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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
May-1958 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. L-11219 May 7, 1958 - PACITA SALABARIA VDA. DE SUATARON v. HAWAIIAN-PHILIPPINE COMPANY

    103 Phil 647

  • G.R. No. L-11580 May 9, 1958 - MARCELINO GABRIEL v. GOVERNMENT SERVICE INSURANCE SYSTEM

    103 Phil 651

  • G.R. No. L-11231 May 12, 1958 - ROSARIO CARBONNEL v. JOSE PONCIO

    103 Phil 655

  • G.R. No. L-9531 May 14, 1958 - WARNER BARNES & CO. v. GUILLERMO C. REYES

    103 Phil 662

  • G.R. No. L-11578 May 14, 1958 - GERONIMO AVECILLA v. HON. NICASIO YATCO

    103 Phil 666

  • G.R. No. L-11629 May 14, 1958 - CELEDONIO E. ESCUDERO v. ANTONIO G. LUCERO

    103 Phil 672

  • G.R. No. L-10559 May 16, 1958 - IN RE: YU NEAM v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    103 Phil 677

  • G.R. No. L-10657 May 16, 1958 - NUMERIANO L. VALERIANO, ET AL. v. CONCEPCION KERR, ET AL.

    103 Phil 681

  • G.R. No. L-11285 May 16, 1958 - VICENTE SAPTO v. APOLONIA FABIANA

    103 Phil 683

  • G.R. No. L-11924 May 16, 1958 - ISIDORO CEBRERO v. JOSE TALAMAN

    103 Phil 687

  • G.R. No. L-8776 May 19, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ANTONIO CRUZ

    103 Phil 693

  • G.R. No. L-11539 May 19, 1958 - ARING BAGOBA v. ENRIQUE A. FERNANDEZ

    103 Phil 706

  • G.R. No. L-11305 May 21, 1958 - DOMINADOR P. CANLAS, ET AL. v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    103 Phil 712

  • G.R. No. L-12375 May 21, 1958 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. ALTO SURETY & INSURANCE CO.

    103 Phil 717

  • G.R. No. L-8317 May 23, 1958 - GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES v. JUAN ABAD, ET AL.

    103 Phil 725

  • G.R. No. L-10286 May 23, 1958 - LUIS E. ARRIOLA v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    103 Phil 730

  • G.R. No. L-10704 May 23, 1958 - SIMEON TAN LIM v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    103 Phil 736

  • G.R. No. L-11036 May 23, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FLORENTINO TOLENTINO

    103 Phil 741

  • G.R. No. L-11060 May 23, 1958 - A. U. VALENCIA & Co. v. HERMINIA C. LAYUG, ET AL.

    103 Phil 747

  • G.R. No. L-11152 May 23, 1958 - BENITO CO v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    103 Phil 750

  • G.R. No. L-11442 May 23, 1958 - MANUELA T. VDA. DE SALVATIERRA v. LORENZO C. GARLITOS

    103 Phil 757

  • G.R. No. L-11504 May 23, 1958 - ELISEO SAULOG v. N. BAENS DEL ROSARIO

    103 Phil 765

  • G.R. No. L-7451 May 26, 1958 - HACIENDA LUISITA v. BOARD OF TAX APPEALS

    103 Phil 770

  • G.R. No. L-10610 May 26, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ERNESTO SILVELA

    103 Phil 773

  • G.R. No. L-11361 May 26, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FELIX SEMAÑADA

    103 Phil 790

  • G.R. No. L-8190 May 28, 1958 - GONZALO GARCIA v. CONSOLACION MANZANO

    103 Phil 798

  • G.R. No. L-9328 May 28, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. AMBROSIO PAUNIL, ET AL.

    103 Phil 804

  • G.R. No. L-10322 May 28, 1958 - GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES v. JACINTA ALVAREZ

    103 Phil 816

  • G.R. No. L-10574 May 28, 1958 - PANAY ELECTRIC CO. v. COLLECTOR OF INTERNAL REVENUE, ET AL.

    103 Phil 819

  • G.R. No. L-10931 May 28, 1958 - FLORENClA R. SORIANO v. ONG HOO

    103 Phil 829

  • G.R. No. L-10972 May 28, 1958 - IN RE: PERFECTO GOTAUCO v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    103 Phil 834

  • G.R. No. L-10989 May 28, 1958 - PONCIANO GACHO v. SERGIO OSMEÑA

    103 Phil 837

  • G.R. No. L-11112 May 28, 1958 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK v. LUZON SURETY COMPANY

    103 Phil 853

  • G.R. No. L-11271 May 28, 1958 - PAZ TY SIN TEI v. JOSE LEE DY PIAO

    103 Phil 858

  • G.R. No. L-11311 May 28, 1958 - MARTA C. ORTEGA v. DANIEL LEONARDO

    103 Phil 870

  • G.R. No. L-11412 May 28, 1958 - MAURICIA VDA. DE VILLANUEVA v. MONTANO A. ORTIZ

    103 Phil 875

  • G.R. No. L-11427 May 28, 1958 - DIMAS REYES v. FIDEL D. DONES

    103 Phil 884

  • G.R. No. L-11491 May 28, 1958 - DIRECTOR OF LANDS v. BIENVENIDA JOCSON LAGNITON

    103 Phil 889

  • G.R. No. L-11538 May 28, 1958 - COMMISSIONER OF CUSTOMS, ET AL. v. JEA COMMERCIAL, ET AL.

    103 Phil 894

  • G.R. No. L-11640 May 28, 1958 - CLAUDIO DEGOLLACION v. LI CHUI

    103 Phil 904

  • G.R. No. L-11744 May 28, 1958 - PILAR GIL VDA. DE MURCIANO v. AUDITOR GENERAL

    103 Phil 907

  • G.R. No. L-12196 May 28, 1958 - ASSISTANT PROVINCIAL FISCAL OF BATAAN v. AMBROSIO T. DOLLETE

    103 Phil 914

  • G.R. Nos. L-12214-17 May 28, 1958 - MALIGAYA SHIP WATCHMEN AGENCY v. ASSOCIATED WATCHMEN AND SECURITY UNION (PTWO)

    103 Phil 920

  • G.R. No. L-12222 May 28, 1958 - UNIVERSITY OF SAN AGUSTIN v. COURT OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

    103 Phil 926

  • G.R. No. L-12289 May 28, 1958 - LIM SIOK HUEY v. ALFREDO LAPIZ

    103 Phil 930

  • G.R. No. L-12348 May 28, 1958 - MARIANO CORDOVA v. GREGORIO NARVASA

    103 Phil 935

  • G.R. No. L-13069 May 28, 1958 - JOVENCIO A. REYES v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ET AL.

    103 Phil 940

  • G.R. No. L-12287 May 29, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FORTUNATO ORTIZ, ET AL.

    103 Phil 944

  • G.R. No. L-7955 May 30, 1958 - JOAQUIN LOPEZ v. ENRIQUE P. OCHOA

    103 Phil 950

  • G.R. No. L-8439 May 30, 1958 - CO CHO CHIT v. HANSON, ORTH & STEVENSON, INC., ET AL.

    103 Phil 956

  • G.R. No. L-10642 May 30, 1958 - IN RE: ALFREDO ONG v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    103 Phil 964

  • G.R. Nos. L-10837-38 May 30, 1958 - ASSOCIATED INSURANCE & SURETY COMPANY v. ISABEL IYA

    103 Phil 972

  • G.R. No. L-10952 May 30, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. BENIGNO V. LINGAD

    103 Phil 980

  • G.R. No. L-11073 May 30, 1958 - MELECIO ARCEO v. ANDRES E. VARELA

    103 Phil 990

  • G.R. No. L-11374 May 30, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DIOSCORO PINUILA

    103 Phil 992

  • G.R. No. L-11444 May 30, 1958 - VICENTE ROULLO v. MARGARITO LUMAYNO

    103 Phil 1004

  • G.R. No. L-11498 May 30, 1958 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RUBEN J. RODRIGUEZ

    103 Phil 1008

  • G.R. Nos. L-11531-33 May 30, 1958 - MARIA CONCEPCION v. PAYATAS ESTATE IMPROVEMENT CP. INC.

    103 Phil 1016

  • G.R. No. L-12053 May 30, 1958 - ROBERTA C. DIAZ v. JESUS Y. PEREZ

    103 Phil 1023

  • G.R. No. L-12081 May 30, 1958 - LORENZO LERMA v. VICTORIANO L. REYES, ET AL.

    103 Phil 1027

  • G.R. No. L-12530 May 30, 1958 - CONSOLIDATED LABOR ASSOCIATION OF THE PHILIPPINES v. HERMOGENES CALUAG

    103 Phil 1032

  • G.R. No. L-12567 May 30, 1958 - TAN GIN SAN v. ROSALIA A. TAN CARPIZO

    103 Phil 1042

  •  





     
     

    G.R. Nos. L-10837-38   May 30, 1958 - ASSOCIATED INSURANCE & SURETY COMPANY v. ISABEL IYA<br /><br />103 Phil 972

     
    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    EN BANC

    [G.R. Nos. L-10837-38. May 30, 1958.]

    ASSOCIATED INSURANCE & SURETY COMPANY, INC., Plaintiff, v. ISABEL IYA, ADRIANO VALINO and LUCIA VALINO, Defendants.

    ISABEL IYA, Plaintiff, v. ADRIANO VALINO, LUCIA VALINO and ASSOCIATED INSURANCE & SURETY COMPANY. INC., Defendants.

    Jovita L. de Dios for defendant Isabel Iya.

    M. Perez Cardenas and Apolonio Abola for defendant Associated Insurance & Surety Co., Inc.


    SYLLABUS


    1. IMMOVABLE PROPERTY; BUILDINGS; IMMOVABLE STATUS OF BUILDING UNAFFECTED BY CHANGE OF OWNERSHIP OF LAND. — A building is an immovable property irrespective of whether or not said structure and the land on which it is adhered to belong to the same owner (Lopez v. Orosa, supra, p. 98). It cannot be divested of its character of a realty by the fact that the land on which it is constructed belongs to another. If the status of the building were to depend on the ownership of the land, a situation would be created where a permanent fixture changes its nature or character as the ownership of the land changes hands.

    2. CHATTEL MORTGAGE; SUBJECT OF; EFFECT WHERE THE INTEREST CONVEYED IS IMMOVABLE. — As personal properties could only be the subject of a chattel mortgage, the execution of a chattel mortgage on a building is invalid and a nullity, the registration of the chattel notwithstanding. The registration of the chattel in the Chattel Mortgage Registry produced no effect whatsoever for where the interest conveyed is in

    the nature of a real property, the registration of the document in the registry of chattels is merely a futile act. Thus the registration of the chattel mortgage of a building of strong materials produce no effect as far as the building is concerned (Leung Yee v. Strong Machinery Co., 37 Phil. 644).

    3. ID.; ID.; RIGHT ACQUIRED BY PURCHASER AT AN EXTRA-JUDICIAL FORECLOSURE SALE. — A mortgage creditor who purchases real properties at an extra-judicial foreclosure sale thereof by virtue of a chattel mortgage constituted in his favor, which mortgage has been declared null and void with respect to said real properties, acquires no right thereto by virtue of said sale (De la Riva v. Ah Kee, 60 Phil. 899).


    D E C I S I O N


    FELIX, J.:


    Adriano Valino and Lucia A. Valino, husband and wife, were the owners and possessors of a house of strong materials constructed on Lot No. 3, Block No. 80 of the Grace Park Subdivision in Caloocan, Rizal, which they purchased on installment basis from the Philippine Realty Corporation. On November 6, 1951, to enable her to purchase on credit rice from the NARIC, Lucia A. Valino filed a bond in the sum of P11,000.00 (AISCO Bond No. 971) subscribed by the Associated Insurance & Surety Co., Inc., and as counter-guaranty therefor, the spouses Valino executed an alleged chattel mortgage on the aforementioned house in favor of the surety company, which encumbrance was duly registered with the Chattel Mortgage Register of Rizal on December 6, 1951. It is admitted that at the time said undertaking took place, the parcel of land on which the house is erected was still registered in the name of the Philippine Realty Corporation. Having completed payment on the purchase price of the lot, the Valinos were able to secure on October 18, 1958, a certificate of title in their name (T.C.T. No. 27884). Subsequently, however, or on October 24, 1952, the Valinos, to secure payment of an indebtedness in the amount of P12,000.00, executed a real estate mortgage over the lot and the house in favor of Isabel Iya, which was duly registered and annotated at the back of the certificate of title.

    On the other hand, as Lucia A. Valino, failed to satisfy her obligation to the NARIC, the surety company was compelled to pay the same pursuant to the undertaking of the bond. In turn, the surety company demanded reimbursement from the spouses Valino, and as the latter likewise failed to do so, the company foreclosed the chattel mortgage over the house. As a result thereof, a public sale was conducted by the Provincial Sheriff of Rizal on December 26, 1952, wherein the property was awarded to the surety company for P8,000.00, the highest bid received therefor. The surety company then caused the said house to be declared in its name for tax purposes (Tax Declaration No. 25128).

    Sometime in July, 1953, the surety company learned of the existence of the real estate mortgage over the lot covered by T.C.T. No. 26884 together with the improvements thereon; thus, said surety company instituted Civil Case No. 2162 of the Court of First Instance of Manila naming Adriano and Lucia Valino and Isabel Iya, the mortgagee, as defendants. The complaint prayed for the exclusion of the residential house from the real estate mortgage in favor of defendant Iya and the declaration and recognition of plaintiff’s right to ownership over the same in virtue of the award given by the Provincial Sheriff of Rizal during the public auction held on December 26, 1952. Plaintiff likewise asked the Court to sentence the spouses Valino to pay said surety moral and exemplary damages, attorney’s fees and costs. Defendant Isabel Iya filed her answer to the complaint alleging among other things, that in virtue of the real estate mortgage executed by her co-defendants, she acquired a real right over the lot and the house constructed thereon; that the auction sale allegedly conducted by the Provincial Sheriff of Rizal as a result of the foreclosure of the chattel mortgage on the house was null and void for non-compliance with the form required by law. She, therefore, prayed for the dismissal of the complaint and annulment of the sale made by the Provincial Sheriff. She also demanded the amount of P5,000.00 from plaintiff as counterclaim, the sum of P5,000.00 from her co-defendants as crossclaim, for attorney’s fees and costs.

    Defendants spouses in their answer admitted some of the averments of the complaint and denied the others. They, however, prayed for the dismissal of the action for lack of cause of action, it being alleged that plaintiff was already the owner of the house in question, and as said defendants admitted this fact, the claim of the former was already satisfied.

    On October 29,1953, Isabel Iya filed another civil action against the Valinos and the surety company (Civil Case No. 2504 of the Court of First Instance of Manila) stating that pursuant to the contract of mortgage executed by the spouses Valino on October 24, 1952, the latter undertook to pay a loan of P12,000.00 with interest at 12% per annum or P120.00 a month, which indebtedness was payable in 4 years, extendible for only one year; that to secure payment thereof, said defendants mortgaged the house and lot covered by T.C.T. No. 27884 located at No. 67 Baltazar St., Grace Park Subdivision, Caloocan, Rizal; that the Associated Insurance & Surety Co., Inc., was included as a party defendant because it claimed to have an interest on the residential house also covered by said mortgage; that it was stipulated in the aforesaid real estate mortgage that default in the payment of the interest agreed upon would entitle the mortgagee to foreclose the same even before the lapse of the 4-year period; and as defendant spouses had allegedly failed to pay the interest for more than 6 months, plaintiff prayed the Court to order said defendants to pay the sum of P12,000.00 with interest thereon at 12% per annum from March 25, 1953, until fully paid; for an additional sum equivalent to 20% of the total obligation as damages, and for costs. As an alternative in case such demand may not be met and satisfied plaintiff prayed for a decree of foreclosure of the land, building and other improvements thereon to be sold at public auction and the proceeds thereof, applied to satisfy the demands of plaintiff; that the Valinos, the surety company and any other person claiming interest on the mortgaged properties be barred and foreclosed of all rights, claims or equity of redemption in said properties; and for deficiency judgment in case the proceeds of the sale of the mortgaged property would be insufficient to satisfy the claim of plaintiff.

    Defendant surety company, in answer to this complaint insisted on its right over the building, arguing that as the lot on which the house was constructed did not belong to the spouses at the time the chattel mortgage was executed, the house might be considered only as a personal property and that the encumbrance thereof and the subsequent foreclosure proceedings made pursuant to the provisions of the Chattel Mortgage Law were proper and legal. Defendant therefore prayed that said building be excluded from the real estate mortgage and its right over the same be declared superior to that of plaintiff, for damages, attorney’s fees and costs.

    Taking side with the surety company, defendant spouses admitted the due execution of the mortgage upon the land but assailed the allegation that the building was included thereon, it being contended that it was already encumbered in favor of the surety company before the real estate mortgage was executed, a fact made known to plaintiff during the preparation of said contract and to which the latter offered no objection. As a special defense, it was asserted that the action was premature because the contract was for a period of 4 years, which had not yet elapsed.

    The two cases were jointly heard upon agreement of the parties, who submitted the same on a stipulation of facts, after which the Court rendered judgment dated March 8, 1956, holding that the chattel mortgage in favor of the Associated Insurance & Surety Co., Inc., was preferred and superior over the real estate mortgage subsequently executed in favor of Isabel Iya. It was ruled that as the Valinos were not yet the registered owner of the land on which the building in question was constructed at the time the first encumbrance was made, the building then was still a personalty and a chattel mortgage over the same was proper. However, as the mortgagors were already the owners of the lot at the time the contract with Isabel Iya was entered into, the building was transformed into a real property and the real estate mortgage created thereon was likewise adjudged as proper. It is to be noted in this connection that there is no evidence on record to sustain the allegation of the spouses Valino that at the time they mortgaged their house and lot to Isabel Iya, the latter was told or knew that part of the mortgaged property, i.e., the house, had previously been mortgaged to the surety company.

    The residential building was, therefore, ordered excluded from the foreclosure prayed for by Isabel Iya, although the latter could exercise the right of a junior encumbrancer. So the spouses Valino were ordered to pay the amount demanded by said mortgagee or in their default to have the parcel of land subject of the mortgage sold at public auction for the satisfaction of Iya’s claim.

    There is no question as to appellant’s right over the land covered by the real estate mortgage; however, as the building constructed thereon has been the subject of 2 mortgages; controversy arise as to which of these encumbrances should receive preference over the other. The decisive factor in resolving the issue presented by this appeal is the determination of the nature of the structure litigated upon, for where it be considered a personalty, the foreclosure of the chattel mortgage and the subsequent sale thereof at public auction, made in accordance with the Chattel Mortgage Law would be valid and the right acquired by the surety company therefrom would certainly deserve prior recognition; otherwise, appellant’s claim for preference must be granted. The lower Court, deciding in favor of the surety company, based its ruling on the premise that as the mortgagors were not the owners of the land on which the building is erected at the time the first encumbrance was made, said structure partook of the nature of a personal property and could properly be the subject of a chattel mortgage. We find reason to hold otherwise, for as this Court, defining the nature or character of a building, has said:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    ". . . while it is true that generally, real estate connotes the land and the building constructed thereon, it is obvious that the inclusion of the building, separate and distinct from the land, in the enumeration of what may constitute real properties (Art. 415, new Civil Code) could only mean one thing — that a building is by itself an immovable property . . . Moreover, and in view of the absence of any specific provision to the contrary, a building is an immovable property irrespective of whether or not said structure and the land on which it is adhered to belong to the same owner." (Lopez v. Orosa, G. R. Nos. supra, p. 98).

    A building certainly cannot be divested of its character of a realty by the fact that the land on which it is constructed belongs to another. To hold it the other way, the possibility is not remote that it would result in confusion, for to cloak the building with an uncertain status made dependent on the ownership of the land, would create a situation where a permanent fixture changes its nature or character as the ownership of the land changes hands. In the case at bar, as personal properties could only be the subject of a chattel mortgage (Section 1, Act 3952) and as obviously the structure in question is not one, the execution of the chattel mortgage covering said building is clearly invalid and a nullity. While it is true that said document was correspondingly registered in the Chattel Mortgage Register of Rizal, this act produced no effect whatsoever for where the interest conveyed is in the nature of a real property, the registration of the document in the registry of chattels is merely a futile act. Thus, the registration of the chattel mortgage of a building of strong materials produce no effect as far as the building is concerned (Leung Yee v. Strong Machinery Co., 37 Phil., 644). Nor can we give any consideration to the contention of the surety that it has acquired ownership over the property in question by reason of the sale conducted by the Provincial Sheriff of Rizal, for as this Court has aptly pronounced:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

    "A mortgage creditor who purchases real properties at an extrajudicial foreclosure sale thereof by virtue of a chattel mortgage constituted in his favor, which mortgage has been declared null and void with respect to said real properties, acquires no right thereto by virtue of said sale" (De la Riva v. Ah Keo, 60 Phil., 899).

    Wherefore, the portion of the decision of the lower Court in these two cases appealed from holding the rights of the surety company over the building superior to that of Isabel Iya and excluding the building from the foreclosure prayed for by the latter is reversed and appellant Isabel Iya’s right to foreclose not only the land but also the building erected thereon is hereby recognized, and the proceeds of the sale thereof at public auction (if the land has not yet been sold), shall be applied to the unsatisfied judgment in favor of Isabel Iya. This decision however is without prejudice to any right that the Associated Insurance & Surety Co., Inc., may have against the spouses Adriano and Lucia Valino on account of the mortgage of said building they executed in favor of said surety company. Without pronouncement as to costs. It is so ordered.

    Paras, C.J., Bengzon, Montemayor, Reyes, A., Bautista Angelo, Labrador, Concepcion, Reyes, J. B. L. and Endencia, JJ., concur.

    G.R. Nos. L-10837-38   May 30, 1958 - ASSOCIATED INSURANCE & SURETY COMPANY v. ISABEL IYA<br /><br />103 Phil 972


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