26 C.F.R. § 2.1   Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes.


Title 26 - Internal Revenue


Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 2—MARITIME CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND

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§ 2.1   Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes.

Sec. 511. [Merchant Marine Act, 1936] (a) When used in this section the term new vessel means any vessel (1) documented or agreed with the Commission to be documented under the laws of the United States; (2) constructed in the United States after December 31, 1939, or the construction of which has been financed under titles V or VII of this Act, as amended, or the construction of which has been aided by a mortgage insured under title XI of this Act as amended; and (3) either (A) of such type, size, and speed as the Commission shall determine to be suitable for use on the high seas or Great Lakes in carrying out the purposes of this Act, but not of less than 2,000 gross tons or of less speed than twelve knots, unless the Commission shall determine and certify in each case that a vessel of a specified lesser tonnage or speed is desirable for use by the United States in case of war or national emergency, or (B) constructed to replace a vessel or vessels requisitioned or purchased by the United States.

(b) For the purpose of promoting the construction, reconstruction, reconditioning, or acquisition of vessels, or for other purposes authorized in this section, necessary to carrying out the policy set forth in title I of this Act, any citizen of the United States who is operating a vessel or vessels in the foreign or domestic commerce of the United States or in the fisheries or owns in whole or in part a vessel or vessels being so operated, or who, at the time of purchase or requisition of the vessel by the Government, was operating a vessel or vessels so engaged or owned in whole or in part a vessel or vessels being so operated or had acquired or was having constructed a vessel or vessels for the purpose of operation in such commerce or in the fisheries, may establish a construction reserve fund, for the construction, reconstruction, reconditioning, or acquisition of new vessels, or for other purposes authorized in this section, to be composed of deposits of proceeds from sales of vessels, indemnities on account of losses of vessels, earnings from the operation of vessels documented under the laws of the United States and from services incident thereto, and receipts, in the form of interest or otherwise, with respect to amounts previously deposited. Such construction reserve fund shall be established, maintained, expended, and used in accordance with the provisions of this section and rules or regulations to be prescribed jointly by the Commission and the Secretary of the Treasury.

(c) In the case of the sale or actual or constructive total loss of a vessel, if the taxpayer deposits an amount equal to the net proceeds of the sale or to the net indemnity with respect to the loss in a construction reserve fund established under subsection (b), then—

(1) If the taxpayer so elects in his income-tax return for the taxable year in which the gain was realized, or

(2) In case a vessel is purchased or requisitioned by the United States, or is lost, in any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1939, and the taxpayer receives payment for the vessel so purchased or requisitioned, or receives from the United States indemnity on account of such loss, subsequent to the end of such taxable year, if the taxpayer so elects prior to the expiration of sixty days after the receipt of the payment or indemnity, and in accordance with a form of election to be prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury,

no gain shall be recognized to the taxpayer in respect of such sale or indemnification in the computation of net income for the purposes of Federal income or excess-profits taxes. If an election is made under subdivision (2) and if computation or recomputation in accordance with this subsection is otherwise allowable but is prevented, on the date of making such election or within six months thereafter, by any statute of limitation, such computation or recomputation nevertheless shall be made notwithstanding such statute if a claim therefor is filed within six months after the date of making such election.

For the purposes of this subsection no amount shall be considered as deposited in a construction reserve fund unless it is deposited within sixty days after it is received by the taxpayer.

As used in this subsection the term net proceeds and the term net indemnity mean the sum of (1) the adjusted basis of the vessel and (2) the amount of gain which would be recognized to the taxpayer without regard to this subsection.

(d) The basis for determining gain or loss and for depreciation, for the purposes of Federal income or excess profits taxes, of any new vessel constructed, reconstructed, reconditioned, or acquired by the taxpayer, or with respect to which purchase-money indebtedness is liquidated as provided in subsection (g), in whole or in part out of the construction reserve fund shall be reduced by that portion of the deposits in the fund expended in the construction, reconstruction, reconditioning, acquisition, or liquidation of purchase-money indebtedness of the new vessel which represents gain not recognized for tax purposes under subsection (c).

(e) For the purposes of this section, (1) if the net proceeds of a sale or the net indemnity in respect of a loss are deposited in more than one deposit, the amount consisting of the gain shall be considered as first deposited; (2) amounts expended, obligated, or otherwise withdrawn shall be applied against the amounts deposited in the fund in the order of deposit; and (3) if any deposit consists in part of gain not recognized under subsection (c), any expenditure, obligation, or withdrawal applied against such deposit shall be considered to consist of gain in the proportion that the part of the deposit consisting of gain bears to the total amount of the deposit.

(f) With respect to any taxable year, amounts on deposit on the last day of such year in a construction reserve fund in accordance with this section and with respect to which all the requirements of subsection (g) have been satisfied, to the extent that such requirements are applicable as of the last day of said taxable year, shall not constitute an accumulation of earnings or profits within the meaning of section 102 of the Internal Revenue Code [Part I (section 531 and following), Subchapter A, Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954].

(g) The provisions of subsections (c) and (f) shall apply to any deposit in the construction reserve fund only to the extent that such deposit is expended or obligated for expenditure, in accordance with rules and regulations to be prescribed jointly by the Commission and the Secretary of the Treasury—

(1) Under a contract for the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or vessels (or in the discretion of the Commission, for a part interest therein), or, with the approval of the Commission, for the reconstruction or reconditioning of a new vessel or vessels, entered into within (i) two years from the date of deposit or the date of any extension thereof which may be granted by the Commission pursuant to the provisions of section 511(h), in the case of deposits made prior to the date [July 17, 1952] on which these amendatory provisions become effective, or (ii) three years from the date of such deposit in the case of a deposit made after such effective date, only if under such rules and regulations—

(A) Within such period not less than 121/2 per centum of the construction or contract price of the vessel or vessels is paid or irrevocably committed on account thereof and the plans and specifications therefor are approved by the Commission to the extent by it deemed necessary; and

(B) In case of a vessel or vessels not constructed under the provisions of this title or not purchased from the Commission, (i) said construction is completed, within six months from the date of the construction contract, to the extent of not less than 5 per centum thereof (or in case the contract covers more than one vessel, the construction of the first vessel so contracted for is so completed to the extent of not less than 5 per centum) as estimated by the Commission and certified by it to the Secretary of the Treasury, and (ii) all construction under such contract is completed with reasonable dispatch thereafter;

(2) For the liquidation of existing or subsequently incurred purchase-money indebtedness to persons other than a parent company of, or a company affiliated or associated with, the mortgagor on a new vessel or vessels within (i) two years from the date of deposit or the date of any extension thereof which may be granted by the Commission pursuant to the provisions of section 511(h), in the case of deposits made prior to the date [July 17, 1952] on which these amendatory provisions become effective, or (ii) three years from the date of such deposit in the case of a deposit made after such effective date.

(h) The Commission is authorized under rules and regulations to be prescribed jointly by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Commission to grant extensions of the period within which the deposits shall be expended or obligated or within which construction shall have progressed to the extent of 5 per centum of completion as provided herein, but such extension shall not be for an aggregate additional period in excess of two years with respect to the expenditure or obligation of such deposits or more than one year with respect to the progress of such construction: Provided, That until January 1, 1965, in addition to the extensions hereinbefore permitted, further extensions may be granted ending not later than December 31, 1965.

(i) Any such deposited gain or portion thereof which is not so expended or obligated within the period provided, or which is otherwise withdrawn before the expiration of such period, or with respect to which the construction has not progressed to the extent of 5 per centum of completion within the period provided, or with respect to which the Commission finds and certifies to the Secretary of the Treasury that, for causes within the control of the taxpayer, the entire construction is not completed with reasonable dispatch, if otherwise taxable income under the law applicable to the taxable year in which such gain was realized, shall be included in the gross income for such taxable year, except for the purpose of the declared value excess-profits tax and the capital stock tax. If any such deposited gain or portion thereof with respect to a deposit made in any taxable year ending on or before June 30, 1945, is so included in gross income for such taxable year, there shall (in addition to any other deficiency) be assessed, collected, and paid in the same manner as if it were a deficiency, an amount equal to 1.1 per centum of the amount of gain so included, such amount being in lieu of any adjustment with respect to the declared value excess-profits tax for such taxable year.

(j) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any deficiency in tax for any taxable year resulting from the inclusion of any amount in gross income as provided by subsection (i), and the amount to be treated as a deficiency under such subsection in lieu of any adjustment with respect to the declared value excess-profits tax, may be assessed or a proceeding in court for the collection thereof may be begun without assessment, at any time: Provided, however, That interest on any such deficiency or amount to be treated as a deficiency shall not begin until the date the deposited gain or portion thereof in question is required under subsection (i) to be included in gross income.

(k) This section shall be applicable to a taxpayer only in respect of sales or indemnifications for losses occurring within a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1939, and only in respect of earnings derived during a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1939.

(l) For the purposes of this section a vessel shall be considered as constructed or acquired by the taxpayer if constructed or acquired by a corporation at a time when the taxpayer owns at least 95 per centum of the total number of shares of each class of stock of the corporation.

(m) The terms used in this section shall have the same meaning as in chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(n) The terms contract for the construction and construction contract, as used in this section, shall include, in the case of a taxpayer who constructs a new vessel in a shipyard owned by such taxpayer, an agreement between such taxpayer and the Commission with respect to such construction and containing provisions deemed necessary or advisable by the Commission to carry out the purposes and policy of this section.

(o) The terms reconstruction and reconditioning, as used in this section, shall include the reconstruction, reconditioning, or modernization of a vessel for exclusive use on the Great Lakes, including the St. Lawrence River and Gulf, if the Commission determines that the objectives of this Act will be promoted by such reconstruction, reconditioning, or modernization, and, notwithstanding any other provisions of law, such vessel shall be deemed to be a “new vessel” within the meaning of this section for such reconstruction, reconditioning, or modernization.

[Sec. 511 as added by Act of October 10, 1940 (Pub. L. 840, 76th Cong., 54 Stat. 1106), as amended by Act of June 17, 1943 (Pub. L. 78, 78th Cong., 57 Stat. 157); Act of Dec. 23, 1944 (Pub. L. 552, 78th Cong., 58 Stat. 920); secs. 9–14, Act of July 17, 1952 (Pub. L. 586, 82d Cong., 66 Stat. 762); Act of Sept. 12, 1964 (Pub. L. 88–595, 78 Stat. 943)]

Sec. 905. [Merchant Marine Act, 1936.] When used in this Act—

(a) The words foreign commerce or foreign trade mean commerce or trade between the United States, its Territories or possessions, or the District of Columbia, and a foreign country.

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(c) The words citizen of the United States include a corporation, partnership, or association only if it is a citizen of the United States within the meaning of section 2 of the Shipping Act, 1916, as amended (U.S.C., title 46, sec. 802), and with respect to a corporation under title VI of this Act, all directors of the corporation are citizens of the United States, and, in the case of a corporation, partnership, or association operating a vessel on the Great Lakes, or on bays, sounds, rivers, harbors, or inland lakes of the United States the amount of interest required to be owned by a citizen of the United States shall be not less than 75 per centum.

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(e) The terms United States Maritime Commission and Commission shall mean the Secretary of Commerce, the Maritime Administrator, or the  *  *  * [Maritime Subsidy Board] as the context may require  *  *  *.

[Sec. 905 (a), (c), and (e) (49 Stat. 2016), amended by sec. 39 (a) and (b), Act of June 23, 1938 (Pub. L. 705, 75th Cong., 52 Stat. 964); Act of July 17, 1952 (Pub. L. 586, 82d Cong., 66 Stat. 765); sec. 4, Act of Sept. 21, 1959 (Pub. L. 86–327, 73 Stat. 597)]

Sec. 2. [Shipping Act, 1916.] (a) That within the meaning of this Act no corporation, partnership, or association shall be deemed a citizen of the United States unless the controlling interest therein is owned by citizens of the United States, and, in the case of a corporation, unless its president or other chief executive officer and the chairman of its board of directors are citizens of the United States and unless no more of its directors than a minority of the number necessary to constitute a quorum are noncitizens and the corporation itself is organized under the laws of the United States or of a State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, but in the case of a corporation, association, or partnership operating any vessel in the coastwise trade the amount of interest required to be owned by citizens of the United States shall be 75 per centum.

(b) The controlling interest in a corporation shall not be deemed to be owned by citizens of the United States (a) if the title to a majority of the stock thereof is not vested in such citizens free from any trust or fiduciary obligation in favor of any person not a citizen of the United States; or (b) if the majority of the voting power in such corporation is not vested in citizens of the United States; or (c) if through any contract or understanding it is so arranged that the majority of the voting power may be exercised, directly or indirectly, in behalf of any person who is not a citizen of the United States; or (d) if by any other means whatsoever control of the corporation is conferred upon or permitted to be exercised by any person who is not a citizen of the United States.

(c) Seventy-five per centum of the interest in a corporation shall not be deemed to be owned by citizens of the United States (a) if the title to 75 per centum of its stock is not vested in such citizens free from any trust or fiduciary obligation in favor of any person not a citizen of the United States; or (b) if 75 per centum of the voting power in such corporation is not vested in citizens of the United States; or (c) if, through any contract or understanding it is so arranged that more than 25 per centum of the voting power in such corporation may be exercised, directly or indirectly, in behalf of any person who is not a citizen of the United States; or (d) if by any other means whatsoever control of any interest in the corporation in excess of 25 per centum is conferred upon or permitted to be exercised by any person who is not a citizen of the United States.

(d) The provisions of this Act shall apply to receivers and trustees of all persons to whom the Act applies, and to the successors or assignees of such persons.

[Sec. 2 (39 Stat. 729) as amended by Act of July 15, 1918 (Pub. L. 198, 65th Cong., 40 Stat. 900); sec. 38, Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (41 Stat. 1008); sec. 3, Act of Sept. 21, 1959 (Pub. L. 86–327, 73 Stat. 597)]

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