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§ 31a. —  Findings and purpose.



[Laws in effect as of January 24, 2002]
[Document not affected by Public Laws enacted between
  January 24, 2002 and December 19, 2002]
[CITE: 43USC31a]

 
                         TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS
 
               CHAPTER 2--UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
 
Sec. 31a. Findings and purpose


(a) Findings

    The Congress finds and declares that--
        (1) during the past 2 decades, the production of geologic maps 
    has been drastically curtailed;
        (2) geologic maps are the primary data base for virtually all 
    applied and basic earth-science investigations, including--
            (A) exploration for and development of mineral, energy, and 
        water resources;
            (B) screening and characterizing sites for toxic and nuclear 
        waste disposal;
            (C) land use evaluation and planning for environmental 
        protection;
            (D) earthquake hazards reduction;
            (E) predicting volcanic hazards;
            (F) design and construction of infrastructure requirements 
        such as utility lifelines, transportation corridors, and 
        surface-water impoundments;
            (G) reducing losses from landslides and other ground 
        failures;
            (H) mitigating effects of coastal and stream erosion;
            (I) siting of critical facilities; and
            (J) basic earth-science research;

        (3) Federal agencies, State and local governments, private 
    industry, and the general public depend on the information provided 
    by geologic maps to determine the extent of potential environmental 
    damage before embarking on projects that could lead to preventable, 
    costly environmental problems or litigation;
        (4) the combined capabilities of State, Federal, and academic 
    groups to provide geologic mapping are not sufficient to meet the 
    present and future needs of the United States for national security, 
    environmental protection, and energy self-sufficiency of the Nation;
        (5) States are willing to contribute 50 percent of the funding 
    necessary to complete the mapping of the geology within the State;
        (6) the lack of proper geologic maps has led to the poor design 
    of such structures as dams and waste-disposal facilities;
        (7) geologic maps have proven indispensable in the search for 
    needed fossil-fuel and mineral resources;
        (8) geologic map information is required for the sustainable and 
    balanced development of natural resources of all types, including 
    energy, minerals, land, water, and biological resources;
        (9) advances in digital technology and geographical information 
    system science have made geologic map databases increasingly 
    important as decision support tools for land and resource 
    management; and
        (10) a comprehensive nationwide program of geologic mapping of 
    surficial and bedrock deposits is required in order to 
    systematically build the Nation's geologic-map data base at a pace 
    that responds to increasing demand.

(b) Purpose

    The purpose of sections 31a to 31h of this title is to expedite the 
production of a geologic-map data base for the Nation, to be located 
within the United States Geological Survey, which can be applied to 
land-use management, assessment, and utilization, conservation of 
natural resources, groundwater management, and environmental protection.

(Pub. L. 102-285, Sec. 2, May 18, 1992, 106 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 106-148, 
Sec. 2, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1719.)

                       References in Text

    Sections 31a to 31h of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was 
in the original ``this Act'', meaning Pub. L. 102-285, which is 
classified principally to sections 31a to 31h of this title. For 
complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note 
below and Tables.


                               Amendments

    1999--Subsec. (a)(8) to (10). Pub. L. 106-148 added pars. (8) and 
(9) and redesignated former par. (8) as (10) and inserted ``of surficial 
and bedrock deposits'' after ``geologic mapping''.


                      Short Title of 1999 Amendment

    Pub. L. 106-148, Sec. 1, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1719, provided 
that: ``This Act [enacting sections 31e, 31g and 31h of this title, 
amending sections 31a to 31d and 31f of this title, and repealing former 
sections 31e, 31g, and 31h of this title] may be cited as the `National 
Geologic Mapping Reauthorization Act of 1999'.''


                      Short Title of 1997 Amendment

    Pub. L. 105-36, Sec. 1, Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1107, provided that: 
``This Act [amending sections 31b to 31h of this title and enacting 
provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 
`National Geologic Mapping Reauthorization Act of 1997'.''


                               Short Title

    Section 1 of Pub. L. 102-285 provided that: ``This Act [enacting 
this section and sections 31b to 31h of this title, amending sections 
1457, 1457a, and 1782 of this title, sections 450ii-3, 665, 1133, and 
3151 of Title 16, Conservation, section 262k of Title 22, Foreign 
Relations and Intercourse, section 1677 of Title 25, Indians, sections 
1, 1a, 2, 3, 4, 4c, 4d, 5, 6, 7, 8, 411, 412, 804, 812, 871, 878, 1224, 
1229, 1232, 1311, 1315, and 1604 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, 
and sections 5814 and 6505 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, 
enacting provisions set out as notes under section 31 of this title and 
section 1 of Title 30, and amending provisions set out as a note under 
section 1231 of Title 30] may be cited as the `National Geologic Mapping 
Act of 1992'.''


                                Findings

    Pub. L. 105-36, Sec. 2, Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1107, provided that: 
``Congress finds that--
        ``(1) in enacting the National Geologic Mapping Act of 1992 (43 
    U.S.C. 31a et seq.), Congress found, among other things, that--
            ``(A) during the 2 decades preceding enactment of that Act, 
        the production of geologic maps had been drastically curtailed;
            ``(B) geologic maps are the primary data base for virtually 
        all applied and basic earth-science investigations;
            ``(C) Federal agencies, State and local governments, private 
        industry, and the general public depend on the information 
        provided by geologic maps to determine the extent of potential 
        environmental damage before embarking on projects that could 
        lead to preventable, costly environmental problems or 
        litigation;
            ``(D) the lack of proper geologic maps has led to the poor 
        design of such structures as dams and waste-disposal facilities;
            ``(E) geologic maps have proven indispensable in the search 
        for needed fossil fuel and mineral resources; and
            ``(F) a comprehensive nationwide program of geologic mapping 
        is required in order to systematically build the Nation's 
        geologic-map data base at a pace that responds to increasing 
        demand;
        ``(2) the geologic mapping program called for by that Act has 
    not been fully implemented; and
        ``(3) it is time for this important program to be fully 
    implemented.''

                  Section Referred to in Other Sections

    This section is referred to in sections 31b, 31h of this title.



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