                                                               of the finished                                                                                               foods).                                  Tricalcium          To preserve         Mechanically        Not to exceed 2                                   phosphate.          product color       deboned chicken     percent of the                                                       during              to be dehydrated.   weight of the                                                       dehydration                             mechanically                                                       process.                                deboned chicken                                                                                               prior to                                                                                               dehydration, in                                                                                               accordance with                                                                                               21 CFR 182.1217.Poultry scald agents (must be     Alpha-hydro-omega-  To remove feathers  Poultry carcasses.  Not to exceed 0.05 removed by subsequent cleaning    hydroxy-poly                                                percent by weight operations).                      (oxyethylene)                                               in scald water.                                   poly                                   (oxypropylene)                                   (minimum 15                                   moles) poly                                   (oxyethylene)                                   block copolymer                                   (poloxamer).                                  Dimethylpolysiloxa  ......do..........  ......do..........  Sufficient for                                   ne.                                                         purpose.                                  Dioctyl sodium      ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   sulfosuccinate.                                  Dipotassium         ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   phosphate.                                  Ethylenediaminetet  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   ra-acetic acid                                   (sodium salts).                                  Lime (calcium       ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   oxide, calcium                                   hydroxide).                                  Polyoxyethylene     ......do..........  ......do..........  Not to exceed                                   (20) sorbitan                                               0.0175 percent in                                   monooleate.                                                 scald water.                                  Potassium           ......do..........  ......do..........  Sufficient for                                   hydroxide.                                                  purpose.                                  Propylene glycol..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium acid         ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   phosphate.                                  Sodium acid         ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   pyrophosphate.                                  Sodium bicarbonate  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium carbonate..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   dodecylbenzene-                                   sulfonate.                                  Sodium-2-           ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   ethylhexyl                                   sulfate.                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   hexametaphosphate.                                  Sodium hydroxide..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium lauryl       ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   sulfate.                                  Sodium phosphate    ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   (mono-, di-,                                   tribasic).                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   pyrophosphate.                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   sesquicarbonate.                                  Sodium sulfate....  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Sodium              ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   tripolyphosphate.                                  Tetrasodium         ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   pyrophosphate.Proteolytic Enzymes.............  Aspergillus flavus  To soften tissue..  Raw poultry muscle  Solutions                                   oryzae group.                           tissue of hen,      consisting of                                                                           cock, mature        water and                                                                           turkey, mature      approved                                                                           duck, mature        proteolytic                                                                           goose, and mature   enzyme applied or                                                                           guinea, and raw     injected into raw                                                                           meat cuts.          meat or poultry                                                                                               tissue shall not                                                                                               result in a gain                                                                                               of more than 3                                                                                               percent above the                                                                                               weight of the                                                                                               untreated                                                                                               product.                                  Aspergillus oryzae  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Bromelin..........  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Ficin.............  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Papain............  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.Refining Agents (must be          Acetic acid.......  To separate fatty   Rendered fats       Sufficient for eliminated during process of                          acids and           (meat only).        purpose. manufacturing).                                       glycerol.                                  Bicarbonate of      ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   soda.                                  Carbon (purified    To aid in refining  ......do..........   Do.                                   charcoal).          of animal fats.                                  Caustic soda        To refine fats....  ......do..........   Do.                                   (sodium                                   hydroxide).                                  Diatomaceous        ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   earth; Fuller's                                   earth.                                  Sodium carbonate..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Tannic acid.......  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.Rendering agents................  Tricalcium          To aid rendering..  Animal fats.......   Do.                                   phosphate.                                  Trisodium           ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                   phosphate.Synergists (used in combination   Citric acid.......  To increase         Any meat product    Not to exceed 0.01 with antioxidants).                                   effectiveness of    permitted to        percent based on                                                       antioxidants.       contain             fat content.                                                                           antioxidants as                                                                           provided for in                                                                           this part.                                                      ......do..........  Poultry fats......  0.01 percent alone                                                                                               or in combination                                                                                               with antioxidants                                                                                               in poultry fats.                                  Malic acid........  ......do..........  Lard and            0.01 percent based                                                                           shortening.         on total weight                                                                                               in combination                                                                                               with antioxidants                                                                                               for use in meat                                                                                               products only.                                                      ......do..........  Poultry fats......  0.01 percent alone                                                                                               or in combination                                                                                               with antioxidants                                                                                               in poultry fats.                                  Monoglyceride       ......do..........  Lard, shortening,   0.02 percent.                                   citrate.                                fresh pork                                                                           sausage, dried                                                                           meats and poultry                                                                           fats.                                  Monoisopropyl       ......do..........  Lard, shortening,    Do.                                   citrate.                                oleomargarine,                                                                           fresh pork                                                                           sausage, dried                                                                           meats.                                                      ......do..........  Poultry fats......  0.01 percent                                                                                               poultry fats.                                  Phosphoric acid...  ......do..........  Lard, shortening,   0.01 percent.                                                                           and poultry fats.Tenderizing agents..............  Aspergillus flavus  To soften tissue..  Raw poultry muscle  Solutions                                   oryzae group.                           tissue of hen,      consisting of                                                                           cock, mature        water and                                                                           turkey, mature      approved                                                                           duck, mature        proteolytic                                                                           goose, and mature   enzyme applied or                                                                           guinea, and raw     injected into raw                                                                           meat cuts.          meat or poultry                                                                                               tissue shall not                                                                                               result in a gain                                                                                               of more than 3                                                                                               percent above the                                                                                               weight of the                                                                                               untreated                                                                                               product.                                  Aspergillus oryzae  ......do..........  ......do..........  Not more than 3                                                                                               percent of a 0.8                                                                                               molar solution.                                  Bromelin..........  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Calcium chloride..  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Magnesium chloride  ......do..........  ......do..........   Do.                                  Papain............  To soften tissue..  Raw poultry muscle  Solutions                                                                           tissue of hen,      consisting of                                                                           cock, mature        water and                                                                           turkey, mature      approved                                                                           duck, mature        proteolytic                                                                           goose, and mature   enzyme applied or                                                                           guinea, and raw     injected into raw                                                                           meat cuts.          meat or poultry                                                                                               tissue shall not                                                                                               result in a gain                                                                                               of more than 3                                                                                               percent above the                                                                                               weight of the                                                                                               untreated                                                                                               product.                                  Potassium chloride  ......do..........  ......do..........  Not more than 3                                                                                               percent of a 2.0                                                                                               molar solution.                                  Potassium,          ......do..........  ......do..........  A solution of                                   magnesium or                                                approved                                   calcium chloride.                                           inorganic                                                                                               chlorides                                                                                               injected into or                                                                                               applied to raw                                                                                               meats or poultry                                                                                               cuts shall not                                                                                               result in a gain                                                                                               of more than 3                                                                                               percent above the                                                                                               weight of the                                                                                               untreated                                                                                               product.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------\1\ [Reserved]\2\ Information as to the specific products for which use of this additive is approved may be obtained upon  inquiry addressed to the Labeling and Additives Policy Division, Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250.\3\ Provided, that its use is functional and suitable for the product and it is permitted for use at the lowest  level necessary to accomplish the desired technical effect as determined in specific cases prior to label  approval under §§ 317.4 or 381.32.\4\ Special labeling requirements are prescribed in 381.120 for raw poultry chilled in a medium with more than  70 lbs. of salt to 10,000 gals. of water.

[64 FR 72175, Dec. 23, 1999, as amended at 65 FR 3123, Jan. 20, 2000; 65 FR 34391, May 30, 2000]

§ 424.22   Certain other permitted uses.
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(a) Under appropriate declaration as required in parts 316 and 317 of this chapter, the following substances may be added to meat:

(1) General. Common salt, approved sugars (sucrose, cane or beet sugar), maple sugar, dextrose, invert sugar, honey, corn syrup solids (corn syrup, glucose syrup and fructose), wood smoke, vinegar, flavorings, spices, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, and other food and color additives specified in the chart in paragraph (c) of this section may be added to meat under conditions, if any, specified in this part or in part 317 of this chapter.

(2) Artificial flavorings. Other harmless artificial flavorings may be added to meat, with the approval of the Administrator in specific cases.

(3) Coloring matter and dyes. Coloring matter and dyes, other than those specified in a regulation permitting that use in this chapter or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A and Subchapter B, may be applied to meat mixed with rendered fat, applied to natural and artificial casings, and applied to such casings enclosing products, if approved by the Administrator in specific cases. When any coloring matter or dye is applied to casings, there shall be no penetration of coloring into the product.

(b) Use of nitrite and sodium ascorbate or sodium erythorbate (isoascorbate) in bacon.

(1) Pumped bacon. With respect to bacon injected with curing ingredients and massaged bacon, sodium nitrite shall be used at 120 parts per million (ppm) ingoing or an equivalent amount of potassium nitrite shall be used (148 ppm ingoing); and 550 ppm of sodium ascorbate or sodium erythorbate (isoascorbate) shall be used. Sodium ascorbate or sodium erythorbate have a molecular weight of approximately 198. Hydrated forms of these substances shall be adjusted to attain the equivalent of 550 ppm of sodium ascorbate or sodium erythorbate.

(i) The Department shall collect samples of pumped bacon from producing plants and analyze them for the level of nitrosamines by the Thermal Energy Analyzer (TEA). In the event that a TEA analysis indicates that a confirmable level of nitrosamines might be present, additional samples shall be collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Presumptive positive results must be confirmed by mass spectrometry before being considered positive. If during the interval required for the Department to analyze the confirmatory samples by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, changes are made in processing procedures which are expected to result in no confirmable levels of nitrosamines in pumped bacon produced by these new procedures, an establishment may submit samples to USDA for analysis upon prior notification and arrangements with USDA. If, however, an establishment furnishes USDA with laboratory results from testing five consecutive lots of pumped bacon produced under the new procedures and the testing is performed by the USDA methodology and procedures, those results will be utilized in making the determination concerning the product produced under the new procedures. Should the results of these tests reveal that confirmable levels of nitrosamines are not indicated in any of the five consecutive lots, the confirmation analysis by USDA shall be terminated and the establishment shall revert to normal monitoring status. In the event the test results continue to indicate nitrosamines, however, USDA shall proceed in its confirmation analysis on the original samples taken for confirmation. If any one of the original samples collected by USDA for confirmation is found to contain confirmable levels of nitrosamines, all pumped bacon in the producing establishment and all future production will be retained. The Department shall sample and analyze such retained pumped bacon for nitrosamines on a lot by lot basis. A production lot shall be that pumped bacon produced by the establishment in any single shift. Samples from any lot of pumped bacon under retention found to contain nitrosamines at a confirmable level shall cause the lot of pumped bacon to be disposed of in a manner to ensure it will not form nitrosamines when cooked. Such disposal may include incorporation of the uncooked pumped bacon as an ingredient of another meat provided it is processed for eating without further preparation in a manner to preclude the formation of nitrosamines. Bacon subsequently produced shall not be retained because of nitrosamines if the operator of the establishment makes adjustments in the processing of the product and laboratory results obtained by TEA analysis of samples from five consecutive normal sized lots of pumped bacon indicates that the product being produced contains no confirmable levels of nitrosamines. These tests from five consecutive normal sized lots of pumped bacon shall be conducted by the Department. However, if the establishment furnishes the Department with the results of tests conducted under the methodology and procedures used by the Department, such test results will be utilized in making the determination concerning the nitrosamine content of the product. All tests of pumped bacon for nitrosamines under this paragraph (b)(1)(i) shall be made on pumped bacon cooked at 340 degrees F. for 3 minutes on each side. In order to determine that no confirmable levels of nitrosamines are present in a sample tested, the testing must be performed by methodology and procedures that would detect the presence of any nitrosamines at 10 ppb.

(ii) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, sodium nitrite may be used at:

(A) 100 ppm ingoing (potassium nitrite at 123 ppm ingoing); and 550 ppm sodium ascorbate or sodium erythorbate (isoascorbate) shall be used; or

(B) A predetermined level between 40 and 80 ppm (potassium nitrite at a level between 49 and 99 ppm); 550 ppm sodium ascorbate or sodium erythorbate (isoascorbate); and additional sucrose or other similar fermentable carbohydrate at a minimum of 0.7 percent and an inoculum of lactic acid producing bacteria such as Pediococcus acetolactii or other bacteria demonstrated to be equally effective in preventing the production of botulinum toxin at a level sufficient for the purpose of preventing the production of botulinum toxin.

(C) The Department shall collect samples of bacon from establishments producing under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section and analyze them for the level of nitrosamines. Samples shall be randomly selected throughout the production of a lot. The actual sampling plans and methods of analysis that are used will result in approximately the same likelihood as under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section of having a presumptive positive result when the true mean level of nitrosamines in a production lot is 10 ppb. In the event of a presumptive positive result, the establishment shall become subject to the provisions of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section.

(2) Immersion cured bacon. Immersion cured bacon may be placed in a brine solution containing salt, nitrite and flavoring material or in a container with salt, nitrite and flavoring material. Sodium nitrite shall not exceed 120 ppm ingoing or an equivalent amount of potassium nitrite (148 ppm ingoing) based on the actual or estimated skin-free green weight of the bacon bellies.

(3) Bacon made with dry curing materials. With respect to bacon made with dry curing materials, the product shall be cured by applying a premeasured amount of cure mixture to the bacon belly surfaces, completely covering the surfaces. Sodium nitrite shall not exceed 200 ppm ingoing or an equivalent amount of potassium nitrite (246 ppm ingoing) in dry cured bacon based on the actual or estimated skin-free green weight of the bacon belly.

(c) Irradiation of meat food and poultry products.

(1) General requirements. Meat food and poultry products may be treated to reduce foodborne pathogens and to extend product shelf-life by the use of sources of ionizing radiation as identified in 21 CFR 179.26(a). Official establishments must irradiate meat food and poultry products in accordance with 21 CFR 179.26(b), the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system requirements in part 417 of this chapter, and the provisions of this section.

(2) Dosimetry. Official establishments that irradiate meat food and poultry products must have the following procedures in place:

(i) Laboratory operation procedures for determining the absorbed dose value from the dosimeter.

(ii) Calibration criteria for verifying the accuracy and consistency of any means of measurement (e.g., time clocks and weight scales).

(iii) Calibration and accountability criteria for verifying the traceability and accuracy of dosimeters for the intended purpose, and the verification of calibration at least every 12 months. To confirm traceability, establishments must relate, through documentation, the end point measurement of a dosimeter to recognized standards.

(iv) Procedures for ensuring that the product unit is dose mapped to identify the regions of minimum and maximum absorbed dose and such regions are consistent from one product unit to another of like product.

(v) Procedures for accounting for the total absorbed dose received by the product unit (e.g., partial applications of the absorbed dose within one production lot).

(vi) Procedures for verifying routine dosimetry, i.e., assuring each production lot receives the total absorbed dose. Establishments may either position one dosimeter at the regions of minimum and maximum absorbed dose (or at one region verified to represent such) on at least the first, middle, and last product unit in each production lot or use statistically based validation and dose mapping to determine the number and placement of dosimeters in each production lot.

(vii) Procedures for verifying the relationship of absorbed dose as measured by the dosimeter to time exposure of the product unit to the radiation source.

(viii) Procedures for verifying the integrity of the radiation source and processing procedure. Aside from expected and verified radiation source activity decay for radionuclide sources, the radiation source or processing procedure must not be altered, modified, replenished, or adjusted without repeating dose mapping of product units to redefine the regions of minimum and maximum absorbed dose.

(3) Documentation. Official establishments that irradiate meat food or poultry products must have the following documentation on premises, available to FSIS:

(i) Documentation that the irradiation facility is licensed or possesses gamma radiation sources registered with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or the appropriate State government acting under authority granted by the NRC.

(ii) Documentation that the machine radiation source irradiation facility is registered with the appropriate State government, if applicable.

(iii) Documentation that a worker safety program addressing OSHA regulations (29 CFR chapter XVII) is in place.

(iv) Citations or other documents that relate to incidences in which the establishment was found not to comply with Federal or State agency requirements for irradiation facilities.

(v) A certification by the operator that the irradiation facility personnel will only operate under supervision of a person who has successfully completed a course of instruction for operators of food irradiation facilities.

(vi) A certification by the operator that the key irradiation personnel, who monitor or control daily operations, have been trained in food technology, irradiation processing, and radiation health and safety.

(vii) Guarantees from the suppliers of all food-contact packaging materials that may be subject to irradiation that those materials comply with the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.).

(4) Labeling. (i) The labels on packages of meat food and poultry products irradiated in their entirety, in conformance with this section and with 21 CFR 179.26(a) and (b), must bear the logo shown at the end of this paragraph (c)(4)(i). Unless the word “Irradiated” is part of the product name, labels also must bear a statement such as “Treated with radiation” or “Treated by irradiation.” The logo must be placed in conjunction with the required statement, if the statement is used. The statement is not required to be more prominent than the declaration of ingredients required under §317.2(c)(2). Any label bearing the logo or any wording of explanation with respect to this logo must be approved as required by Section 317.4. of this chapter or subparts M and N of part 381.

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(ii) For meat food or poultry products that have been irradiated in their entirety, but that are not sold in packages, the required logo must be displayed to the purchaser with either the labeling of the bulk container plainly in view or a counter sign, card, or other appropriate device bearing the information that the product has been treated with radiation. In either case, the information must be prominently and conspicuously displayed to purchasers. Unless the word “Irradiated” is part of the product name, the labeling counter sign, card, or other device also must bear a statement such as “Treated with radiation” or “Treated by irradiation.” The logo must be placed in conjunction with the required statement, if the statement is used.

(iii) The inclusion of an irradiated meat food or poultry product ingredient in any multi-ingredient meat food or poultry product must be reflected in the ingredient statement on the finished product labeling.

(iv) Optional labeling statements about the purpose for radiation processing may be included on the product label in addition to the stated requirements elsewhere in this section, provided that such statements are not false or misleading. Statements that there has been a specific reduction in microbial pathogens must be substantiated by processing documentation.

[64 FR 72175, Dec. 23, 1999, as amended at 64 FR 72165, Dec. 23, 1999; 65 FR 34391, May 30, 2000]

§ 424.23   Prohibited uses.
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(a) Substances that conceal damage or inferiority or make products appear better or of greater value. No substance may be used in or on any meat if it conceals damage or inferiority or makes the product appear to be better or of greater value than it is. Therefore:

(1) Paprika or oleoresin paprika may not be used in or on fresh meat, such as steaks, or comminuted fresh meat, such as chopped and formed steaks or patties; or in any other meat consisting of fresh meat (with or without seasoning).

(2) Paprika or oleoresin paprika may be used in or on chorizo sausage and other meat in which paprika or oleoresin paprika is permitted as an ingredient in a standard of identity or composition in part 319 of this subchapter.

(3) Sorbic acid, calcium sorbate, sodium sorbate, and other salts of sorbic acid shall not be used in cooked sausages or any other meat; sulfurous acid and salts of sulfurous acid shall not be used in or on any meat; and niacin or nicotinamide shall not be used in or on fresh meat product; except that potassium sorbate, propylparaben (propyl p-hydroxybenzoate), calcium propionate, sodium propionate, benzoic acid, and sodium benzoate may be used in or on any product, only as provided in 9 CFR Chapter III.

(b) Nitrates. Nitrates shall not be used in curing bacon.

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