Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence


Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence > Year 2010 > July 2010 Decisions > [G.R. No. 138696 : July 07, 2010] FELIZARDO S. OBANDO AND JUAN S. OBANDO, PETITIONERS, VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, RESPONDENT. :




SECOND DIVISION

[G.R. No. 138696 : July 07, 2010]

FELIZARDO S. OBANDO AND JUAN S. OBANDO, PETITIONERS, VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, RESPONDENT.

D E C I S I O N


PERALTA, J.:

Before us is a petition for review on certiorari filed by petitioners Felizardo and Juan Obando seeking to annul and set aside the Decision[1] dated August 13, 1998 and the Resolution[2] dated May 17, 1999 of the Court of Appeals (CA) in CA-G.R. CR No. 20187.

The antecedent facts are as follows:

Sometime in 1964, Alegria Strebel Vda. de Figueras (Alegria), together with Eduardo and Francisco Figueras, sons of her husband Jose Figueras by previous marriage, filed a petition for the intestate proceedings of the estate of Jose Figueras, docketed as Special Proceedings No. 61567. Alegria was named administratrix of Jose's estate without opposition from her stepsons.

While the settlement of Jose's estate was still pending considerations in the Regional Trial Court (RTC), Alegria died in May 1979. Eduardo was issued new Letters of Administration with the duty to administer both Jose's and Alegria's estates. Fritz Strebel, as brother of Alegria, came forth claiming part of Alegria's estate as Alegria died without issue which the Figueras brothers made no opposition.

Subsequently, the Figueras brothers and Fritz Strebel were served with copies of a Petition for Probate of the alleged last will and testament of Alegria filed by petitioner Felizardo Obando, which petition was docketed as Special Proceeding No. 123948.  In his petition, petitioner Felizardo asked to be named as executor of Alegria's last will and testament, which bequeathed Alegria's rights and interest in the real properties left by the Figueras couple, as well as personal properties, including all her pieces of jewelry to petitioners Felizardo and Juan, and their families. The Figueras brothers opposed the probate of the alleged will, as well as petitioner Felizardo's prayer for the issuance of a letter of administration, on the ground that the alleged will was done either under duress or the same was a forgery.

Later, both Special Proceeding Nos. 61567 and 123948 were consolidated under Branch 17 of the RTC of Manila which, after hearing, denied petitioner Felizardo's prayer to be named as executor. Petitioner Felizardo appealed the matter to the CA which partially reversed the RTC by appointing Eduardo and petitioner Felizardo as co-administrators of the joint estates of Jose and Alegria Figueras.

Eduardo and Fritz still opposed the probate of the alleged Alegria's will, insisting that the will was a forgery. Subsequently, these conflicting parties agreed to submit the alleged will to the  National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) for examination and comparison with the common standard signatures of Alegria.[3]

After the examination and comparison of the submitted  documents, NBI Document Examiner Zenaida Torres submitted her report[4] dated March 26, 1990, with the findings that the questioned and standard sample signatures of Alegria S. Vda. de Figueras were NOT written by one and same person.

By reason of the forged will which was the basis of the CA in appointing Felizardo as co-administrator of the Figueras estates, petitioners had taken possession of the pieces of jewelry, furniture and other personal properties enumerated in the alleged will, as well as the rentals of the Figueras residence in Gilmore Street, Quezon City being leased to the Community of Learners.

Eduardo and Fritz questioned these acts of petitioner Felizardo and, since the latter could not account for these properties which were under his possession when the probate court required him to do so, they sued him for Estafa thru Falsification of Public Document since the alleged will which petitioner Felizardo submitted for probate was found to be forged.

On  July 26, 1990, an Information was filed with the RTC of Manila, charging petitioners Felizardo S. Obando and Juan S. Obando, together with the persons who signed in the alleged will, namely, Cipriano C. Farrales, Mercedes B. Santos, Victorino Cruz, and Franklin A. Cordon, with the crime of estafa thru falsification of public document, committed as follows:

That on or about November 11, 1978, and for sometime prior or subsequent thereto, in the City of Manila, Philippines, the said accused Felizardo S. Obando, Juan S. Obando, Mercedes B. Santos, [Victorino] Cruz and Franklin A. Cordon, being then private individuals, and accused Cipriano C. Farrales, a Notary Public, conspiring and confederating together and helping one another, did then and there willfully, unlawfully and feloniously defraud Eduardo F. Figueras thru falsification of public document in the following manner, to wit: the said accused forged and falsified or caused to be forged and falsified, a document denominated as the Last Will and Testament of Alegria Strebel Vda. de Figueras, dated November 11, 1978, duly notarized by accused Cipriano C. Farrales and, therefore, a public document, by stating in said Last Will and Testament, among others, that the said Alegria Strebel Vda. de Figueras had bequeathed to her nephews, herein accused Felizardo S. Obando and Juan S. Obando, all her rights and interests over all her jewelries (sic), except those given to her other relatives, with an aggregate total value of P2,000,000.00, that she had appointed accused Felizardo S. Obando as the sole executor of her Last Will and Testament and the exclusive administrator of her estate, and thereafter, feigning, simulating and counterfeiting or causing to be feigned, simulated and counterfeited the signature of the said Alegria Strebel Vda. de Figueras appearing on the left hand margin of pages 1 and 2 and over the typewritten name Alegria Strebel Vda. de Figueras on page 3 of said document, thus making it appear, as it did appear, that the said Alegria Strebel Vda. de Figueras had, in fact, bequeathed all her rights and interests over the said jewelries (sic) to accused Felizardo S. Obando and Juan S. Obando, and that she had appointed the said Felizardo S. Obando as the sole executor of her Last Will and Testament and the exclusive Administrator of her estate, and causing it to appear further that the said Alegria Strebel Vda. de Figueras participated and intervened in the signing of said document when in truth and in fact as the said accused well knew, such was not the case in that the said Last Will and Testament is an outright forgery; that the late Alegria Strebel Vda. de Figueras did  not bequeath all her rights or interests over the aforementioned jewelries to accused Felizardo S. Obando and Juan S. Obando, that she did not appoint accused Felizardo S. Obando as the sole executor of her Last Will and Testament and the exclusive Administrator of her estate, and that she did not participate and intervene in the signing of said document, much less did she authorize the said accused, or anybody else, to sign her name or affix her signature thereon; that once the said document has been forged and falsified in the manner above set forth, the said accused Felizardo S. Obando and Juan S. Obando presented the same for probate with the Regional Trial Court of Manila wherein an ensuing litigation which ultimately reached the Court of Appeals, said accused Felizardo S. Obando was appointed co-administrator of said Eduardo F. Figueras, and who, as such co-administrator, forthwith took possession of the jewelries mentioned above which the said accused subsequently, with intent to defraud, misappropriated, misapplied and converted to their own personal use and benefit to the damage and prejudice of the said Eduardo F. Figueras in the aforesaid amount of P2,000,000.00, Philippine currency.

Contrary to law.[5]

Notary Public Farrales asked for a re-investigation claiming innocence and good faith and was, subsequently, deleted from the Information.

When arraigned, all the accused, with the exception of Franklin Cordon who is at-large, assisted by counsel de parte, pleaded not guilty to the charge.  They posted bail for their temporary liberty.

Trial thereafter ensued.

In its Order dated October 10, 1992, the RTC stated that the parties stipulated that whatever testimony of witnesses utilized in the intestate and probate proceedings of the will, as well as the documentary evidence submitted therein, shall be utilized in the criminal case in toto subject to further cross of the defense lawyer only on matters not touched in the former proceedings.[6]

On October 7, 1996,  the RTC rendered its Decision,[7] the dispositive portion of  which reads, thus:

WHEREFORE, PREMISES CONSIDERED, this Court holds accused FELIZARDO S. OBANDO and JUAN S. OBANDO GUILTY of violating Article 315, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph (b) of the Revised Penal Code, in relation to Article 172, paragraph 1, Revised Penal Code, their culpability having been proven beyond reasonable doubt and are hereby sentenced to suffer the penalty of reclusion temporal in its maximum period, from seventeen (17) years, four (4) months, and one (1) day to twenty (20) years.  Finding no evidence of culpability in their persons, accused MERCEDES B. SANTOS and VICTORINO CRUZ are hereby ACQUITTED.

With respect to accused FRANKLIN A. CORDON, who remains at-large up to the present, this case against him is hereby ordered ARCHIVED, to be revived upon his apprehension.  Let an Alias Warrant of Arrest be issued against accused Franklin A. Cordon for his immediate apprehension.

SO ORDERED.[8]

In so ruling, the RTC found that: the fact of damage was sufficiently established with the testimonies of  Felizardo and Juan that Alegria's rights and interests in the real and personal properties of the Figueras couple were to go to them, and that they already gave the pieces of jewelry to their sister, to Juan's wife and his two daughters, and Felizardo's daughter which showed that they had already profited from the estate of the Figueras couple even before the same was brought to the court for settlement. As to the matter of forgery, the RTC gave more credence to the findings of NBI Document Examiner Zenaida Torres than that of PNP Document Section Chief Francisco Cruz, since (1) Torres was the common choice of all the parties, thus by which act, petitioners became bound to the results of said findings; (2) Torres was definite in her conclusion that the question and standard/ sample signatures of Alegria S. Vda. de Figueras were not written by one and same person unlike Cruz's report stating that no definite conclusion can be made due to the limited amount of appropriate standard signatures for comparison; and (3) Torres was not paid for her services and, therefore, impartial while Cruz received honorarium from Juan Obando; that while petitioners presented copies of pictures showing Alegria allegedly signing the will in the presence of Mercedes Santos Cruz, Victorino Cruz and Franklin Cordon, nothing would establish what document was being held by them.

The RTC found petitioners to have conspired to commit forgery as established by the following evidence, to wit: (a) Felizardo admitted that the last will and testament which Alegria voiced out to him was dictated by him to a certain Atty. Alcantara; (b) that Felizardo retained the services of Atty. Alcantara and Atty. Farrales who notarized the alleged will; (c ) Juan was the one who enticed Mercedes Santos Cruz, his sister-in-law, and  Victorino Cruz into acting as attesting witnesses and Juan's taking pictures of the entire signing ceremony which was a sign of evil intention because it was an expectancy of future rift or trouble; (d) Felizardo held and kept the alleged will from the time of alleged signing up to Alegria's death which possession and control lasted for several months; (e) the testimony of Torres that the first two pages of Exhibit "A," which contained the dispositions of the properties of the Figueras estates, as well as the forged signatures were substitutes for the originals; and (g) that petitioners and their respective families gained enormously by reason of said will.

The RTC said that even if the alleged will was found to be authentic, it will still be contested as the dispositions made therein were contrary to law most particularly that portion bequeathing to petitioners the whole residential property of the spouses Jose and Alegria Figueras, which was conjugal, to the exclusion of Eduardo and Francisco Figueras and Fritz Strebel who are forced heirs; that because of such disposition, the RTC was convinced that the alleged will was not that of Alegria but of petitioners, since Alegria being the administratrix of the estate of her husband Jose  would be the last person to give this property outside of the Figueras family.  Mercedes Santos and Victorino Cruz were acquitted for lack of  evidence.

Petitioners filed their appeal with the CA.

On August 13, 1988, the CA issued its assailed Decision affirming in toto the decision of the RTC.

Petitioners' motion for reconsideration was denied in a Resolution dated  May 17, 1999.

Hence, this petition for review filed by petitioners on the following grounds:

A. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS HAD OVERLOOKED AND FAILED TO CONSIDER THE SIGNIFICANT FACTS AND CIRCUMSTANCES OF THIS CASE WHICH, IF PROPERLY CONSIDERED, SHOULD HAVE DRAWN A DIFFERENT CONCLUSION AND WHICH SHALL CONSIDERABLY AFFECT THE RESULT OF THIS CASE.

B. THE NON-PRODUCTION AND/OR NON-PRESENTATION OF THE ORIGINAL COPY OF THE ALLEGED FALSIFIED LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT  OF ALEGRIA STREBEL VDA. DE FIGUERAS BEFORE THE TRIAL COURT IS A FATAL DEFECT WHICH ENTITLES HEREIN APPELLANTS TO ACQUITTAL.

C. THERE IS ABSOLUTELY NO CONSPIRACY TO WARRANT CONVICTION OF FELIZARDO AND [JUAN] OBANDO.

D. THE WILL OF ALEGRIA STREBEL VDA. DE FIGUERAS DISPOSES ONLY OF HER RIGHTS AND INTERESTS OVER THE PROPERTIES BEQUEATHED TO FELIZARDO AND JUAN OBANDO.

E. CONFLICTING EXPERT TESTIMONIES, COUPLED WITH THE POSITIVE EVIDENCE AS TO THE DUE EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICITY OF THE WILL SHOULD FAVOR APPELLANTS.

F. THE ABSENCE IN THE NBI FINDINGS  (EXHIBIT "D-1") AS TO THE GENUINENESS AND/OR FALSITY OF THE SIGNATURES OF MERCEDES SANTOS CRUZ, VICTORINO CRUZ AND ATTY. FRANKLIN CORDON ON THE "LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT" (EXHIBIT "A"), NEGATES THE FALSIFICATION AND/OR SUBSTITUTION OF THE FIRST AND SECOND PAGES OF THE SAID "LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT OF DOׁA ALEGRIA STREBEL VDA. DE FIGUERAS."

G. THERE IS NO ESTAFA COMMITTED BY APPELLANTS, NEITHER DID THE PROSECUTION PROVE THE COMPLEX CRIME OF ESTAFA THROUGH FALSIFICATION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENT.[9]

Petitioners contend that the non-presentation of the original copy of the alleged falsified will before the RTC was a fatal defect which entitles them to an acquittal.

We are not persuaded.

We note that during the trial of this case, petitioners did not raise any objection when the alleged will was presented and testified to by NBI Document Examiner Torres. We also note that in the Offer of Prosecution Evidence,[10] where the machine copy of the alleged will was marked as Exhibit "A," the prosecution, in the last paragraph of such offer, stated that "all these (documents) form the bulk of evidence in Special Proceeding Nos. 123948 and 61567 and were simply reproduced here as agreed upon by the parties.  We are compelled to mention this so that the accused will have no reason for questioning their authenticity."[11] In their Comment/Objection to the Offer of Prosecution Evidence,[12] petitioners merely stated that: "If this particular document is the original copy of the Last Will and Testament of Doסa Alegria Strebel Vda. de Figueras, which was marked as Exhibits "J," "J-1" to "J-17" in Special Proceedings Nos. 61567 and 123948, then the accused admits not only of its existence but also its validity, authenticity and due execution of said Last Will and Testament," but nowhere did they object to such submission of the machine copy. In fact, petitioners never sought reconsideration when the RTC admitted the machine copy of the alleged will.

More importantly, we note that a duplicate original copy of the alleged will was formally offered in evidence[13] as one of petitioners' documentary evidence and the same was already admitted by the RTC. Thus, a duplicate original copy of the alleged will was already admitted in the records of the case which the RTC used for comparison of the questioned signatures with that of the standard signatures of Alegria.

Petitioners fault the RTC and the CA for giving more weight to the findings of NBI Document Examiner Torres that the signature in the alleged will was forged as against the findings of PNP Document Examination Chief Cruz that the questioned signature was genuine.

The rule is that the findings of fact of the trial court, its calibration of the testimonies of the witnesses and its assessment of the probative weight thereof, as well as its conclusions anchored on said findings, are accorded high respect if not conclusive effect. This is more true if such findings were affirmed by the appellate court. When the trial court's findings have been affirmed by the appellate court, said findings are generally binding upon this Court unless when that determination is clearly without evidentiary support on record, or when the judgment is based on misapprehension of facts or overlooked certain relevant facts which, if properly considered, would justify a different conclusion,[14] which we do not find in this case.

In examining the questioned signatures of Alegria, Torres used the  standard specimen signatures submitted by petitioners, Eduardo and Fritz, the parties in the probate proceedings. Torres found that the questioned and standard/sample signatures of Alegria were not written by one and the same person. However, as petitioners did not agree with such findings, petitioners moved for another examination of the same documents together with three additional documents to be conducted by the PNP. PNP Document Examiner Chief Francisco Cruz submitted his report where he found that the questioned signatures and the standard signatures executed in 1978 indicated that they were written by one person. Both Torres and Cruz testified in court.

Torres, in her direct and cross-examinations, thoroughly explained her findings by establishing the fundamental differences in the writing characteristics and habits existing in the questioned and standard signatures.

First, in the alignment characteristics, i.e., the relationship of the letters in the name with the base line or where the letters rest. She pointed out that in the standard signatures, all the letters in the name were written in an even straight base notwithstanding that some of the standard signatures were written without the horizontal line.  In the questioned signatures, the name Alegria S. Vda. de Figueras was written either in a going up or going down direction, i.e., there was no even placement of the letters.[15]

Second, in the arrangement characteristics, i.e., the position of the written signature in relation to the typewritten name. Torres found that the one who wrote the questioned signatures had the habit of affixing the signatures across and covering the entire typewritten name. While in the standard signatures, the writer affixed the signatures above the typewritten name and there was no instance where the signature crossed  the typewritten name.  Torres intimated that such arrangement characteristic in handwriting identification was very significant, because it was considered to be an inconspicuous characteristic which meant that even the writers themselves would not notice that manner of signing.[16]

Third, the slight but consistent difference in the slant of the letter "g" in the name Alegria. Torres stated that slant meant the slope of the letter in relation to the base line. She found that in the standard signatures, the slopes of the letter "g" in Alegria formed an angle of less than 90 degrees; that the letter "g" was slanting to the right. While in the questioned signatures, the slopes of letter "g" formed an angle of  more than 90 degrees.[17]

Fourth, the proportion characteristic which meant the relationship of one letter to the next letter.[18]

Fifth, the manner of execution of the questioned signatures was different from that of the standard signatures. Torres found that in the questioned signatures, there were presence of hesitations, tremors, slow drawing movement, and consciousness which were not found in the standard signatures, which she had explained in details in her testimony.

On the other hand, PNP Document Examiner Cruz stated that there was a wide range of variations existing between the questioned signatures made in 1978 and the standard signatures executed in 1974, 1976 and 1978, indicating that there was a radical change in the physical condition of the writer wherein the muscle and nerves were affected resulting in the loss of muscular control. He also stated that while the questioned signatures and the standard signatures were dissimilar in the manner of execution, quality of lines, alignment and size of letter, no definite conclusion can be reached in view of the wide gap of execution. He then stated that the questioned signatures executed on November 11, 1978 and the standard signature executed in December 1978, which was most contemporaneous to the date of the execution of the questioned signatures, he found they were similar and showed that they were written by one person.[19]

We note that Cruz's findings as to the loss of muscular control in Alegria's hand allegedly due to her physical condition was contradicted by Torres' testimony that the standard signature executed by Alegria in December 1978, i.e., one month after the alleged will was executed,  showed that she was  in good physical condition, because her signature was smooth with flowing strokes with an even alignment which indicated that Alegria had good muscular control and coordination.[20] Notably, Dr. Elena Cariaso, the doctor who was tasked by the probate court to examine the physical and mental condition of Alegria in December 1978,  testified that Alegria was physically and mentally fit with only a weakness in her lower extremities; thus, corroborating Torres' finding that Alegria's hand had good muscular control and coordination. In fact, Torres established that the standard signatures written in 1966, 1974, 1976 and in December 1978,  all showed that the signatures were made in a continuous, spontaneous and unconscious manner[21] unlike that of the questioned signatures.

Expert opinions are not ordinarily conclusive. They are generally regarded as purely advisory in character. The courts may place whatever weight they choose upon and may reject them, if they find them inconsistent with the facts in the case or otherwise unreasonable. When faced with conflicting expert opinions, as in this case, courts give more weight and credence to that which is more complete, thorough, and scientific.[22] The value of the opinion of a handwriting expert depends not upon his mere statements of whether a writing is genuine or false, but upon the assistance he may afford in pointing out distinguishing marks, characteristics and discrepancies in and between genuine and false specimens of writing which would ordinarily escape notice or detection from an unpracticed observer.[23]

We agree with the RTC and the CA in giving more weight and credence to the testimony of Torres as the examination conducted by Torres was complete, thorough and scientific. We find that the RTC had the opportunity to examine the relevant documents and make comparisons thereof.  In fact, upon our own comparison of the questioned signatures and the standard signatures taking into consideration inconspicuous differences noted by Torres on the questioned and standard signatures, we find that the questioned signatures showed substantial differences with that of the standard signatures of Alegria.

Petitioner claims that the testimonies of the notary public, as well as the two attesting witnesses that they saw Alegria sign the will in their presence, should have outweighed the testimony of Torres.

We are not persuaded.

In his testimony, Notary Public Farrales testified that when he, together with another lawyer, Atty. Cordon, went inside the room of Alegria who was in bed, he presented to her copies of the will which he brought from his office;[24] that Alegria read the same and called in petitioner Felizardo to bring some small board where she could write; after Felizardo handed the same, he again left the room. Farrales said that Alegria signed the will in his presence, as well as in the presence of Atty. Cordon and the other attesting witnesses, Mercedes and Victorino; that petitioner Felizardo was just outside the room when the signing was on-going;[25] that Farrales was the one who assisted Alegria in turning the pages of the documents and was the one who pointed to her the portion where she was to affix her signatures;[26] and that after the signing and notarization of the will, Alegria requested them to call on petitioner Felizardo and once Felizardo was inside the room, Alegria gave the documents to the latter who placed the will in an envelope.[27]

On the other hand, Mercedes testified that when she and Victorino entered Alegria's room, she saw Alegria, Felizardo, Attys. Farrales and Cordon; that Alegria  instructed petitioner Felizardo to read  aloud the will which Felizardo did;[28] and that Alegria and the other witnesses signed the will in the presence of each other and was duly notarized; and that she saw  Felizardo keep the will inside the vault. [29]

Victorino testified that when he and Mercedes entered Alegria's  room, he saw Atty. Farrales, Cordon, Felizardo and Alegria who was in a reclined position in her bed; that Alegria asked Felizardo to get the sealed document from a cabinet;[30] that Alegria told petitioner Felizardo to give each one of them a copy of the document and instructed petitioner Felizardo to read the contents of the will aloud;[31] and that he saw Alegria signed the will in their presence.

Notably, their testimonies showed material inconsistencies which affected their credibilities. Farrales testified that the copies of the alleged will came from his office and he was the one who gave the same to Alegria which, however, was contrary to Victorino's claim that petitioner Felizardo got the alleged will from the cabinet. Farrales testified that petitioner Felizardo was not inside the room when the signing was ongoing which was again contrary to the claims of both Mercedes and Victorino that petitioner Felizardo was inside the room while the signing was on-going;  and that Alegria even instructed Felizardo to read aloud the contents of the same to them. Notably, Farrales testified that he was the one who turned the pages of the will and was also the one who pointed to Alegria the portion where to affix her signatures and that no other person rendered such assistance except him.[32]  However, in petitioner Felizardo's testimony, he said that he was present when the will was being signed by Alegria.[33] In fact, petitioner Felizardo submitted photographs which were admittedly taken by co-petitioner Juan  to prove the former's presence during the signing and to show that he was the one assisting Alegria in signing the will.

Such contradictory statements coming from persons who allegedly were present when the will was executed render doubtful the genuineness of the alleged forged will. Thus, we find no error committed by the RTC in not giving credence to their testimonies.

We find the elements of falsification of public document present in this case. Essentially, the elements of the crime of Falsification of Public Document under Article 172 (1) of the Revised Penal Code (RPC) are: (1) that the offender is a private individual; (2) that the offender committed any of the acts of falsification enumerated under Article 171; and (3) that the act of falsification is committed in a public document. Under paragraph 2 of Article 171, a person may commit falsification of a public document by causing it to appear in a document that a person or persons participated in an act or proceeding, when such person or persons did not, in fact, so participate in the act or proceeding.

In this case, petitioners are private individuals who presented the alleged will to the probate court and made it appear that Alegria signed the alleged will disposing of her rights and interest in the real properties, as well as all of her personal properties to petitioners when in fact petitioners knew that Alegria never signed such alleged will as her signatures therein were forged.

We find apropos the findings of the RTC that petitioners conspired to perpetuate such forgery, to wit:

  1. The so-called Will and Testament  was admitted by Felizardo S. Obando in open hearing to have been dictated by him to a certain Atty. Alcantara allegedly as voiced out to him by Alegria;

  2. He said he procured the service of said lawyer and the very notary public, one Atty. C. Farrales to notarize it;

  3. Juanito Obando enticed the couple Mercedes B. Santos and Victorino Cruz into acting as witnesses, Mercedes being his sister-in-law, and his taking pictures of the entire ceremony of signing such document. This taking of such pictures is itself a sign of evil intention, because it is an expectancy of future rift or trouble;

  4. Felizardo held and kept the questioned document with him from its inception to its alleged signing and up to Alegria's death which possession and complete control lasted for several months;

  5. Felizardo and Juanito Obando and their respective families again by their joint admissions, gained enormously and by reason of said will.

The crime of falsification of public document was the means for petitioners to commit estafa. The elements of estafa under Article 315, par. 1 (b) of the RPC[34] are as follows: (1) that money, goods or other personal property is received by the offender in trust, or on commission, or for administration, or under any other obligation involving the duty to make delivery of or to return the same; (2) that there be misappropriation or conversion of such money or property by the offender or denial on his part of such receipt; and (3) that such misappropriation or conversion or denial is to the prejudice of another.

Petitioner Felizardo argued that he already had in his possession the personal properties of Alegria which included the pieces of jewelry by virtue of an alleged general power of attorney executed by Alegria in his favor. However, as correctly argued by the Solicitor General, such agency between Alegria and petitioner Felizardo, was terminated upon Alegria's death; thus, he had no basis for taking possession and custody of Alegria's properties after her death. However, by virtue of the falsified will which petitioners presented for probate, and by which petitioner Felizardo became a co-administrator of the estate of the Figueras couple, and had gained possession of the jewelry, he was not able to account for the same when ordered to do so by the probate court.

On the other hand, co-petitioner Juan admitted that the pieces of jewelry went to his daughters and nieces, while the real properties were already sold even while the intestate and probate proceedings were still pending in court.

Petitioners' misappropriation of the jewelry was to the prejudice of Eduardo Figueras who also has the right to Alegria's jewelry in general which were part of the declared conjugal estate of his father Jose and Alegria Figueras. Notably, Alegria, as administratrix of the estate of Jose, submitted in 1966 an inventory of the conjugal real and personal properties of the Figueras couple and one of those listed under conjugal personal properties was jewelry in the amount of P2,150.00. Such inventory was contained in the Order dated September 10, 1980 of the  probate court and which was submitted in evidence by petitioners.

The crime committed was estafa through falsification of public document. Being a complex crime, the penalty for the most serious crime shall be imposed in its maximum period.[35] While we sustain the conviction of petitioners of the crime charged, we found, however, that the penalty imposed by the trial court and affirmed by the Court of Appeals was not proper.

The amount of damages is the basis of the penalty for estafa. However, we note that the prosecution failed to satisfactorily show that the amount of jewelry misappropriated was indeed two million pesos. The only evidence on record which would establish the amount of the jewelry was the inventory submitted in 1966 by Alegria where she listed the jewelry in the amount of P2,150.00.

Since the amount misappropriated by petitioners was established to be only in the amount of P2,150.00, the applicable provision is paragraph (3) of Article 315 of the Revised Penal Code, which imposes the penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period, where the amount defrauded is over P200.00 but does not exceed P6,000.00. Thus, in this case, it appears that the most serious crime, which should be the basis of penalty for the complex crime of estafa through falsification of public document, would be the falsification and, under Article 172 of the Revised Penal Code, the penalty is prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine of not more than P5,000.00.

Thus, the maximum penalty to be imposed in this case is the medium period of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, there being no mitigating or aggravating circumstances.  Applying the Indeterminate Sentence Law, the minimum penalty should be taken from the penalty next lower in degree which is arresto mayor maximum to prision correccional minimum in any of  its period.

WHEREFORE, the petition is DENIED. The Decision dated August 13, 1998 and the Resolution dated May 17, 1999 of the Court of Appeals are AFFIRMED with MODIFICATION as to the penalty imposable.  Petitioners are hereby sentenced to suffer the penalty of one (1) year and one (1) day of prision correccional, as minimum, to four (4) years, nine (9) months and ten (10) days of prision correccional, as the maximum, and to pay  a  fine of P5,000.00.

SO ORDERED.

Carpio, (Chairperson), Nachura,  Abad, and Mendoza, JJ., concur.

Endnotes:


[1] Penned by Associate Justice Teodoro P. Regino, with Associate Justices Quirino D. Abad Santos, Jr. and Conrado M. Vasquez, Jr., concurring; rollo, pp. 411-438.

[2] Id. at 440.

[3] Consolidated Submission of Standard Specimen Signatures signed by the parties' counsels.

[4] Id. at 104-105.

[5] Id. at  79-80.

[6] Records, p. 149.

[7] Rollo, pp.  402-409.

[8] Id. at 409.

[9] Id. at 27 -30.

[10] Id. at 86-89.

[11] Id. at 89.

[12] Id. at 303-309.

[13] Petitioners' Exhibit "4;" records , pp. 1911-1913; rollo, p. 314.

[14] G.R. No. 168437.

[15] TSN, August 16, 1990, pp. 30-32.

[16] Id. at 32-34.

[17] TSN, October 8, 1990, pp. 5-6.

[18] Id. at 7.

[19] TSN, January 29, 1996.

[20] TSN, December 15, 1978, p. 27.

[21] Id. at  29.

[22] G.R. No. 173192.

[23] Id.

[24] November 11, 1978, p. 6.

[25] Id. at 8.

[26] Id.

[27] Id. at 12.

[28] TSN, September 20, 1995, p. 13.

[29] Id. at 15.

[30] TSN, March 4, 1996, p. 26.

[31] Id. at 28.

[32] TSN , November 11, 1978, p. 8.

[33] Id. at 5.

[34] Article 315(1)(b) of the Revised Penal Code punishes estafa committed as follows:

1. With unfaithfulness or abuse of confidence, namely:

x x x x

(b)By misappropriating or converting, to the prejudice of another, money, goods, or any other personal property received by the offender in trust or on commission, or for administration, or under any other obligation involving the duty to make delivery of or to return the same, even though such obligation be totally or partially guaranteed by a bond; or by denying having received such money, goods, or other property.


[35] Art. 48 of the Revised Penal Code provides:

Art. 48. Penalty for complex crimes. - When a single act constitutes two or more grave or less grave felonies, or when an offense is a necessary means for committing the other, the penalty for the most serious crime shall be imposed, the same to be applied in its maximum period. (As amended by Act No. 4000).




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July-2010 Jurisprudence                 

  • [G.R. No. 176743 : July 28, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. NELSON BALUNSAT Y BALUNSAT, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 147629 : July 28, 2010] JAKA INVESTMENTS CORPORATION,PETITIONER, VS.COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 180543 : July 27, 2010] KILOSBAYAN FOUNDATION AND BANTAY KATARUNGAN FOUNDATION, AS REPRESENTED BY JOVITO R. SALONGA, PETITIONERS, VS. LEONCIO M. JANOLO, JR., PRESIDING JUDGE, RTC, BRANCH 264, PASIG CITY; GREGORY S. ONG, ASSOCIATE JUSTICE, SANDIGANBAYAN; AND THE LOCAL CIVIL REGISTRAR OF SAN JUAN, METRO MANILA, RESPONDENTS.

  • [A.M. No. 2008-19-SC : July 27, 2010] RE: COMPLAINTS OF MRS. MILAGROS LEE AND SAMANTHA LEE AGAINST ATTY. GIL LUISITO R. CAPITO.

  • [G.R. No. 178621 : July 26, 2010] MIGUEL RUBIA, PETITIONER, VS. NATIONAL RELATIONS COMMISSION, FOURTH DIVISION, CEBU CITY, COMMUNITY WATER AND SANITATION COOPERATIVE AND THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, RESPONDENTS,

  • [G.R. No. 186466 : July 26, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES , APPELLEE, VS. CHRISTOPHER DESUYO Y BUEN, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 176868 : July 26, 2010] SOLAR HARVEST, INC., PETITIONER, VS. DAVAO CORRUGATED CARTON CORPORATION, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 151246 : July 05, 2010] HEIRS OF THE LATE APOLINARIO FAMA (GABRIELA DE GUZMAN VDA. DE FAMA, MARIA FAMA-FLORENTIN, EMILIA FAMA-ESTEPA AND MARIA QUITO VDA. DE FAMA AND CHILDREN: VIRGILIO, ERNESTO, ROMEO, MANUEL, JR., AND CORAZON, ALL SURNARNED FAMA), PETITIONERS, VS. MELECIO GARAS, ROBERTO MENDEZ, JOSE PAROCHA, URBANA BAY-AN, BERNARDO DAO-OA, JUAN NANTES, TONY TORSO, FLORENTINA MORALES, FILOMENA TORIO, ARSENIO TORIO, VICTORTANO NANTES, PABLO ESTRADA, LORENZO BAY-AN, FILEMON MASLOG, PEDRO ASPIRAS, SINFROSO LANG-ES, ROBERTO DULAY, LUCAS ABAG, BINTOR LANG-ES, DIAN ANG MAPALO, PEDRO MAPALO, JOSE LANG-ES, CEFERINO ORIBELLO, AVELINO PIO, FLORENTINA NANTES, RODOLFO MORALES, MARCOS BACTADAN, BERNARDO ESTRADA, GREGORIO PIANO, ADRIANO BENTRES, EBANG NANTES, PATRICIO ESTOESTA, DOMINGO LANG-ES, MIGUEL MAPALO AND LAVIANA AGOJO, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 160422 : July 05, 2010] MANILA ELECTRIC COMPANY (MERALCO), PETITIONER, VS. SPS. EDITO AND FELICIDAD CHUA, AND JOSEFINA PAQUEO, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G. R. No. 39803 : July 02, 2010] MARIA PEREZ DE GUZMAN ET AL., PLAINTIFFS AND APPELLANTS, VS. MATILDE DE LEON ET AL., DEFENDANTS AND APPELLEES.

  • [A.C. No. 8390 [Formerly CBD 06-1641] : July 02, 2010] A-1 FINANCIAL SERVICES, INC.,COMPLAINANT, VS. ATTY. LAARNI N. VALERIO, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 152266 : July 02, 2010] HEIRS OF PEDRO DE GUZMAN, PETITIONERS, VS. ANGELINA PERONA AND HEIRS OF ROSAURO DE GUZMAN; BATAAN DEVELOPMENT BANK; AND REPUBLIC PLANTERS BANK, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 151084 : July 02, 2010] PROVINCE OF CAMARINES SUR, REPRESENTED BY GOVERNOR LUIS R. VILLAFUERTE, PETITIONER, VS. HEIRS OF AGUSTIN PATO, ADOLFO DEL VALLE BRUSAS AND ZENAIDA BRUSAS; TRIFONA FEDERIS, MAURICIO MEDIALDEA AND NELSON TONGCO; MARIANO DE LOS ANGELES; HEIRS OF MIGUEL PATO, ARACELI BARRAMEDA ACLAN AND PONCIANO IRAOLA; HEIRS OF CRESENCIA VDA. DE SAN JOAQUIN,* RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 148974 : July 02, 2010] OMC CARRIERS, INC. AND JERRY AׁALUCAS Y PITALINO, PETITIONERS, VS. SPOUSES ROBERTO C. NABUA AND ROSARIO T. NABUA, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 167218 : July 02, 2010] ERECTOR ADVERTISING SIGN GROUP, INC. AND ARCH. JIMMY C. AMOROTO, PETITIONERS, VS. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 167824 : July 02, 2010] GERALDINE GAW GUY AND GRACE GUY CHEU, PETITIONERS, VS. ALVIN AGUSTIN T. IGNACIO, RESPONDENT. [G.R. NO. 168622] GERALDINE GAW GUY AND GRACE GUY CHEU, PETITIONERS, VS. THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF THE BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, HON. MARICEL U. SALCEDO, MAYNARDO MARINAS, RICARDO CABOCHAN AND ELISEO EXCONDE, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 168627 : July 02, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, APPELLEE, VS. REYNALDO BAYON Y RAMOS, APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 168495 : July 02, 2010] DANSART SECURITY FORCE & ALLIED SERVICES COMPANY AND DANILO A. SARTE, PETITIONERS, VS. JEAN O. BAGOY,* RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 168655 : July 02, 2010] J. CASIM CONSTRUCTION SUPPLIES, INC., PETITIONER, VS. REGISTRAR OF DEEDS OF LAS PIÑAS, RESPONDENT. INTESTATE ESTATE OF BRUNEO F. CASIM, (PURPORTED) INTERVENOR.

  • [G.R. No. 172102 : July 02, 2010] REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, PETITIONER, VS. HANOVER WORLWIDE TRADING CORPORATION, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 191938 : July 02, 2010] ABRAHAM KAHLIL B. MITRA, PETITIONER, VS. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ANTONIO V. GONZALES, AND ORLANDO R. BALBON, JR., RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 164257 : July 05, 2010] SAN MIGUEL CORPORATION, PETITIONER, VS. VICENTE B. SEMILLANO, NELSON MONDEJAR, JOVITO REMADA, ALILGILAN MULTI-PURPOSE COOP (AMPCO) AND MERLYN V. POLIDARIO, RESPONDENTS.

  • [A.C. No. 8096 : July 05, 2010] REY J. VARGAS AND EDUARDO A. PANES, JR., COMPLAINANTS, VS. ATTY. MICHAEL A. IGNES, ATTY. LEONARD BUENTIPO MANN, ATTY. RODOLFO U. VIAJAR, JR., AND ATTY. JOHN RANGAL D. NADUA, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 159097 : July 05, 2010] METROPOLITAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY, PETITIONER, VS. RURAL BANK OF GERONA, INC., RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 164577 : July 05, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PETITIONER, VS. SANDIGANBAYAN (FIRST DIVISION), VICTORINO A. BASCO, ROMEO S. DAVID, AND ROGELIO L. LUIS, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 164402 : July 05, 2010] ASUNCION URIETA VDA. DE AGUILAR, REPRESENTED BY ORLANDO U. AGUILAR, PETITIONER, VS. SPOUSES EDERLINA B. ALFARO AND RAUL ALFARO, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 165036 : July 05, 2010] HAZEL MA. C. ANTOLIN, PETITIONER, VS. ABELARDO T. DOMONDON, JOSE A. GANGAN, AND VIOLETA J. JOSEF, RESPONDENTS. [G.R. NO. 175705] HAZEL MA. C. ANTOLIN PETITIONER, VS. ANTONIETA FORTUNA-IBE, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 167401 : July 05, 2010] BAGONG PAGKAKAISA NG MANGGAGAWA NG TRIUMPH INTERNATIONAL, REPRESENTED BY SABINO F. GRAGANZA, UNION PRESIDENT, AND REYVILOSA TRINIDAD,PETITIONERS, VS. SECRETARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT AND TRIUMPH INTERNATIONAL (PHILS.), INC., RESPONDENTS. [G.R. NO. 167407] TRIUMPH INTERNATIONAL (PHILS.), INC., PETITIONER, VS. BAGONG PAGKAKAISA NG MANGGAGAWA NG TRIUMPH INTERNATIONAL, ELOISA FIGURA, JERRY JAICTEN, ROWELL FRIAS, MARGARITA PATINGO AND ROSALINDA OLANGAR, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 168164 : July 05, 2010] VICENTE ADRIANO, PETITIONER, VS. ALICE TANCO, GERALDINE TANCO, RONALD TANCO, AND PATRICK TANCO, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 168960 : July 05, 2010] AMELIA B. HEBRON, PETITIONER, VS. FRANCO L. LOYOLA, ANGELO L. LOYOLA, RAFAEL L. LOYOLA, ARMANDO L. LOYOLA, SENEN L. LOYOLA, MA. VENUS L. RONQUILLO, PERLA L. ABAD AND THE INTESTATE ESTATE OF EDUARDO L. LOYOLA, CARMELITA A. MANABO, HERMINIA AGUINALDO-ROSAS, DIGNA AGUINALDO-VALENCIA,ROGELIO AGUINALDO, MILA AGUINALDO-DIAZ, BABY AGUINALDO, RUBEN LOYOLA SUBSTITUTED BY JOSEFINA C. LOYOLA, GLESILDA A. LEGOSTO, EVELYN C. LOYOLA, MARINA C. LOYOLA, AURE C. LOYOLA, CORAZON C. LUGARDA AND JOVEN FRANCISCO C. LOYOLA, LORENZO LOYOLA, CANDELARIA LOYOLA, NICANDRO LOYOLA, FLORA LOYOLA, TERESITA L.ALZONA, VICENTE LOYOLA,ROSARIO L. LONTOC, SERAFIN LOYOLA, ROBERTO LOYOLA, BIBIANO LOYOLA,PURITA LOYOLA, ESTELA LOYOLA, ESTER DANICO,EDUARDO DANICO, EMELITA DANICO, MERCEDITA DANICO, HONESTO DANICO,DANTE DANICO, ERLINDA DANICO-DOMINGUEZ REPRESENTED BY TEODORO DOMINGUEZ AND BEVERLY ANNE DOMINGUEZ,EFREN CABIGAN AND ISIDRO CABIGAN, RESPONDENTS. ALBERTO L. BAUTISTA REPRESENTED BY FELICIDAD G.BAUTISTA, AGNES B. ZULUETA, AYREEN B. ALBA, JOSEPH ANTHONY G. BAUTISTA, ANN-JANET G. BAUTISTA AND ALFREDO L.BAUTISTA, UNWILLING RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 169227 : July 05, 2010] PHILIPPINE RURAL RECONSTRUCTION MOVEMENT (PRRM), PETITIONER, VS. VIRGILIO E. PULGAR, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 170530 : July 05, 2010] SARGASSO CONSTRUCTION & DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION/PICK & SHOVEL, INC.,/ATLANTIC ERECTORS, INC. (JOINT VENTURE), PETITIONER, VS. PHILIPPINE PORTS AUTHORITY, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 171736 : July 05, 2010] PENTACAPITAL INVESTMENT CORPORATION, PETITIONER, VS. MAKILITO B. MAHINAY, RESPONDENT. [G.R. NO. 181482] PENTACAPITAL INVESTMENT CORPORATION, PETITIONER, VS. MAKILITO B. MAHINAY, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 174129 : July 05, 2010] HONESTO V. FERRER, JR., AND ROMEO E. ESPERA, PETITIONERS, VS. MAYOR SULPICIO S. ROCO, JR., IN HIS CAPACITY AS MAYOR OF NAGA CITY, SANGGUNIANG PANGLUNGSOD OF THE CITY OF NAGA, AND PEÑAFRANCIA MEMORIAL PARK CORPORATION RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 175023 : July 05, 2010] GIOVANI SERRANO Y CERVANTES, PETITIONER, VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 175730 : July 05, 2010] HERMINIO T. DISINI, PETITIONER, VS. THE HONORABLE SANDIGANBAYAN, THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, AS REPRESENTED BY THE OFFICE OF THE SOLICITOR GENERAL (OSG), AND THE PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION ON GOOD GOVERNMENT (PCGG), RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 175700 : July 05, 2010] SALVADOR V. REBELLION, PETITIONER, VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 179793 : July 05, 2010] MAGDALENA HIDALGO, EDITHA GONZALES, EUNICE P. MALIMBAN, CHRISTINE VIDAL, CHRISTIAN CALLEJO, CONSOLACION P. MORENO, SHERINA F. DOREZA, LUZ T. SUCGANG, PRISCILLA F. ESTOYE, REYNOSO V. GALLANO, ROSITA L. SENEDRIN, JULITA P. DE CASTRO, JULIETA F. PALAFOX, ERLINDO V. GALANO, JR., ROSALINDA R. SALUD, EVANGELINE D. EVANGELISTA, BABYLINDA N. NOHAY, BELINDA D. CARDONA, WILMA D. BARCENA, ANABELLE P. MOJADAS, LEONORA GRANADO, RICARDO R. BARANGCO, ROMEO O. MAICON, DANILO B. ENRICO, MARIANILA SITO, MERLINA A. CATAAN, NEMIA E. PIANO, SOLEDAD P. RAMOS, DANTE L. PESIGAN, EDA A. JUNIO, MERCEDES R. NAFARRETE, MARILYN S. GONO, LUZ SAMSON, ERNESTO C. DESEAR, TERESITA G. GONZAGA, TERESITA E. EUSTAQUIO, VIRGINIA S. MONTEMAYOR, CRISTINA ABANTO, HENRY C. AMORTIZADO, FRANKIE VALERA, NELIA G. CAMORO, JOYSIE LABRADOR, GERTRUDES FALALES, OPHELIA G. MUSAMAREN, PETRA M. IRINGAN, FRANCISCO C. CAPIZ, JR., RICKY ECHIEVERA, MA. ELGIN O. ABAIS, JOHN CARANAN, ROMEO LAGUNA, REBECCA C. BUGUA, NELSON FERRER, HELEN MANRESA, CONSORCIA FAJANEL, MA. JUANA A. GOLFO, RUBYLYN D. DUMANDAL, FLORECERFINA S. BANDOLIN, FLORENCIO A. QUILATON, JR., GLORIA J. DOMINGO, MAY MACUGAY, MARY ANN CLAUDIO, ELVIRA KALALO, DOROTEA MARTINEZ, LIGAYA PANEDA, AND RENATO AGUILAR, PETITIONERS, VS. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, FOR AND IN BEHALF OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES COMMISSARY AND EXCHANGE SERVICES (AFPCES), RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 182740 : July 05, 2010] LYDIA ESCARCHA, FOR AND IN BEHALF OF JOSEPH ERWIN M. ESCARCHA, SHEILA MAY ESCARCHA, AND ALYSSA M. ESCARCHA, PETITIONER, VS. LEONIS NAVIGATION CO., INC. AND/OR WORLD MARINE PANAMA, S.A., RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 181051 : July 05, 2010] MANDAUE GALLEON TRADE, INC. AND GAMALLOSONS TRADERS, INC., REPRESENTED BY FAUSTO B. GAMALLO, PETITIONERS, VS. BIENVENIDO ISIDTO, ERWIN BA-AY, VICTORIANO BENDANILLA, EDUVIGIS GUTIB, JULITO GUTIB, GREGORIO ORDENISA, DAMIAN RABANAL, ROSITA RABANAL, EUSTAQUIA SIGLOS, PRIMITIVO SIGLAS, AND RODOLFO TORRES RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 180819 : July 05, 2010] AMIHAN BUS LINES, INC., PETITIONER, VS. ROMARS INTERNATIONAL GASES CORPORATION, REPRESENTED BY CHARLIE J. SAPUGAY; REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 36, IRIGA CITY, PRESIDED BY HON. MILAGROS G. QUIJANO; AND SAMUEL S. SANTAYANA, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 182793 : July 05, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES,PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. DIONISIO CALONGE Y VERANA, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 186411 : July 05, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. ARTURO PALER, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 186461 : July 05, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. SEVERIANO OGAN, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 186472 : July 05, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, APPELLEE, VS. ANTONIO SIONGCO Y DELA CRUZ, ERIBERTO ENRIQUEZ Y GEMSON, GEORGE HAYCO Y CULLERA, AND ALLAN BONSOL Y PAZ, ACCUSED, ANTONIO SIONGCO Y DELA CRUZ AND ALLAN BONSOL Y PAZ, APPELLANTS.

  • [G.R. No. 187075 : July 05, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. ROMMEL BELO Y DE LEON, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 186550 : July 05, 2010] ASIAN CATHAY FINANCE AND LEASING CORPORATION, PETITIONER, VS. SPOUSES CESARIO GRAVADOR AND NORMA DE VERA AND SPOUSES EMMA CONCEPCION G. DUMIGPI AND FEDERICO L. DUMIGPI, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 187737 : July 05, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. ALIODING SULTAN, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 187879 : July 05, 2010] DALISAY E. OCAMPO, VINCE E. OCAMPO, MELINDA CARLA E. OCAMPO, AND LEONARDO E. OCAMPO, JR., PETITIONERS, VS. RENATO M. OCAMPO AND ERLINDA M. OCAMPO, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 188129 : July 05, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. RICARDO BODOSO Y BOLOR, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 188223 : July 05, 2010] SENTINEL INTEGRATED SERVICES, INC., PETITIONER, VS. RIO JOSE REMO, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 188975 : July 05, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, APPELLEE, VS. ALBERT TEÑOSO Y LOPEZ ALIAS "PAKING" AND EDGARDO COCOTAN ALIAS "PAOT," APPELLANTS.

  • [G.R. No. 189807 : July 05, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, APPELLEE, VS. JESSIE DACALLOS Y MODINA, APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 190384 : July 05, 2010] HEIRS OF SPOUSES CRISPULO FERRER AND ENGRACIA PUHAWAN, REPRESENTED BY ROMEO F. GAZA AS ATTORNEY-IN-FACT, PETITIONERS, VS. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS, NATIONAL POWER CORPORATION, GUIDO ALFREDO DELGADO, FERNANDO ROXAS, ALBERTO PANGCOG, SAMUEL PIEDAD, GREGORIO ALVAREZ, RAFAEL LAGOS, AUGUSTO GO, NAPOLEON EUFEMIO, MELITO SALAZAR, VIRGILIO ODI AND MEHOLK SADAIN, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 191404 : July 05, 2010] EUMELIA R. MITRA, PETITIONER, VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES AND FELICISIMO S. TARCELO, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 190633 : July 05, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. BASILIO CADAP, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [A.M. No. P-08-2590 : July 05, 2010] JULIE ANN C. DELA CUEVA, COMPLAINANT, VS. SELIMA B. OMAGA, COURT STENOGRAPHER I, MTC-CALAUAN, LAGUNA, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 176885 : July 05, 2010] REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, PETITIONER, VS. DOMINGO ESPINOSA, RESPONDENT.

  • [A.M. No. RTJ-10-2236 (Formerly OCA I.P.I. NO. 09-3083-RTJ) : July 05, 2010] RUBEN N. SALCEDO, COMPLAINANT, VS. JUDGE GIL G. BOLLOZOS, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 156797 : July 06, 2010] IN RE: RECONSTITUTION OF TRANSFER CERTIFICATES OF TITLE NOS. 303168 AND 303169 AND ISSUANCE OF OWNER'S DUPLICATE CERTIFICATES OF TITLE IN LIEU OF THOSE LOST, ROLANDO EDWARD G. LIM, PETITIONER.

  • [G.R. No. 172200 : July 06, 2010] THE HEIRS OF REDENTOR COMPLETO AND ELPIDIO ABIAD, PETITIONERS, VS. SGT. AMANDO C. ALBAYDA, JR., RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 175846 : July 06, 2010] REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, PETITIONER, VS. ROSILA ROCHE, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 179709 : July 06, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. FILOMENO MAYINGQUE, GREGORIO MAYINGQUE, AND TORIBIO MAYINGQUE Y SANICO, DEFENDANTS-APPELLANTS.

  • [G.R. No. 181036 : July 06, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. ADRIANO LEONARDO Y DANTES, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 180285 : July 06, 2010] MA. SOCORRO MANDAPAT, PETITIONER, VS. ADD FORCE PERSONNEL SERVICES, INC. AND COURT OF APPEALS, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 179812 : July 06, 2010] ETERTON MULTI-RESOURCES CORPORATION (FORMERLY ETERNIT CORPORATION), PETITIONER, VS. FILIPINO PIPE AND FOUNDRY CORPORATION, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 183101 : July 06, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, APPELLEE, VS. NOEL CATENTAY, APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 184088 : July 06, 2010] IGLESIA EVANGELICA METODISTA EN LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS (IEMELIF) (CORPORATION SOLE), INC., REV. NESTOR PINEDA, REV. ROBERTO BACANI, BENJAMIN BORLONGAN, JR., DANILO SAUR, RICHARD PONTI, ALFREDO MATABANG AND ALL THE OTHER MEMBERS OF THE IEMELIF TONDO CONGREGATION OF THE IEMELIF CORPORATION SOLE, PETITIONERS, VS. BISHOP NATHANAEL LAZARO, REVERENDS HONORIO RIVERA, DANIEL MADUCDOC, FERDINAND MERCADO, ARCADIO CABILDO, DOMINGO GONZALES, ARTURO LAPUZ, ADORABLE MANGALINDAN, DANIEL VICTORIA AND DAKILA CRUZ, AND LAY LEADER LINGKOD MADUCDOC AND CESAR DOMINGO, ACTING INDIVIDUALLY AND AS MEMBERS OF THE SUPREME CONSISTORY OF ELDERS AND THOSE CLAIMING UNDER THE CORPORATION AGGREGATE, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 184812 : July 06, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, APPELLEE, VS. ERMILITO ALEGRE Y LAMOSTE, APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 188570 : July 06, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, APPELLEE, VS. CHRISTOPHER DE MESA AND EMMANUEL GONZALES, APPELLANTS.

  • [A.M. No. RTJ-06-1992 (Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 98-603-RTJ) : July 06, 2010] OLIVIA LAUREL, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, DIANA RAMOS, UTILITY WORKER, BOTH OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 25, BIÑAN, LAGUNA AND HERMINIA JAVIER, CLERK III, RTC-OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, AND ALBERTO R. NOFUENTE, 3RD ASSISTANT PROVINCIAL PROSECUTOR OF LAGUNA, COMPLAINANTS, VS. JUDGE PABLO B. FRANCISCO, PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 26, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA, RESPONDENT. [A.M. NO. P-10-2745 (FORMERLY OCA I.P.I. NO. 98-511-P)] JUDGE PABLO B. FRANCISCO, PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 26, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA, COMPLAINANT, VS. OLIVIA LAUREL, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, DIANA RAMOS, UTILITY WORKER, BOTH OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 25, BIÑAN, LAGUNA AND HERMINIA JAVIER, CLERK III, RTC-OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, RESPONDENTS. [A.M. NO. RTJ-00-1992 (FORMERLY OCA I.P.I. NO. 00-974-P)] JUDGE PABLO B. FRANCISCO, PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 26, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA, COMPLAINANT, VS. OLIVIA LAUREL, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, AND DIANA RAMOS, UTILITY WORKER, ALL OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 25, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, RESPONDENTS. X [A.M. NO. P-10-2746 (FORMERLY OCA I.P.I. NO. 00-963-P)] JUDGE PABLO B. FRANCISCO, PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 26, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA, COMPLAINANT, VS. GERARDO P. HERNANDEZ, CLERK OF COURT V, JULIAN R. ORFIANO, JR., COURT LEGAL RESEARCHER III, MARIA FE L. LOPEZ, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, DIOSALYN N. PEREZ, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, AND JULIETA M. CHAVES, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, ALL OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 24, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, RESPONDENTS. [A.M. NO. P-10-2747 (FORMERLY OCA I.P.I. NO. 99-740-P)] JUDGE PABLO B. FRANCISCO,PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 26, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA, COMPLAINANT, VS. NICANOR B. ALFONSO, PROCESS SERVER, ANGELITO A. BATI, UTILITY WORKER I, ARNEL G. MAGAT, SHERIFF IV, HERMINIA S. JAVIER, CLERK III, ALL OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT-OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, BENEDICTO B. PASCUAL, INTERPRETER III, DIANA A. RAMOS, UTILITY WORKER I, OLIVIA M. LAUREL, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, ANDREW A. SANTOS, CLERK III, RAMON LUIS SEVILLA, PROCESS SERVER, ALL OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 25, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, JULIAN R. ORFIANO, JR., COURT LEGAL RESEARCHER II, CARIDAD D. CUEVILLAS, CLERK III, CARMELITA D. MORENO, CLERK III, MA. FE L. LOPEZ, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, DIOSALYN N. PEREZ, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, JULIETA M. CHAVES, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, ALL OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 24, BIÑAN, LAGUNA AND ATTY. MELVIN D.C. MANE, CLERK OF COURT V, RESPONDENTS. [A.M. NO. P-10-2748 (FORMERLY OCA I.P.I. NO. 99-573-P)] JUDGE PABLO B. FRANCISCO, PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 26, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA, COMPLAINANT, VS.CARIDAD D. CUEVILLAS, CLERK III, BRANCH 24, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, RESPONDENT. [A.M. NO. P-10-2749 (FORMERLY OCA I.P.I. NO. 02-1338-P)] JUDGE PABLO B. FRANCISCO, PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 26, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA, COMPLAINANT, VS.HERMINIA S. JAVIER, CLERK III, NICANOR B. ALFONSO, PROCESS SERVER, ANGELITO A. BATI, UTILITY WORKER I, ARNEL G. MAGAT, SHERIFF IV, ALL OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT-OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, CARIDAD D. CUEVILLAS, CLERK III, CARMELITA D. MORENO, CLERK III, DIOSALYN N. PEREZ, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, MARIA FE LOPEZ, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, JULIAN ORFIANO, JR., LEGAL RESEARCHER III, ALL OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 24, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, BENEDICTO PASCUAL, COURT INTERPRETER III, RAMON LUIS SEVILLA, PROCESS SERVER, ANDREW A. SANTOS, CLERK III AND OLIVIA M. LAUREL, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, ALL OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 25, BIÑAN, LAGUNA.RESPONDENTS. [A.M. NO. P-10-2750 (FORMERLY OCA I.P.I. NO. 02-1410-P)] JUDGE PABLO B. FRANCISCO,PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 26, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA, COMPLAINANT, VS. ATTY. ROWENA A. MALABANAN-GALEON, CLERK OF COURT V AND BENEDICTO PASCUAL, COURT INTERPRETER III, BOTH OF BRANCH 25, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, RESPONDENTS. [A.M. NO. P-10-2751 (FORMERLY OCA I.P.I. NO. 02-1411-P)] JUDGE PABLO B. FRANCISCO, PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 26, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA, COMPLAINANT, VS. ATTY. ROWENA A. MALABANAN-GALEON, CLERK OF COURT V, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 25, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, RESPONDENT. [A.M. NO. P-03-1706 (FORMERLY OCA I.P.I. NO. 02-1409-P)] JUDGE PABLO B. FRANCISCO, PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 26, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA, COMPLAINANT, VS. ATTY. ROWENA A. MALABANAN-GALEON, CLERK OF COURT V AND OLIVIA M. LAUREL, COURT STENOGRAPHER III, BOTH OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 25, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, RESPONDENTS. [A.M. NO. RTJ-10-2214 (FORMERLY OCA I.P.I. NO. 02-1592-RTJ)] JOEL O. ARELLANO AND ARNEL M. MAGAT, BOTH DEPUTY SHERIFF, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT-OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, BIÑAN, LAGUNA, COMPLAINANTS. VS.JUDGE PABLO B. FRANCISCO, PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 26, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA,RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 138696 : July 07, 2010] FELIZARDO S. OBANDO AND JUAN S. OBANDO, PETITIONERS, VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 163835 : July 07, 2010] COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, PETITIONER, VS. EASTERN TELECOMMUNICATIONS PHILIPPINES, INC., RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 134269 : July 07, 2010] THE LEARNING CHILD, INC. AND SPS. FELIPE AND MARY ANNE ALFONSO, PETITIONERS, VS. AYALA ALABANG VILLAGE ASSOCIATION, SPOUSES ERNESTO AND ALMA ARZAGA, MARIA LUISA QUISUMBING, ARTURO SENA, KSL CORPORATION, SLV MANAGEMENT CORPORATION AND LAWPHIL, INC., RESPONDENTS. [G.R. NO. 134440] JOSE MARIE V. AQUINO, MINOR AND REPRESENTED BY HIS PARENTS DR. ERROL AQUINO AND ATTY. MARILYN AQUINO; LORENZO MARIA E. VELASCO, MINOR AND REPRESENTED BY HIS PARENTS FRANCISCO VELASCO AND ROSANNA VELASCO; CHRISTOPHER E. WALMSLEY, MINOR AND REPRESENTED BY HIS PARENTS GERALD WALMSLEY AND MA. TERESA WALMSLEY; JOANNA MARIE S. SISON, MINOR AND REPRESENTED BY HER PARENTS BONIFACIO SISON AND JOSEPHINE SISON; AND MATTHEW RAPHAEL C. ARCE, MINOR AND REPRESENTED BY HIS PARENTS RAPHAEL ARCE AND MA. ERISSA ARCE, PETITIONERS, VS. AYALA ALABANG VILLAGE ASSOCIATION, SPOUSES ERNESTO AND ALMA ARZAGA, MARIA LUISA QUISUMBING, ARTURO SENA, KSL CORPORATION AND LAWPHIL, INC., RESPONDENTS. [G.R. NO. 144518] AYALA ALABANG VILLAGE ASSOCIATION, SPOUSES ERNESTO AND ALMA ARZAGA, MARIA LUISA QUISUMBING, ARTURO SENA, KSL CORPORATION, SLV MANAGEMENT CORPORATION AND LAWPHIL, INC., PETITIONERS, VS. MUNICIPALITY (NOW CITY) OF MUNTINLUPA, THE LEARNING CHILD, INC., SPOUSES FELIPE AND MARY ANNE ALFONSO, AND THE HON. COURT OF APPEALS (SPECIAL FIFTEENTH DIVISION), RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. Nos. 147925-26 : July 07, 2010] ELPIDIO S. UY, DOING BUSINESS UNDER THE NAME AND STYLE OF EDISON DEVELOPMENT & CONSTRUCTION, PETITIONER, VS. PUBLIC ESTATES AUTHORITY, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 170375 : July 07, 2010] REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, PETITIONER, VS. HON. MAMINDIARA P. MANGOTARA, IN HIS CAPACITY AS PRESIDING JUDGE OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 1, ILIGAN CITY, LANAO DEL NORTE, AND MARIA CRISTINA FERTILIZER CORPORATION, AND THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK, RESPONDENTS, [G.R. NO. 170505] LAND TRADE REALTY CORPORATION,PETITIONER, VS. NATIONAL POWER CORPORATION AND NATIONAL TRANSMISSION CORPORATION (TRANSCO), RESPONDENTS, [G.R. NOS. 173355-56] NATIONAL POWER CORPORATION, PETITIONER, VS. HON. COURT OF APPEALS (SPECIAL TWENTY-THIRD DIVISION, CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY), AND LAND TRADE REALTY CORPORATION, RESPONDENTS, [G.R. NO. 173401] REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES,PETITIONER, VS. DEMETRIA CACHO, REPRESENTED BY ALLEGED HEIRS DEMETRIA CONFESOR VIDAL AND/OR TEOFILO CACHO, AZIMUTH INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AND LAND TRADE REALTY CORPORATION, RESPONDENTS. [G.R. NOS. 173563-64] NATIONAL TRANSMISSION CORPORATION, PETITIONER, VS. HON. COURT OF APPEALS (SPECIAL TWENTY-THIRD DIVISION, CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY), AND LAND TRADE REALTY CORPORATION AS REPRESENTED BY ATTY. MAX C. TABIMINA, RESPONDENTS, [G.R. NO. 178779] LAND TRADE REALTY CORPORATION, PETITIONER, VS. DEMETRIA CONFESOR VIDAL AND AZIMUTH INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, RESPONDENTS, [G.R. NO. 178894] TEOFILO CACHO AND/OR ATTY. GODOFREDO CABILDO,PETITIONER, VS. DEMETRIA CONFESOR VIDAL AND AZIMUTH INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 170623 : July 07, 2010] A.Z. ARNAIZ REALTY, INC. REPRESENTED BY CARMEN Z. ARNAIZ, PETITIONER, VS. OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT; DEPARTMENT OF AGRARIAN REFORM; REGIONAL DIRECTOR, DAR REGION V, LEGASPI CITY; PROVINCIAL AGRARIAN REFORM OFFICER, DAR PROVINCIAL OFFICE, MASBATE, MASBATE; MUNICIPAL AGRARIAN REFORM OFFICER, DAR MUNICIPAL OFFICE, MASBATE, MASBATE, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 177573 : July 07, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. ROBERTO ASIS AND JULIUS PEÑARANDA, ACCUSED-APPELLANTS.

  • [G.R. No. 188704 : July 07, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. PEDRO ORTIZ, JR. Y LOPES, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 172962 : July 08, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. ROMEO REPUBLO, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 174697 : July 08, 2010] CHAMBER OF REAL ESTATE AND BUILDERS' ASSOCIATIONS, INC. (CREBA), PETITIONER, VS. ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION (ERC) AND MANILA ELECTRIC COMPANY (MERALCO), RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 161849 : July 09, 2010] WALLEM PHILIPPINES SHIPPING, INC., PETITIONER, VS. S.R. FARMS, INC., RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 165582 : July 09, 2010] LUIS CHITO BUENSOCESO LOZANO, PETITIONER, VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 170645 : July 09, 2010] NIEVES ESTARES BALDOS, SUBSTITUTED BY FRANCISCO BALDOS AND MARTIN BALDOS, PETITIONERS, VS. COURT OF APPEALS AND REYNALDO PILLAZAR A.K.A. REYNALDO ESTARES BALDOS, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 171873 : July 09, 2010] MUNICIPALITY OF TIWI, REPRESENTED BY HON. MAYOR JAIME C. VILLANUEVA AND THE SANGGUNIANG BAYAN OF TIWI, PETITIONERS, VS. ANTONIO B. BETITO, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 172023 : July 09, 2010] HEIRS OF SANTIAGO C. DIVINAGRACIA, PETITIONERS, VS. HONORABLE J. CEDRICK O. RUIZ, PRESIDING JUDGE, BRANCH 39, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, ILOILO CITY; GERRY D. SUMACULUB, AS CLERK OF COURT OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT; CBS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, INC. (CBSDC) REPRESENTED BY ITS PRESIDENT AND CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER, ROGELIO M. FLORETE, SR., AND DIAMEL INC., REPRESENTED BY ROGELIO M. FLORETE, SR., RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 172611 : July 09, 2010] SPS. FEDERICO VALENZUELA AND LUZ BUENA-VALENZUELA PETITIONERS, SPS. JOSE MANO, JR. AND ROSANNA REYES-MANO RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 177219, July 09 : 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. ROGELIO ALARCON, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 165168 : July 09, 2010] SPS. NONILON (MANOY) AND IRENE MONTECALVO, PETITIONERS, VS. HEIRS (SUBSTITUTES) OF EUGENIA T. PRIMERO, REPRESENTED BY THEIR ATTORNEY-IN-FACT, ALFREDO T. PRIMERO, JR., RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 170464 : July 12, 2010] LAMBERT PAWNBROKERS AND JEWELRY CORPORATION AND LAMBERT LIM, PETITIONERS, VS. HELEN BINAMIRA, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 163825 : July 13, 2010] VIOLETA TUDTUD BANATE, MARY MELGRID M. CORTEL, BONIFACIO CORTEL, ROSENDO MAGLASANG, AND PATROCINIA MONILAR, PETITIONERS, VS. PHILIPPINE COUNTRYSIDE RURAL BANK (LILOAN, CEBU), INC. AND TEOFILO SOON, JR.,RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 161602 : July 13, 2010] ALFREDO T. ROMUALDEZ, PETITIONER, VS. THE HONORABLE SANDIGANBAYAN (THIRD DIVISION) AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 154560 : July 13, 2010] REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, PETITIONER, VS. SANDIGANBAYAN (SECOND DIVISION), TERNATE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, FANTASIA FILIPINA RESORTS, INC., MONTE SOL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, OCEAN VILLAS CONDOMINIUM CORPORATION, OLAS DEL MAR DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, PHILIPPINE VILLAGE HOTEL, PHILROAD CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, PUERTO AZUL BEACH AND COUNTRY CLUB, INC., SILAHIS INTERNATIONAL HOTEL, SULO DOBBS FOOD SERVICES, INC., NOTION AND POTIONS, INC., AND SUN AND SHADE MERCHANDISE, INC., RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 171565 : July 13, 2010] ANTONIO B. RAMOS (DECEASED), SUBSTITUTED BY HIS SURVIVING HEIRS, NAMELY, MA. MARGARITA A. RAMOS, ANTONIO A. RAMOS, MA. REGINA RAMOS DE DIOS, JOSE VICENTE A. RAMOS, MA. POMONA RAMOS KO TEH AND OSCAR EMERITO A. RAMOS, PETITIONERS, VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES AND ROGERIO H. ESCOBAL, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 175835 : July 13, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, APPELLEE, VS. GERARDO ROLLAN Y REY, APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 177861 : July 13, 2010] IN RE: PETITION FOR CANCELLATION AND CORRECTION OF ENTRIES IN THE RECORD OF BIRTH, EMMA K. LEE, PETITIONER, VS. COURT OF APPEALS, RITA K. LEE, LEONCIO K. LEE, LUCIA K. LEE-ONG, JULIAN K. LEE, MARTIN K. LEE, ROSA LEE-VANDERLEK, MELODY LEE-CHIN, HENRY K. LEE, NATIVIDAD LEE-MIGUEL, VICTORIANO K. LEE, AND THOMAS K. LEE, REPRESENTED BY RITA K. LEE, AS ATTORNEY-IN-FACT, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 187693 : July 13, 2010] INTERTRANZ CONTAINER LINES, INC. AND JOSEFINA F. TUMIBAY, PETITIONERS, VS. MA. TERESA I. BAUTISTA, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 188569 : July 13, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. ROBERTO GARBIDA, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 188600 : July 13, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES,PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. MARCOS QUIROS Y SEMBRANO, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 188905 : July 13, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. ROSE NANDI Y SALI, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 180660 : July 20, 2010] MARIBAGO BLUEWATER BEACH RESORT, INC. PETITIONER, VS. NITO DUAL, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 174096 : July 20, 2010] SPOUSES DIVINIA C. PUBLICO AND JOSE T. PUBLICO,* PETITIONERS, VS. TERESA BAUTISTA, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 185920 : July 20, 2010] JUANITA TRINIDAD RAMOS, ALMA RAMOS WORAK, MANUEL T. RAMOS, JOSEFINA R. ROTHMAN, SONIA R. POST, ELVIRA P. MUNAR, AND OFELIA R. LIM, PETITIONERS, VS. DANILO PANGILINAN, RODOLFO SUMANG, LUCRECIO BAUTISTA AND ROLANDO ANTENOR, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 181735 : July 20, 2010] LAND REGISTRATION AUTHORITY, REPRESENTED BY HON. BENEDICTO ULEP, IN HIS CAPACITY AS ADMINISTRATOR, HON. EDILBERTO R. FELICIANO, DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR AND CHAIRMAN, BAC-PGSM, HON. OFELIA ABUEG-STA. MARIA, VICE-CHAIRMAN, BAC-PGM, ELISA OCAMPO, EDELMIRA N. SALAZAR, ATTY. JOSEFINA MONTANER, ROSETTE MABUNAY, CHERRY HERNANDEZ, NOEL SABARIZA, AS MEMBERS, BAC-PGSM, PETITIONER, VS. LANTING SECURITY AND WATCHMAN AGENCY, REPRESENTED BY ATTY. THOMAS L. LANTING, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 181735 : July 20, 2010] LAND REGISTRATION AUTHORITY, REPRESENTED BY HON. BENEDICTO ULEP, IN HIS CAPACITY AS ADMINISTRATOR, HON. EDILBERTO R. FELICIANO, DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR AND CHAIRMAN, BAC-PGSM, HON. OFELIA ABUEG-STA. MARIA, VICE-CHAIRMAN, BAC-PGM, ELISA OCAMPO, EDELMIRA N. SALAZAR, ATTY. JOSEFINA MONTANER, ROSETTE MABUNAY, CHERRY HERNANDEZ, NOEL SABARIZA, AS MEMBERS, BAC-PGSM, PETITIONER, VS. LANTING SECURITY AND WATCHMAN AGENCY, REPRESENTED BY ATTY. THOMAS L. LANTING, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 182398 : July 20, 2010] BENNY Y. HUNG,* PETITIONER, VS. BPI CARD FINANCE CORP., RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 174097 : July 21, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. SONNY PADUA Y REYES, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 153837 : July 21, 2010] ENGR. JOB Y. BESANA, HON. RONALDO B. ZAMORA, IN HIS CAPACITY AS EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, AND HON. CONRADO M. ESTRELLA III, IN HIS CAPACITY AS ADMINISTRATOR OF THE NATIONAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION, PETITIONERS, VS. RODSON F. MAYOR, RESPONDENT. AKLAN ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE, INC., INTERVENOR.

  • [A.M. No. MTJ-09-1728 (FORMERLY OCA I.P.I. NO. 04-1623-MTJ) : July 21, 2010] ATTY. JOSE A. BERNAS, COMPLAINANT, VS. JUDGE JULIA A. REYES, METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 69, PASIG CITY, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 185215 : July 22, 2010] VIRGINIA D. BAUTISTA, PETITIONER, VS. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION AND DEVELOPMENT BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 173634 : July 22, 2010] PHILIPPINE AMUSEMENT AND GAMING CORPORATION (PAGCOR), REPRESENTED BY ATTY. CARLOS R. BAUTISTA, JR., PETITIONER, VS. RUFINO G. AUMENTADO, JR., RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 172700 : July 23, 2010] OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN, PETITIONER, VS. ROLSON RODRIGUEZ, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 172292 : July 23, 2010] ALIDA MORES, PETITIONER, VS. SHIRLEY M. YU-GO, MA. VICTORIA M. YU-LIM, AND MA. ESTRELLA M. YU, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 171925 : July 23, 2010] SOLIDBANK CORPORATION, (NOW METROPOLITAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY), PETITIONER, VS. PERMANENT HOMES, INCORPORATED, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 171525 : July 23, 2010] ST. CATHERINE REALTY CORPORATION AND LAND KING REALTY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, PETITIONERS, VS. FERDINAND Y. PINEDA AND DOLORES S. LACUATA, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 190448 : July 26, 2010] FEDERICO D. TOMAS, PETITIONER, VS. ANN G. SANTOS, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 188949 : July 26, 2010] CENTRAL AZUCARERA DE TARLAC, PETITIONER, VS. CENTRAL AZUCARERA DE TARLAC LABOR UNION-NLU, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 189278 : July 26, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. ELIZABETH MARCELINO Y REYES, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [G.R. No. 183133 : July 26, 2010] BALGAMELO CABILING MA, FELIX CABILING MA, JR., AND VALERIANO CABILING MA, PETITIONERS, VS. COMMISSIONER ALIPIO F. FERNANDEZ, JR., ASSOCIATE COMMISSIONER ARTHEL B. CARONOׁGAN, ASSOCIATE COMMISSIONER JOSE DL. CABOCHAN, ASSOCIATE COMMISSIONER TEODORO B. DELARMENTE AND ASSOCIATE COMMISSIONER FRANKLIN Z. LITTAUA, IN THEIR CAPACITIES AS CHAIRMAN AND MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS (BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION), AND MAT G. CATRAL, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 183027 : July 26, 2010] SPOUSES EDMUNDO AND LOURDES SARROSA, PETITIONERS, VS. WILLY O. DIZON, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 181178 : July 26, 2010] AMELIA R. OBUSAN, PETITIONER, VS. PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 180109 : July 26, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PETITIONER, VS. JOSEPH "JOJO" V. GREY, FRANCIS B. GREY, AND COURT OF APPEALS-CEBU CITY, EIGHTEENTH DIVISION, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 179105 : July 26, 2010] METROPOLITAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY, PETITIONER, VS. LARRY MARIׁAS, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 178495 : July 26, 2010] SPOUSES RODOLFO A. NOCEDA AND ERNA T. NOCEDA, PETITIONERS, VS. AURORA ARBIZO-DIRECTO, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 178591 : July 26, 2010] SM SYSTEMS CORPORATION (FORMERLY SPRINGSUN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS CORPORATION), PETITIONER, VS. OSCAR CAMERINO, EFREN CAMERINO, CORNELIO MANTILE, DOMINGO ENRIQUEZ, AND HEIRS OF NOLASCO DEL ROSARIO, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 177637 : July 26, 2010] DR. DIOSCORO CARBONILLA, PETITIONER, VS. MARCELO ABIERA AND MARICRIS ABIERA PAREDES, SUBSTITUTED BY HER HEIRS, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 172988 : July 26, 2010] JOSE P. ARTIFICIO, PETITIONER, VS. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, RP GUARDIANS SECURITY AGENCY, INC., JUAN VICTOR K. LAURILLA, ALBERTO AGUIRRE, AND ANTONIO A. ANDRES, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 169999 : July 26, 2010] NEW PUERTO COMMERCIAL AND RICHARD LIM, PETITIONERS, VS. RODEL LOPEZ AND FELIX GAVAN, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 168583 : July 26, 2010] ATTY. ALLAN S. MONTAׁO, PETITIONER, VS. ATTY. ERNESTO C. VERCELES, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 167526 : July 26, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PETITIONER, VS. DANTE TAN, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 167390 : July 26, 2010] SPOUSES ADOLFO FERNANDEZ, SR., AND LOURDES FERNANDEZ, PETITIONERS, VS. SPOUSES MARTINES CO AND ERLINDA CO, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 165554 : July 26, 2010] LAZARO PASCO AND LAURO PASCO, PETITIONERS, VS. HEIRS OF FILOMENA DE GUZMAN, REPRESENTED BY CRESENCIA DE GUZMAN- PRINCIPE, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 166250 : July 26, 2010] UNSWORTH TRANSPORT INTERNATIONAL (PHILS.), INC., PETITIONER, VS. COURT OF APPEALS AND PIONEER INSURANCE AND SURETY CORPORATION, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 162608 : July 26, 2010] ADRIAN WILSON INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATES, INC., PETITIONER, VS. TMX PHILIPPINES, INC., RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 156599 : July 26, 2010] BORMAHECO, INCORPORATED, PETITIONER, VS. MALAYAN INSURANCE COMPANY, INCORPORATED AND INTERWORLD BROKERAGE CORPORATION, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 188130 : July 26, 2010] PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE, VS. MARY LOU OMICTIN Y SINGCO, ACCUSED-APPELLANT.

  • [A.M. No. RTJ-09-2180 [Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 08-2817-RTJ] : July 27, 2010] ROLANDO E. MARCOS, COMPLAINANT, VS. JUDGE OFELIA T. PINTO, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 60, ANGELES CITY, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 180291, July 27 : 2010] GOVERNMENT SERVICE INSURANCE SYSTEM (GSIS) AND WINSTON F. GARCIA, IN HIS CAPACITY AS PRESIDENT AND GENERAL MANAGER OF THE GSIS, PETITIONERS, VS. DINNAH VILLAVIZA, ELIZABETH DUQUE, ADRONICO A. ECHAVEZ, RODEL RUBIO, ROWENA THERESE B. GRACIA, PILAR LAYCO, AND ANTONIO JOSE LEGARDA, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 119857 : July 28, 2010] GOLDEN APPLE REALTY AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AND ROSVIBON REALTY CORPORATION, PETITIONERS, VS. SIERRA GRANDE REALTY CORPORATION, MANPHIL INVESTMENT CORPORATION, RENAN V. SANTOS AND PATRICIO MAMARIL, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 152236 : July 28, 2010] RPRP VENTURES MANAGEMENT & DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, PETITIONER, VS. HON. TEOFILO L. GUADIZ, JR., PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT OF MAKATI CITY, BRANCH 147; METROPOLITAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY AND ATTY. ENRIQUETO MAGPANTAY, IN HIS CAPACITY AS A NOTARY PUBLIC OF MAKATI CITY. RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 180385 : July 28, 2010] PETRON CORPORATION, PETITIONER, VS. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 173150 : July 28, 2010] LYDIA C. GELIG, PETITIONER, VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 171705 : July 29, 2010] EDUARDO VARELA, PETITIONER, VS. MA. DAISY REVALEZ, RAMON BORROMEO, YOLANDA BARCENILLA, ERNA LOCSIN, GRACE BARUC, VICENTE MIJARES, JR., LOIDA TAJONERA, NIRMLA AGNES MARTINEZ, ANALYN MAYPA, LEMUEL MAYPA, BERDITH GANCETA, ROGER RAMOS, SUZETTE DE LOS SANTOS, JUDE JAROPILLO, JOCELYN AZUCENA, VILMA PABALAN, CHANNIBAL BERJA, JERNEY BARZO, BRIGIDA MANGUINO, SOL GRACE GUSTILO, MARILOU AREVALO, LUCILLE ARGONOSO, MARCOS BACOMO, MELVIN BACOMO, JR., MERIAM BULLAG, ZOSIMA DESUYO, MARLENE BACOMO, EUGENE BALASA, ROY DE ASIS, LOLITA RUBEN, JOSE DIEZ, MILA DIEZ, JESUS DIEZ, DONNABEL ALFON, FRANCISCO DERIADA, ALEJANDRIA PORDIOS, LIGAYA MAGBANUA, DAISY GORECHO, ANARIEL BACOMO, FRED DELOTINA, STEPHEN DIPLOMA, MARITES BACABAC, ARACELI MAHINAY, JULIO OLVIDO, ANTONIO REBOTON, NENETTE JUMUAD, ROSEMARIE ALICANTE, AGUSTIN JAVIER, JR., LEODY JAVA, NAZARITO PIDO, NENITA BERMEO, DELILAH FERNANDEZ, WILDABETH LACSON, CYNTHIA DAZA, ROMMEL DELGADO, FLORITA GELACIO, ROSALLY LEAL, AILEEN VILLANUEVA, NINFA BENIGAY, ROSIE PALMA, FERNANDO DELGADO, ROMULO BARCENILLA, ROBERTO APIADO, MARIO OLVIDO, BETTY DELA CRUZ, MARTIN APILADAS, SOLEDAD MAGBANUA, NIDA VISTAL, FRANCISCO DE LARA, ANTHONY ROCH ACEVEDO, FELIX RAFOLS, YOLANDA FERNANDEZ, ERNISTINA ALARCON, EMIE ABANID, LOURY TOMPONG, MA. FE RAFOLS SIA, YOLANDA OLVIDO, FIDEL ARROYO, VITALIANO POBLACION, ZALDY TERENCIO, ROVIC ESCOBA, JENNIFER CABAHUG, HELEN PAGAY, ARTURO SALVE, AIDA GOMEZ, AND CITY OF CADIZ, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 173351 : July 29, 2010] BF CITILAND CORPORATION, PETITIONER, VS. MARILYN B. OTAKE, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 171766 : July 29, 2010] ASIAWORLD PROPERTIES PHILIPPINE CORPORATION, PETITIONER, VS. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 166236 : July 29, 2010] NOLI ALFONSO AND ERLINDA FUNDIALAN, PETITIONERS, VS. SPOUSES HENRY AND LIWANAG ANDRES, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 165569 : July 29, 2010] UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS, GLENDA A. VARGAS, MA. SOCORRO S. GUANHING, IN THEIR CAPACITIES AS DEAN AND ASSISTANT DEAN, RESPECTIVELY, OF THE COLLEGE OF NURSING OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS, AND RODOLFO N. CLAVIO, IN HIS CAPACITY AS REGISTRAR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS, PETITIONERS, VS. DANES B. SANCHEZ, RESPONDENT.

  • [G.R. No. 165976 : July 29, 2010] SONIC STEEL INDUSTRIES, INC., PETITIONER, VS. COURT OF APPEALS, HON. EDUARDO B. PERALTA, IN HIS CAPACITY AS PRESIDING JUDGE OF BRANCH 17 OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT OF MANILA, SEABOARD-EASTERN INSURANCE COMPANY, INC., PREMIER SHIPPING LINES, INC., AND ORIENTAL ASSURANCE CORPORATION, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 172027, July 29 : 2010] GONZALO S. GO, JR., PETITIONER, VS. COURT OF APPEALS AND OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 184843 : July 30, 2010] VIRGILIO DYCOCO, HEREIN REPRESENTED BY HIS ATTORNEYS-IN-FACT CRISTINO C. GRAFILO, JOSE C. GRAFILO AND ADOLFO C. GRAFILO, AND CRISTINO C. GRAFILO, JOSE C. GRAFILO AND ADOLFO C. GRAFILO FOR AND IN THEIR OWN BEHALF, PETITIONERS, VS. ADELAIDA ORINA JOINED BY HER HUSBAND GERMAN R. ORINA AS REPRESENTED BY HER ATTORNEY-IN-FACT EVELYN M. SAGALONGOS AND FOR IN THE LATTER'S OWN BEHALF, RESPONDENTS.

  • [G.R. No. 180010 : July 30, 2010] CENITA M. CARIAGA, PETITIONER, VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, RESPONDENT. D E C I S I O N