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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
January-1958 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. Nos. L-9456 & L-9481 January 6, 1958 - THE COLLECTOR OF INTERNAL REVENUE v. DOMINGO DE LARA

    102 Phil 813

  • G.R. No. L-9692 January 6, 1958 - COLLECTOR OF INTERNAL REVENUE v. BATANGAS TRANSPORTATION COMPANY

    102 Phil 822

  • G.R. Nos. L-8845-46 January 7, 1958 - BATANGAS TRANSPORTATION COMPANY v. MARTIN SOUZA

    102 Phil 835

  • G.R. No. L-10202 January 8, 1958 - IN RE: SY CHHUT alias TAN BING TIONG v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    102 Phil 839

  • G.R. No. L-10420 January 10, 1958 - IN RE: LIM KIM So alias FRANCISCO LIM KIM SO v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    102 Phil 843

  • G.R. Nos. L-10249-60 January 14, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RUFINO CRISOSTOMO

    102 Phil 846

  • G.R. No. L-10285 January 14, 1958 - SAMPAGUITA SHOE v. COMMISSIONER OF CUSTOMS

    102 Phil 850

  • G.R. No. L-10423 January 21, 1958 - AMADO P. JALANDONI v. ANGELA MARTIR-GUANZON

    102 Phil 859

  • G.R. No. L-11000 January 21, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALICIA RAPIRAP

    102 Phil 863

  • G.R. No. L-11014 January 21, 1958 - VICTORIANA ESPIRITU v. THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL

    102 Phil 866

  • G.R. No. L-10196 January 22, 1958 - SANTOS LUMBER COMPANY v. CITY OF CEBU

    102 Phil 870

  • G.R. No. L-10776 January 23, 1958 - MELITON HERRERA v. THE AUDITOR GENERAL OF THE REP. OF THE PHIL.

    102 Phil 875

  • G.R. No. L-10922 January 23, 1958 - GREGORIO P. DE GUZMAN v. JOSE B. RAMOSO

    102 Phil 883

  • G.R. No. L-12294 January 23, 1958 - UNITED PEPSI-COLA SALES ORGANIZATION (PAFLU) v. HON. ANTONIO CA‘IZARES

    102 Phil 887

  • G.R. No. L-10234 January 24, 1958 - IN RE: Victoriano Yap Subieng to be admitted a citizen of the Phil.; VICTORIANO YAP SUBIENG v. REP. OF THE PHIL.

    102 Phil 892

  • G.R. No. L-9689 January 27, 1958 - JESUS T. QUIAMBAO v. PEDRO R. PERALTA

    102 Phil 899

  • G.R. No. L-10806 January 27, 1958 - DAVID AZNAR v. ASUNCION SUCILLA

    102 Phil 902

  • G.R. No. L-11093 January 27, 1958 - LEONARDO ENAGE LABAJO v. CIRIACO ENRIQUEZ

    102 Phil 907

  • G.R. No. L-10446 January 28, 1958 - COLLEGE OF ORAL & DENTAL SURGERY v. COURT OF TAX APPEALS

    102 Phil 912

  • G.R. No. L-10874 January 28, 1958 - RUFINO D. ANDRES v. THE CROWN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY

    102 Phil 919

  • G.R. No. L-10702 January 29, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SIXTO CABARLES

    102 Phil 926

  • G.R. No. L-10091 January 29, 1958 - BOY SCOUTS OF THE PHIL. v. JULIANA V. ARAOS

    102 Phil 1080

  • G.R. No. L-11343 January 29, 1958 - CARLOS LEDESMA v. COURT OF TAX APPEALS

    102 Phil 931

  • G.R. No. L-11248 January 30, 1958 - ANACLETA VILLAROMAN v. QUIRINO STA. MARIA

    102 Phil 937

  • Adm. Case No. 195 January 31, 1958 - IN RE: Attorney JESUS T. QUIAMBAO

    102 Phil 940

  • G.R. No. L-8252 January 31, 1958 - JOSE C. ZULUETA v. NICANOR NICOLAS

    102 Phil 944

  • G.R. No. L-9871 January 31, 1958 - ATKINS v. B. CUA HIAN TEK

    102 Phil 948

  • G.R. No. L-9928 January 31, 1958 - REP. OF THE PHIL. v. THE COURT OF APPEALS

    102 Phil 953

  • G.R. No. L-10022 January 31, 1958 - NORTHERN MOTORS v. NATIONAL LABOR UNION

    102 Phil 958

  • G.R. No. L-10141 January 31, 1958 - REP. OF THE PHIL. v. PHILIPPINE RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

    102 Phil 960

  • G.R. Nos. L-10236-48 January 31, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EUSTACIO DE LUNA

    102 Phil 968

  • G.R. No. L-10370 January 31, 1958 - THE COLLECTOR OF INTERNAL REVENUE v. MATIAS H. AZNAR

    102 Phil 979

  • G.R. No. L-10547 January 31, 1958 - THE PHIL. GUARANTY CO. v. LAURA DINIO

    102 Phil 991

  • G.R. No. L-10691 January 31, 1958 - ERLINDA STERNBERG v. GONZALO SOLOMON

    102 Phil 995

  • G.R. No. L-10747 January 31, 1958 - MARIANO DIAZ v. PASCUAL MACALINAO

    102 Phil 999

  • G.R. No. L-10902 January 31, 1958 - FLORIDA LAGMAY v. EMERENCIANA QUINIT

    102 Phil 1003

  • G.R. No. L-11024 January 31, 1958 - ALFONSO ANGELES v. THE COURT OF APPEALS, GREOGORIO STA. INES

    102 Phil 1006

  • G.R. No. L-11186 January 31, 1958 - ALFONSO CABABA v. PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION

    102 Phil 1013

  • G.R. No. L-11395 January 31, 1958 - SOTERA GARCIA DIMAGIBA v. HON. AMBROSIO M. GERALDEZ

    102 Phil 1016

  • G.R. No. L-11647 January 31, 1958 - FLORENTINO NAVARRO v. HON. ELOY BELLO

    102 Phil 1019

  • G.R. No. L-12724 January 31, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. CARIDAD CAPISTRANO

    102 Phil 1025

  •  





     
     

    G.R. No. L-10234 January 24, 1958 - IN RE: Victoriano Yap Subieng to be admitted a citizen of the Phil.; VICTORIANO YAP SUBIENG v. REP. OF THE PHIL. <br /><br />102 Phil 892

     
    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    FIRST DIVISION

    [G.R. No. L-10234. January 24, 1958.]

    In the matter of the petition of Victoriano Yap Subieng to be admitted a citizen of the Philippines; VICTORIANO YAP SUBIENG, Petitioner-Appellee, v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, Oppositor-Appellant.

    Solicitor General Ambrosio Padilla and Solicitor Isidro C. Borromeo for Appellant.

    Vivente L. Faelnar and Nicolas Jumapao for Appellee.


    SYLLABUS


    1. CITIZENSHIP; WHEN PETITIONER IS EXEMPT FROM FILING DECLARATION OF INTENTION. — Where a petitioner for naturalization presents in evidence his Alien Certificate of Residence and his native Born Certificate of Residence wherein it appears that he was born in Manila on May 3, 1923, which are official documents issued in due course by the Immigration authorities aside from his continuous residence in the contrary for a period of more than 30 years all of which have not been disputed, petitioner is exempt from the requirement relative to the filing of a declaration of intention provided in Section 5 of the Naturalization Law.

    2. ID.; CHARACTER WITNESS COMPETENCY; CITIZENSHIP LAWS LIBERAL CONSTRUCTION. — Where the character witness has known the petitioner from 1939 to 1941 when he lost contact of him and from 1952 to 1955 when he actually testified which gives a resultant period of acquittance of around 6 years, this period is more than sufficient to satisfy the requirement of the law that the witness must have at least known the petitioner continuously for a period of 5 years, for undoubtedly, one cannot exact a more stringent interpretation considering the well-known rule that "laws regulating citizenship should receive a liberal construction in favor of the claimant" (Roa v. Collector of Customs, 23 Phil., 315; See also U.S. v. Ong Tianse, 29 Phil., 333).


    D E C I S I O N


    BAUTISTA ANGELO, J.:


    Petitioner filed this petition in the Court of First Instance of Cebu seeking Philippine citizenship. The petition was opposed by the government on the ground that petitioner is not morally irreproachable, is anti-Filipino and has not evinced a sincere desire to become a Filipino citizen. After hearing, the court rendered judgment in favor of petitioner, and the government has appealed.

    It appears that petitioner was born on May 5, 1923 in Manila and is a Chinese citizen. Since then he resided in said city until 1952 when he moved to Cebu City. He is at present employed as Assistant Manager of the East Visayan Motors Co., Inc., in Cebu City with a monthly salary of P500. He is married to Josephine Hsieh, a Chinese citizen, who bore his one child now one year old. He is able to speak and write Spanish, the Visayan and Tagalog dialects. He believes in the principle underlying the Philippine Constitution and is not opposed to organized government. He does not defend or teach the necessity of violence, personal assault or assassination for the predominance of his ideas. He is not a believer in the practice of polygamy and does not suffer from any incurable or contagious disease. It is his intention to reside continuously in the Philippines and to renounce all allegiance to any foreign state or sovereignty, particularly China.

    The government, on its part, tried to establish through the testimony of Leonardo P. Balaga and Enrique Arcenas, spokesmen of the workers of the East Visayan Motors Co., Inc., who signed a petition opposing the grant of Philippine citizenship to petitioner, the following facts: that petitioner showed his anti-Filipino attitude when he opposed the granting of bonuses to the laborers of said company and when he discriminated against them in giving charitable contributions; that at one time and in the presence of several persons, he sarcastically uttered the following: "The Philippine Government has nationalized almost everything including labor, agriculture, professional practice and the only thing that the Philippine Government can not nationalize is Nationalist China" ; and that petitioner showed arrogance in dealing with his Filipino employees when on several instances he ridiculed them by giving them instructions in the presence of visitors.

    The government now contends that the lower court erred (1) in not declaring that petitioner failed to file his declaration of intention to become a Filipino citizen in accordance with Section 5 of the Revised Naturalization Law; (2) in not finding Jesus Verallo incompetent to act as a witness for petitioner; and (3) in holding that petitioner has all the qualifications prescribed by law to acquire Philippine citizenship.

    Section 5 of the Revised Naturalization Law provides that one year prior to the filing of a petition for Philippine citizenship, petitioner shall file in the Bureau of Justice a declaration of intention to become a Filipino citizen, except when he is born in this country or has continuously resided therein for a period of 30 years. Petitioner, it is true, did not file such declaration of intention but this is because he claims to have been born in the Philippines and this he has established not only by his own testimony and that of his father but by sufficient documentary evidence. Thus, he presented as evidence his Alien Certificate of Residence No. A 40086 and his Native Born Certificate of Residence No. 57370 wherein it appears that he was born in Manila on May 5, 1923. These are official documents which were issued in due course by the immigration authorities and unless their genuineness is assailed, which was not, we have to give them due probative value. It is not therefore correct to say that the evidence of petitioner on this point is not supported by documentary evidence. Moreover, it likewise appears that petitioner has resided continuously in this country for a period of more than 30 years and this has not also been disputed. This also has the effect of exempting petitioner from the requirement relative to the filing of a declaration of intention.

    It is contended that Jesus Verallo, one of the character witnesses presented by petitioner, is incompetent to testify in his behalf because he admitted that while he came to know petitioner in 1939, he however lost contact with him in 1941, immediately after the outbreak of the war, and only met him again in 1952. From this admission the government draws the conclusion that said witness is incompetent to testify for petitioner because the law requires that he must have at least known petitioner continuously for a period of 5 years. It appears however, that this witness has known petitioner from 1939 to 1941, when he lost contact of him, and from 1952 to 1955 when he actually testified, which gives a resultant period of acquaintance of around 6 years. This period is more than sufficient to satisfy the requirement of the law, for undoubtedly one cannot exact a more stringent interpretation considering the well-known rule that "laws regulating citizenship should receive a liberal construction in favor of the claimant" (Roa v. , Collector of Customs, 23 Phil., 315; See also U.S. v. Ong Tianse, 29 Phil., 333).

    With regard to the third error, it is contended that petitioner is disqualified to become a Filipino citizen because he has shown to be arrogant, discriminatory and anti-Filipino in his behavior. This contention in effect based on the testimony of Leonardo P. Balaga and Enrique Arcenas who testified that petitioner showed his anti-Filipino attitude when he opposed the granting of bonuses to the laborers of the company where they were working and discriminated against them in giving charitable contributions to Filipinos and that he on certain occasion sarcastically made the following remark: "The Philippine Government has nationalized almost everything including labor, agriculture, professional practice and the only thing that the Philippine Government cannot nationalize is Nationalist China." The government also lays stress on the petition of about 40 laborers opposing the granting of Philippine citizenship to petitioner.

    It has been proven however that both Balaga and Arcenas have an axe to grind against petitioner who because of his appointment as Assistant Manager of the East Visayan Motors Co., Inc., caused the loss of their positions in that company. It appears that Balaga was formerly the business manager of that company and Arcenas its credit or collection manager but when petitioner assumed the position of assistant general manager, both were relieved of their positions for having petitioner assumed the duties discharged by them. It also appears that they were officers and prominent members of the union to which said laborers belong and as such they became resentful when petitioner did not evince sympathy to some of the demands of the union for their betterment which caused them to stage a walkout on May 9, 1955. It likewise appears that petitioner had nothing to do with the grant of bonuses or increase of salaries of the laborers but that the same are always acted upon by the board of directors. And it is noteworthy that not one of those who allegedly signed the petition has appeared to testify in court in spite of the opportunity given them to do so. And after examining and weighing the testimony or evidence of both parties, the lower court has reached the following conclusion:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "After examining the grounds adduced by the opposition witnesses in support of the opposition, the Court finds that same do not show that the petitioner does not possess the qualifications required by law for the acquisition of Philippine citizenship, nor do they establish that said petitioner is disqualified to be naturalized as Filipino citizen. On the contrary, from the preponderance of evidence, especially the testimonies of Dr. Fernando M. Aranda and Jesus Verallo whose testimonies this Court has no reason to doubt, it has been established that the petitioner possesses good moral character and has invariably conducted himself in a proper and irreproachable manner during his residence in the Philippines. It has, likewise, been shown through these witnesses that the petitioner mingles socially with the Filipinos and has evinced a sincere desire to learn and embrace the customs, traditions and ideals of the Filipinos. In fact, according to Dr. Fernando M. Aranda, who has known the petitioner for sometime now and who is his neighbor at Orchid Street, Cebu City, said petitioner is a respected member of the community wherein they live and is a member of good standing of the so-called Good Neighbor Association in the Flower District, Cebu City, which is an organization dedicated to civic, social welfare and religious activities wherein petitioner actively participates.

    "On the whole, from the evidence adduced during the hearing, the Court finds sufficiently established that the petitioner possesses all the necessary qualifications to become a Filipino citizen as enumerated in Section 2 of the Revised Naturalization Law and none of the disqualifications. Consequently, the Court is of the opinion that the present petition for naturalization should be granted."cralaw virtua1aw library

    As regards the alleged utterance of petitioner of certain sarcastic remarks in connection with the enactment of the Nationalization Law, the same cannot be given much importance considering that at that time conflicting opinions had been expressed as regards the propriety of its enactment to the extent that there were even Filipinos who manifested their disapproval of the law. As the lower court has said: "Such free expression of opinion needless to say, is but natural in a democratic country like the Philippines where people enjoy freedom of speech. Certainly, Filipinos and aliens alike who might have criticized the provisions of the nationalization law cannot be branded as anti-Filipino in sentiments." We cannot therefore give to such remarks the implication that appellant now wants to draw from it in an attempt to disqualify petitioner from becoming a Filipino citizen.

    Wherefore, the decision appealed from is affirmed, without pronouncement as to costs.

    Paras, C.J., Bengzon, Montemayor, Reyes, A., Endencia and Felix, JJ., concur.

    Separate Opinions


    REYES, J.B.L., J., dissenting:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    The decision of the Court of First Instance practically admits that during the time that applicant was manager of the East Visayan Motors Co., Inc., there was discrimination against Filipinos in the matter of salary increases and bonuses. The only excuse given is that these matters were determined exclusively by the management and the Board of Directors, and were not decided by the applicant.

    The excuse is insufficient, because there is not one iota of evidence to show that this applicant (who was a member of the Board of Directors) ever protested or registered a protest against the discrimination of which the Filipino employees were victims. By adopting a passive attitude towards discrimination against Filipinos, the applicant showed that he had not, as yet, become identified with them; that he still is a Chinese in sentiment. To my mind, the applicant has not evinced "a sincere desire to embrace Filipino customs, traditions and ideals", and he is therefore disqualified under section 4, paragraph (f) of the Naturalization Act. The latter provision is proof that the admission of an alien to Filipino citizenship is predicated upon the assumption that he has become assimilated into being one of us in feelings and ideals. Certainly the process of identification is not expected to start with the naturalization itself; the conferment of citizenship should be the culmination of a process of assimilation started long before naturalization was sought. Why should we admit into our policy any one who remains an alien in thoughts, principles and sentiment? For these reasons, I am compelled to dissent.

    Padilla, Labrador and Concepcion, JJ., concur.

    G.R. No. L-10234 January 24, 1958 - IN RE: Victoriano Yap Subieng to be admitted a citizen of the Phil.; VICTORIANO YAP SUBIENG v. REP. OF THE PHIL. <br /><br />102 Phil 892


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