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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
June-2003 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. 125297 June 6, 2003 - ELVIRA YU OH v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 143675 June 9, 2003 - SPS. ROMEO and EMILY GUDA v. ALAN A. LEYNES, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 145338 June 9, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ZALDY P. LABIANO

  • A.C. No. 4738 June 10, 2003 - VIOLETA FLORES ALITAGTAG v. VIRGILIO R. GARCIA

  • Bar Matter No. 1036 June 10, 2003 - DONNA MARIE S. AGUIRRE v. EDWIN L. RANA

  • A.M. No. 99-6-81-MTCC June 10, 2003 - REPORT ON THE JUDICIAL AUDIT CONDUCTED IN THE MTCC OF PALAYAN CITY

  • A.M. No. MTJ-99-1203 June 10, 2003 - NELIA A. ZIGA v. RAMON A. AREJOLA

  • A.M. No. P-96-1214 June 10, 2003 - BERNARDINO M. FABIAN, ET AL. v. LEILA (LAILA) M. GALO

  • A.M. No. RTJ-03-1751 June 10, 2003 - ANDREA D. DOMINGO v. ERNESTO P. PAGAYATAN

  • G.R. No. 111159 June 10, 2003 - NORDIC ASIA LIMITED, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116463 June 10, 2003 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. thru the DPWH v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119293 June 10, 2003 - SAN MIGUEL CORP. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123054 June 10, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FAUSTO B. OBEDO

  • G.R. No. 125778 June 10, 2003 - INTER-ASIA INVESTMENTS INDUSTRIES, INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125838 June 10, 2003 - DEVELOPMENT BANK OF THE PHIL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 126281 June 10, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SERGIO A. CARATAO

  • G.R. No. 131842 June 10, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DIONISIO JACKSON

  • G.R. No. 139561 June 10, 2003 - SPS. FEDERICO & SARAH ATUEL, ET AL. v. SPS. BERNABE & CONCHITA VALDEZ

  • G.R. No. 141115 June 10, 2003 - POSADAS-MOYA and ASSOC. CONST. CO. v. GREENFIELD DEV’T. CORP.

  • G.R. No. 142467 June 10, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ABELARDO DE CASTRO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 143076 June 10, 2003 - PHILIPPINE RURAL ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES ASSOCIATION, ET AL. v. SECRETARY, DILG, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 143125 June 10, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL .vs. DIOSDADO R. CORIAL

  • G.R. No. 144157 June 10, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LOWELL SALUDES

  • G.R. Nos. 144523-26 June 10, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FLORENTINO QUIJANO SR.

  • G.R. Nos. 145452-53 June 10, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LARRY CARITATIVO

  • G.R. Nos. 146749 & 147938 June 10, 2003 - CHINA BANKING CORP. v. COURT OF APPEALS

  • G.R. No. 149154 June 10, 2003 - RODOLFO S. DE JESUS, ET AL. v. COMMISSION ON AUDIT

  • G.R. No. 150611 June 10, 2003 - JACINTO SAGUID v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 153660 June 10, 2003 - PRUDENCIO BANTOLINO, ET AL. v. COCA-COLA BOTTLERS PHILS.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-02-1724 June 12, 2003 - RODOLFO O. MACACHOR v. ROLINDO D. BELDIA JR.

  • G.R. No. 138541 June 12, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JOSE LARRY COLONIA

  • G.R. No. 148327 June 12, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMEO P. DESALISA

  • A.M. No. P-03-1679 June 16, 2003 - OFFICE OF THE COURT ADMINISTRATOR v. BEL EDUARDO F. NITAFAN, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. SCC-03-08 June 16, 2003 - ERMELYN A. LIMBONA v. CASAN ALI LIMBONA

  • G.R. No. 95901 June 16, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ANTONIO B. SIBONGA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 138692 June 16, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. OSCAR AREO

  • G.R. Nos. 141280-81 June 16, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RICKY L. SODSOD, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 144589 June 16, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JUANITO PACUANCUAN

  • G.R. No. 149683 June 16, 2003 - ILOILO TRADERS FINANCE INC. v. HEIRS OF OSCAR SORIANO JR., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 149750 June 16, 2003 - AURORA ALCANTARA-DAUS v. SPS. HERMOSO & SOCORRO DE LEON

  • A.M. No. MTJ-96-1106 June 17, 2003 - CELESTINA B. CORPUZ v. ORLANDO ANA F. SIAPNO

  • A.M. No. RTJ-02-1710 June 17, 2003 - EVANGELINA C. SAMSON v. JULES A. MEDIA

  • A.M. No. RTJ-03-1784 June 17, 2003 - MANUEL M. ROSALES v. ROMULO S.G. VILLANUEVA

  • G.R. No. 123146 June 17, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALONA BULI-E, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 128225 June 17, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DANTE A. NARRA

  • G.R. No. 137042 June 17, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FELIPE MUSA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 144225 June 17, 2003 - SPS. GODOFREDO and CARMEN ALFREDO v. SPS. ARMANDO and ADELIA BORRAS

  • G.R. No. 145993 June 17, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RUFINO I. MALLARI

  • G.R. No. 148668 June 17, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. TONY L. PEDRONAN

  • G.R. No. 151440 June 17, 2003 - HEIRS OF SIMPLICIO SANTIAGO v. HEIRS OF MARIANO E. SANTIAGO

  • A.M. No. MTJ-03-1493 June 18, 2003 - RENE BOY GOMEZ v. MANUEL D. PATALINGHUG, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 123161 June 18, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LIBERATO SOLAMILLO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 125305 June 18, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. BERNABE MONTEMAYOR

  • G.R. Nos. 127756-58 June 18, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. BENJAMIN P. MEDINA SR.

  • G.R. Nos. 131926 & 138991 June 18, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MICHAEL U. PAGALASAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 134981 June 18, 2003 - FREDELITO P. VITTO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 135857 June 18, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ADRIANO ARCA

  • G.R. Nos. 140439-40 June 18, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FELIX HERMOSA

  • G.R. No. 144975 June 18, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. AMADOR SAPIGAO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 149147 June 18, 2003 - FELIX BAROT v. COMELEC CITY BOARD OF CANVASSERS OF TANJAY CITY, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 150327 June 18, 2003 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. MARILYN A. PERALTA, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. 01-6-314-RTC June 19, 2003 - RE: REQUEST OF JUDGE ROBERTO S. JAVELLANA, RTC-BR. 59, SAN CARLOS CITY

  • A.M. No. MTJ-92-710 June 19, 2003 - PEDRITA M. HARAYO v. JUDGE MAMERTO Y. COLIFLORES

  • G.R. No. 154411 June 19, 2003 - NATIONAL HOUSING AUTHORITY v. HEIRS OF ISIDRO GUIVELONDO, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. P-03-1701 June 20, 2003 - BALTAZAR LL. FIRMALO v. MELINDA C. QUIERREZ

  • A.M. No. RTJ-00-1594 June 20, 2003 - PASTOR SALUD v. FLORENTINO M. ALUMBRES

  • G.R. No. 122766 June 20, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FELIPE ESPONILLA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 127275 June 20, 2003 - PHILIPPINE COMMERCIAL INTERNATIONAL BANK v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 130759 June 20, 2003 - ASIATRUST DEVELOPMENT BANK v. CONCEPTS TRADING CORP.

  • G.R. No. 139332 June 20, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL v. NOLI A. NOVIO

  • G.R. No. 140698 June 20, 2003 - ROGELIO ENGADA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 142503 June 20, 2003 - ROMUALDO C. PEREZ v. APOLONIO CRUZ

  • G.R. No. 142820 June 20, 2003 - WOLFGANG O. ROEHR v. MARIA CARMEN D. RODRIGUEZ, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 143604 June 20, 2003 - PRISCO LANZADERAS, ET AL. v. AMETHYST SECURITY AND GENERAL SERVICES, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 146595 June 20, 2003 - CARLO A. TAN v. KAAKBAY FINANCE CORP., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 152436 June 20, 2003 - NPC v. SPS. IGMEDIO CHIONG, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 152766 June 20, 2003 - LILIA SANCHEZ v. COURT OF APPEALS

  • G.R. No. 140872 June 23, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PABLITO T. INGGO

  • G.R. Nos. 142683-84 June 23, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SERGIO JOROLAN

  • G.R. Nos. 143760-63 June 23, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMEO B. MANLUCTAO

  • G.R. No. 144018 June 23, 2003 - FAR EAST BANK AND TRUST CO. v. TOMAS TOH, SR., ET AL.

  • A.C. No. 3849 June 25, 2003 - FELICIDAD VDA. DE BERNARDO v. JOSE R. RESTAURO

  • G.R. Nos. 105416-17, 111863 & 143715 June 25, 2003 - PHILIPP BROTHERS OCEANIC, INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122109 June 25, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JESUS TORIO

  • G.R. No. 123896 June 25, 2003 - ROSALINDA SERRANO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 126113 June 25, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ANTONIO B. GUIHAMA

  • G.R. No. 135323 June 25, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EDELMA LAGATA

  • G.R. No. 136773 June 25, 2003 - MILAGROS MANONGSONG v. FELOMENA JUMAQUIO ESTIMO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 146018 June 25, 2003 - EDGAR COKALIONG SHIPPING LINES v. UCPB GENERAL INSURANCE COMPANY

  • G.R. Nos. 147589 & 147613 June 25, 2003 - ANG BAGONG BAYANI-OFW LABOR PARTY v. COMELEC, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. P-01-1472 June 26, 2003 - ADRIANO V. ALBIOR v. DONATO A. AUGUIS

  • A.M. No. P-02-1544 June 26, 2003 - ERNESTO LUMANTA v. WILFREDO M. TUPAS

  • A.M. No. RTJ-02-1670 June 26, 2003 - SPS. CAROLINA AND VILLAMOR GRAGERA v. PABLO B. FRANCISCO

  • A.M. No. RTJ-02-1736 June 26, 2003 - SPS. ARTURO and JOSEFINA DE GUZMAN v. FERNANDO VIL PAMINTUAN

  • A.M. No. RTJ-99-1519 June 26, 2003 - GREGORIO LIMPOT LUMAPAS v. CAMILO E. TAMIN

  • G.R. No. 137296 June 26, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DIONISIO Q. VICENTE

  • G.R. No. 140967 June 26, 2003 - EMERITA ACOSTA v. EMILIO ENRIQUEZ

  • G.R. No. 141863 June 26, 2003 - BASILIO RIVERA, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 144090 June 26, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MICHAEL S. MAGUING

  • G.R. No. 145305 June 26, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. REDANTE C. SANTOS

  • G.R. No. 145731 June 26, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. GREGORIO GERAL, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 148730 June 26, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JOSE D. DELA CRUZ, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 154705 June 26, 2003 - REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA, ET AL. v. JAMES VINZON

  • G.R. No. 121828 June 27, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RENE GAYOT PILOLA

  • G.R. Nos. 124830-31 June 27, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. GERARDO P. EVINA

  • G.R. No. 138993 June 27, 2003 - PHILIPPINE VETERANS BANK v. SANTIAGO G. ESTRELLA, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 139217–24 June 27, 2003 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. NELSON ESPERANZA

  • G.R. No. 143643 June 27, 2003 - NATIONAL POWER CORPORATION v. SPS. JOSE & MA. CLARA CAMPOS

  •  





     
     

    G.R. No. 125778   June 10, 2003 - INTER-ASIA INVESTMENTS INDUSTRIES, INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

     
    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    THIRD DIVISION

    [G.R. No. 125778. June 10, 2003.]

    INTER-ASIA INVESTMENTS INDUSTRIES, INC., Petitioner, v. COURT OF APPEALS and ASIA INDUSTRIES, INC., Respondents.

    D E C I S I O N


    CARPIO MORALES, J.:


    The present petition for review on certiorari assails the Court of Appeals Decision 1 of January 25, 1996 and Resolution 2 of July 11, 1996.cralaw : red

    The material facts of the case are as follows:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    On September 1, 1978, Inter-Asia Industries, Inc. (petitioner), by a Stock Purchase Agreement 3 (the Agreement), sold to Asia Industries, Inc. (private respondent) for and in consideration of the sum of P19,500,000.00 all its right, title and interest in and to all the outstanding shares of stock of FARMACOR, INC. (FARMACOR). 4 The Agreement was signed by Leonides P. Gonzales and Jesus J. Vergara, presidents of petitioner and private respondent, respectively. 5

    Under paragraph 7 of the Agreement, petitioner as seller made warranties and representations among which were" (iv.) [t]he audited financial statements of FARMACOR at and for the year ended December 31, 1977 . . . and the audited financial statements of FARMACOR as of September 30, 1978 being prepared by S[ycip,] G[orres,] V[elayo and Co.] . . . fairly present or will present the financial position of FARMACOR and the results of its operations as of said respective dates; said financial statements show or will show all liabilities and commitments of FARMACOR, direct or contingent, as of said respective dates . . ." ; and" (v.) [t]he Minimum Guaranteed Net Worth of FARMACOR as of September 30, 1978 shall be Twelve Million Pesos (P12,000,000.00)." 6

    The Agreement was later amended with respect to the "Closing Date," originally set up at 10:00 a.m. of September 30, 1978, which was moved to October 31, 1978, and to the mode of payment of the purchase price. 7

    The Agreement, as amended, provided that pending submission by SGV of FARMACOR’s audited financial statements as of October 31, 1978, private respondent may retain the sum of P7,500,000.00 out of the stipulated purchase price of P19,500,000.00; that from this retained amount of P7,500,000.00, private respondent may deduct any shortfall on the Minimum Guaranteed Net Worth of P12,000,000.00; 8 and that if the amount retained is not sufficient to make up for the deficiency in the Minimum Guaranteed Net Worth, petitioner shall pay the difference within 5 days from date of receipt of the audited financial statements. 9

    Respondent paid petitioner a total amount of P12,000,000.00: P5,000,000.00 upon the signing of the Agreement, and P7,000,000.00 on November 2, 1978. 10

    From the STATEMENT OF INCOME AND DEFICIT attached to the financial report 11 dated November 28, 1978 submitted by SGV, it appears that FARMACOR had, for the ten months ended October 31, 1978, a deficit of P11,244,225.00. 12 Since the stockholder’s equity amounted to P10,000,000.00, FARMACOR had a net worth deficiency of P1,244,225.00. The guaranteed net worth shortfall thus amounted to P13,244,225.00 after adding the net worth deficiency of P1,244,225.00 to the Minimum Guaranteed Net Worth of P12,000,000.00.

    The adjusted contract price, therefore, amounted to P6,225,775.00 which is the difference between the contract price of P19,500,000.00 and the shortfall in the guaranteed net worth of P13,224,225.00. Private respondent having already paid petitioner P12,000,000.00, it was entitled to a refund of P5,744,225.00.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    Petitioner thereafter proposed, by letter 13 of January 24, 1980, signed by its president, that private respondent’s claim for refund be reduced to P4,093,993.00, it promising to pay the cost of the Northern Cotabato Industries, Inc. (NOCOSII) superstructures in the amount of P759,570.00. To the proposal respondent agreed. Petitioner, however, welched on its promise. Petitioner’s total liability thus stood at P4,853,503.00 (P4,093,993.00 plus P759,570.00) 14 exclusive of interest. 15

    On April 5, 1983, private respondent filed a complaint 16 against petitioner with the Regional Trial Court of Makati, one of two causes of action of which was for the recovery of above-said amount of P4,853,503.00 17 plus interest.

    Denying private respondent’s claim, petitioner countered that private respondent failed to pay the balance of the purchase price and accordingly set up a counterclaim.

    Finding for private respondent, the trial court rendered on November 27, 1991 a Decision, 18 the dispositive portion of which reads:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    WHEREFORE, judgment is rendered in favor of plaintiff and against defendant (a) ordering the latter to pay to the former the sum of P4,853,503.00 19 plus interest thereon at the legal rate from the filing of the complaint until fully paid, the sum of P30,000.00 as attorney’s fees and the costs of suit; and (b) dismissing the counterclaim.

    SO ORDERED.

    On appeal to the Court of Appeals, petitioner raised the following errors:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    THE TRIAL COURT ERRED IN HOLDING THE DEFENDANT LIABLE UNDER THE FIRST CAUSE OF ACTION PLEADED BY THE PLAINTIFF.

    THE TRIAL COURT ERRED IN AWARDING ATTORNEY’S FEES AND IN DISMISSING THE COUNTERCLAIM.

    THE TRIAL COURT ERRED IN RENDERING JUDGMENT IN FAVOR OF THE PLAINTIFF, THE ALLEGED BREACH OF WARRANTIES AND REPRESENTATION NOT HAVING BEEN SHOWN, MUCH LESS ESTABLISHED BY THE PLAINTIFF. 20

    By Decision of January 25, 1996, the Court of Appeals affirmed the trial court’s decision. Petitioner’s motion for reconsideration of the decision having been denied by the Court of Appeals by Resolution of July 11, 1996, the present petition for review on certiorari was filed, assigning the following errors:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    I


    THE RESPONDENT COURT ERRED IN NOT HOLDING THAT THE LETTER OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE PETITIONER IS NOT BINDING ON THE PETITIONER BEING ULTRA VIRES.

    II


    THE LETTER CAN NOT BE AN ADMISSION AND WAIVER OF THE PETITIONER AS A CORPORATION.

    III


    THE RESPONDENT COURT ERRED IN NOT DECLARING THAT THERE IS NO BREACH OF WARRANTIES AND REPRESENTATION AS ALLEGED BY THE PRIVATE RESPONDENT.

    IV


    THE RESPONDENT COURT ERRED IN ORDERING THE PETITIONER TO PAY ATTORNEY’S FEES AND IN SUSTAINING THE DISMISSAL OF THE COUNTERCLAIM. 18 (Emphasis in the original)chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    Petitioner argues that the January 24, 1980 letter-proposal (for the reduction of private respondent’s claim for refund upon petitioner’s promise to pay the cost of NOCOSII superstructures in the amount of P759,570.00) which was signed by its president has no legal force and effect against it as it was not authorized by its board of directors, it citing the Corporation Law which provides that unless the act of the president is authorized by the board of directors, the same is not binding on it.

    This Court is not persuaded.

    The January 24, 1980 letter signed by petitioner’s president is valid and binding. The case of People’s Aircargo and Warehousing Co., Inc. v. Court of Appeals 19 instructs:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    The general rule is that, in the absence of authority from the board of directors, no person, not even its officers, can validly bind a corporation. A corporation is a juridical person, separate and distinct from its stockholders and members, "having . . . powers, attributes and properties expressly authorized by law or incident to its existence."cralaw virtua1aw library

    Being a juridical entity, a corporation may act through its board of directors, which exercises almost all corporate powers, lays down all corporate business policies and is responsible for the efficiency of management, as provided in Section 23 of the Corporation Code of the Philippines:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    SEC. 23. The Board of Directors or Trustees. — Unless otherwise provided in this Code, the corporate powers of all corporations formed under this Code shall be exercised, all business conducted and all property of such corporations controlled and held by the board of directors or trustees . . ..

    Under this provision, the power and responsibility to decide whether the corporation should enter into a contract that will bind the corporation is lodged in the board, subject to the articles of incorporation, bylaws, or relevant provisions of law. However, just as a natural person may authorize another to do certain acts for and on his behalf, the board of directors may validly delegate some of its functions and powers to officers, committees or agents. The authority of such individuals to bind the corporation is generally derived from law, corporate bylaws or authorization from the board, either expressly or impliedly by habit, custom or acquiescence in the general course of business, viz:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    A corporate officer or agent may represent and bind the corporation in transactions with third persons to the extent that [the] authority to do so has been conferred upon him, and this includes powers as, in the usual course of the particular business, are incidental to, or may be implied from, the powers intentionally conferred, powers added by custom and usage, as usually pertaining to the particular officer or agent, and such apparent powers as the corporation has caused person dealing with the officer or agent to believe that it has conferred.

    x       x       x


    [A]pparent authority is derived not merely from practice. Its existence may be ascertained through (1) the general manner in which the corporation holds out an officer or agent as having the power to act or, in other words the apparent authority to act in general, with which it clothes him; or (2) the acquiescence in his acts of a particular nature, with actual or constructive knowledge thereof, within or beyond the scope of his ordinary powers. It requires presentation of evidence of similar acts executed either in its favor or in favor of other parties. It is not the quantity of similar acts which establishes apparent authority, but the vesting of a corporate officer with the power to bind the corporation.

    . . . (Emphasis and Italics supplied)

    As correctly argued by private respondent, an officer of a corporation who is authorized to purchase the stock of another corporation has the implied power to perform all other obligations arising therefrom, such as payment of the shares of stock. By allowing its president to sign the Agreement on its behalf, petitioner clothed him with apparent capacity to perform all acts which are expressly, impliedly and inherently stated therein. 21

    Petitioner further argues that when the Agreement was executed on September 1, 1978, its financial statements were extensively examined and accepted as correct by private respondent, hence, it cannot later be disproved "by resorting to some scheme such as future financial auditing;" 22 and that it should not be bound by the SGV Report because it is self-serving and biased, SGV having been hired solely by private respondent, and the alleged shortfall of FARMACOR occurred only after the execution of the Agreement.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    This Court is not persuaded either.

    The pertinent provisions of the Agreement read:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    7. Warranties and Representations — (a) SELLER warrants and represents as follows:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    x       x       x


    (iv) The audited financial statements of FARMACOR as at and for the year ended December 31, 1977 and the audited financial statements of FARMACOR as at September 30, 1978 being prepared by SGV pursuant to paragraph 6(b) fairly present or will present the financial position of FARMACOR and the results of its operations as of said respective dates; said financial statements show or will show all liabilities and commitments of FARMACOR, direct or contingent, as of said respective dates; and the receivables set forth in said financial statements are fully due and collectible, free and clear of any set-offs, defenses, claims and other impediments to their collectibility.

    (v) The Minimum Guaranteed Net Worth of FARMACOR as of September 30, 1978 shall be Twelve Million Pesos (P12,000,000.00), Philippine Currency.

    . . . (Emphasis in the original; Emphasis supplied) 23

    True, private respondent accepted as correct the financial statements submitted to it when the Agreement was executed on September 1, 1978. But petitioner expressly warranted that the SGV Reports "fairly present or will present the financial position of FARMACOR." By such warranty, petitioner is estopped from claiming that the SGV Reports are self-serving and biased.

    As to the claim that the shortfall occurred after the execution of the Agreement, the declaration of Emmanuel de Asis, supervisor in the Accounting Division of SGV and head of the team which conducted the auditing of FARMACOR, that the period covered by the audit was from January to October 1978 shows that the period before the Agreement was entered into (on September 1, 1978) was covered. 24

    As to petitioner’s assigned error on the award of attorney’s fees which, it argues, is bereft of factual, legal and equitable justification, this Court finds the same well-taken.

    On the matter of attorney’s fees, it is an accepted doctrine that the award thereof as an item of damages is the exception rather than the rule, and counsel’s fees are not to be awarded every time a party wins a suit. The power of the court to award attorney’s fees under Article 2208 of the Civil Code demands factual, legal and equitable justification, without which the award is a conclusion without a premise, its basis being improperly left to speculation and conjecture. In all events, the court must explicitly state in the text of the decision, and not only in the decretal portion thereof, the legal reason for the award of attorney’s fees.25cralaw:red

    . . . (Emphasis and Italics supplied; Citations omitted)

    WHEREFORE, the instant petition is PARTLY GRANTED. The assailed decision of the Court of Appeals affirming that of the trial court is modified in that the award of attorney’s fees in favor of private respondent is deleted. The decision is affirmed in other respects.chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary

    SO ORDERED.

    Puno, Panganiban, Sandoval-Gutierrez and Corona, JJ., concur.

    Endnotes:



    1. Rollo at 29–42.

    2. Id. at 44–45.

    3. Records at 9–23.

    4. Id. at 10–11.

    5. Id. at 22.

    6. Id. at 16–17.

    7. Exhibits "G-1", "G-2", "G-3" ; Records at 586–593.

    8. Ibid.

    9. Records at 12.

    10. Rollo at 12 and 82.

    11. Records at 322–327.

    12. Id. at 324–325.

    13. Exhibit "G-6" ; Records at 598–604.

    14. P4,853,503.00 is the amount prayed for in the complaint but it is noted that the total amount of these figures is P4,853,563.00.

    15. Id. at 13; Records at 4.

    16. Records at 1–25.

    17. See footnote 14.

    18. Id. at 757–760.

    19. See footnote 14. Plaintiff did not move to reconsider the amount adjudged to it.

    20. Rollo at 14.

    18. Id. at 15.

    19. 297 SCRA 170 (1998).

    21. Rollo at 92–93.

    22. Id. at 21.

    23. Records at 17–18.

    24. Transcript of Stenographic Notes, July 27, 1988 at 5.

    25. Central Azucarera de Bais v. CA, 188 SCRA 328 (1990).

    G.R. No. 125778   June 10, 2003 - INTER-ASIA INVESTMENTS INDUSTRIES, INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.


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