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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
July-1996 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. 116600 July 3, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. REYNALDO LANDICHO

  • G.R. No. 119527 July 3, 1996 - EVELYN J. GARCIA v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121910 July 3, 1996 - NATIONAL WATERWORKS AND SEWERAGE AUTHORITY, ET AL. v. NLRC

  • G.R. Nos. 98121-22 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMEO R. SALAZAR

  • G.R. No. 100629 July 5, 1996 - ENELYN E. PEÑA, ET AL. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 100699 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. EDGAR C. GUTIERREZ

  • G.R. No. 102377 July 5, 1996 - ALFREDO SAJONAS, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 102998 July 5, 1996 - BA FINANCE CORPORATION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 105583 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ELEUTERIO TAMPON

  • G.R. No. 106296 July 5, 1996 - ISABELO T. CRISOSTOMO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 106413 July 5, 1996 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. TACLOBAN CITY ICE PLANT, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 107698 July 5, 1996 - GLORIA Z. GARBO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 107824 July 5, 1996 - SUPERCLEAN SERVICES CORPORATION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 109173 July 5, 1996 - CITY OF CEBU v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111324 July 5, 1996 - ROMAN CATHOLIC ARCHBISHOP OF MANILA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111549 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ARTEMIO P. ORTALEZA

  • G.R. Nos. 113178 & 114777 July 5, 1996 - RADIO COMMUNICATIONS OF THE PHIL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113549 July 5, 1996 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113827 July 5, 1996 - PHILIPPINE AIRLINES INC. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 113948 July 5, 1996 - ARMANDO NICOLAS v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 114002 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ELEUTERIO C. COMPENDIO, JR.

  • G.R. No. 115216 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DAVID CABILES

  • G.R. No. 115825 July 5, 1996 - FRANKLIN DRILON v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116208 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ESMAEL SALIDO

  • G.R. No. 116693 July 5, 1996 - PURITA DE LA PEÑA, ET AL. v. PEDRO R. DE LA PEÑA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118203 July 5, 1996 - EMILIO A. SALAZAR, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118231 July 5, 1996 - VICTORIA L. BATIQUIN, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS

  • G.R. No. 118284 July 5, 1996 - MAMERTO REFUGIA, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118562 July 5, 1996 - ANGLO-KMU v. SAMANA BAY, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118691 July 5, 1996 - ALEJANDRO BAYOG, ET AL. v. ANTONIO M. NATINO, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 118712 & 118745 July 5, 1996 - LAND BANK OF THE PHIL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118824 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMEO GARCIA

  • G.R. No. 119069 July 5, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DANILO EXCIJA

  • G.R. No. 119845 July 5, 1996 - ANTONIO M. GARCIA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120949 July 5, 1996 - ARACELI RAMOS FONTANILLA v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL.

  • G.R. No. 121180 July 5, 1996 - GERARD A. MOSQUERA v. DELIA H. PANGANIBAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121592 July 5, 1996 - ROLANDO P. DELA TORRE v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122807 July 5, 1996 - ROGELIO P. MENDIOLA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. RTJ-91-712 July 9, 1996 - BEN D. MARCES, SR. v. PAUL T. ARCANGEL

  • G.R. No. 88189 July 9, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. TIBURCIO ABALOS

  • G.R. No. 103922 July 9, 1996 - SANTIAGO LAND DEVELOPMENT COMPANY v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 104312 July 9, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MARIO CABALLERO

  • G.R. No. 109563 July 9, 1996 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 114058 July 10, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ZALDY B. FRANCISCO

  • G.R. No. 74495 July 11, 1996 - DUMEZ COMPANY, ET AL. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 80437-38 July 11, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROBERTO B. ABORDO

  • G.R. Nos. 94376-77 July 11, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ELMER O. BELGA

  • G.R. No. 103174 July 11, 1996 - AMADO B. TEODORO v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 103968 July 11, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DIMSON M. GARDE

  • G.R. No. 104860 July 11, 1996 - CITYTRUST BANKING CORPORATION v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 106418 July 11, 1996 - DANIEL L. BORBON II, ET AL. v. SERVICEWIDE SPECIALISTS, INC., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 109156 July 11, 1996 - STOLT-NIELSEN MARINE SERVICES (PHILS.) INC. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 110207 July 11, 1996 - FLORENTINO REYES, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116221 July 11, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALEJANDRO G. GABRIS

  • Adm. Matter No. P-93-995 July 12, 1996 - ROBERTO JALBUENA v. EGARDO GELLADA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 88126 July 12, 1996 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 96795 July 12, 1996 - ANTONIO M. CORRAL v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 108926 July 12, 1996 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 116128 & 116461 July 12, 1996 - ALLIED BANKING CORP. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 121139 July 12, 1996 - ISIDRO B. GARCIA v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 88822 July 15, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALEJANDRO M. TUVILLA

  • G.R. No. 117661 July 15, 1996 - DANIEL VILLANUEVA, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 83437-38 July 17, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. WILFREDO R. GUARIN

  • G.R. No. 98458 July 17, 1996 - COCOLAND DEV. CORP. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 102037 July 17, 1996 - MELANIO IMPERIAL v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 106977 July 17, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. AQUILIO ACABO

  • G.R. Nos. 109396-97 July 17, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROMEO S. OARGA

  • G.R. No. 114795 July 17, 1996 - LUCITA Q. GARCES v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116728 July 17, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RODELIO S. CRUZ

  • G.R. No. 120496 July 17, 1996 - FIVE STAR BUS CO., INC., ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. MTJ-96-1088 July 19, 1996 - RODOLFO G. v. HERNANDO C. DOMAGTOY

  • G.R. Nos. 70168-69 July 24, 1996 - RAFAEL T. MOLINA, ET AL. v. PEOPLE OF THE PHIL., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 95940 July 24, 1996 - PANTRANCO NORTH EXPRESS, INC. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 108052 July 24, 1996 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 110241 July 24, 1996 - ASIA BREWERY, INC. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 115008-09 July 24, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DANIEL C. QUIJADA

  • G.R. No. 120043 July 24, 1996 - AMERICAN HOME ASSURANCE CO., ET AL v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120099 July 24, 1996 - EDUARDO T. RODRIGUEZ v. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 120303 July 24, 1996 - FEDERICO GEMINIANO, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET Al.

  • Adm. Matter No. RTJ-96-1336 July 25, 1996 - JOCELYN TALENS-DABON v. HERMIN E. ARCEO

  • G.R. No. 95223 July 26, 1996 - ALLIED BANKING CORPORATION v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 105673 July 26, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ANTONIO MAGANA

  • G.R. Nos. 105690-91 July 26, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL v. RODOLFO CAGUIOA, SR.

  • G.R. No. 110731 July 26, 1996 - SHOPPERS GAIN SUPERMART, ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111127 July 26, 1996 - ENGRACIO FABRE, JR., ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 112175 July 26, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RODOLFO DIAZ

  • G.R. Nos. 114280 & 115224 July 26, 1996 - PHILIPPINE AIRLINES, INC. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 115683 July 26, 1996 - DELIA MANUEL v. DAVID ALFECHE, JR., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118434 July 26, 1996 - SIXTA C. LIM v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119225 July 26, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RODRIGO G. ABUTIN

  • G.R. No. 119328 July 26, 1996 - PROVIDENT INT’L. RESOURCES INC. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119673 July 26, 1996 - IGLESIA NI CRISTO (INC.) v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. MTJ-93-783 July 29, 1996 - OFFICE OF THE COURT ADMINISTRATOR v. FILOMENO PASCUAL

  • G.R. Nos. 97556 & 101152 July 29, 1996 - DAMASO S. FLORES v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 111639 July 29, 1996 - MIDAS TOUCH FOOD CORPORATION v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 114313 July 29, 1996 - MGG MARINE SERVICES, INC., ET AL. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • Adm. Matter No. P-95-1148 July 30, 1996 - PEDRO ROQUE, ET AL. v. ZENAIDA GRIMALDO

  • G.R. No. 102557 July 30, 1996 - ALFONSO D. ZAMORA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 108028 July 30, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. CRISTINA M. HERNANDEZ

  • G.R. No. 116512 July 30, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LEOPOLDO BACANG, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116542 July 30, 1996 - HONGKONG AND SHANGHAI BANKING CORP. v. NLRC, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 118590 July 30, 1996 - D.M. CONSUNJI, INC. v. RAMON S. ESGUERRA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122241 July 30, 1996 - BOARD OF OPTOMETRY, ET AL. v. ANGEL B COLET, ET. AL.

  • G.R. Nos. 111517-19 July 31, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ROGER N. AUSTRIA

  • G.R. No. 112233 July 31, 1996 - COKALIONG SHIPPING LINES v. OMAR U. AMIN

  • G.R. No. 112611 July 31, 1996 - CLARA ATONG VDA. DE PANALIGAN, ET AL. v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 116015 July 31, 1996 - GOVERNMENT SERVICE INSURANCE SYSTEM v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 119306 July 31, 1996 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. DANTE BELTRAN

  • G.R. No. 121917 July 31, 1996 - ROBIN CARIÑO PADILLA v. COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122274 July 31, 1996 - SUSAN V. LLENES v. ISAIAS P. DICDICAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 122749 July 31, 1996 - ANTONIO A. S. VALDES v. RTC, BRANCH 102, QUEZON CITY, ET AL.

  •  





     
     

    G.R. No. 100629   July 5, 1996 - ENELYN E. PEÑA, ET AL. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

     
    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    SECOND DIVISION

    [G.R. No. 100629. July 5, 1996.]

    ENELYN E. PEÑA, ERLINDA A. BIRON, FLORDELIZA A. ABOGADO, ROSARIO A. RAÑA, MA. LUISA P. LANUZA and JOSEPHINE S. DELA CRUZ, Petitioners, v. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, NAGA PAROCHIAL SCHOOL, MSGR. JAIME M. SAN ANDRES and FLAVEL C. FAVOREAL, Respondents.


    SYLLABUS


    1. LABOR AND SOCIAL LEGISLATION; TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT; GROUNDS; SCHOOLS HAS THE PREROGATIVE TO SET HIGH STANDARDS OF EFFICIENCY FOR ITS TEACHERS AS LONG AS IT IS REASONABLE AND NOT ARBITRARY. — It is the prerogative of the school to set high standards of efficiency for its teachers since quality education is a mandate of the Constitution. As long as the standards fixed are reasonable and not arbitrary, courts are not at liberty to set them aside. Schools cannot be required to adopt standards which barely satisfy criteria set for government recognition.

    2. ID.; POLICY OF THE STATE; SECURITY OF TENURE; CANNOT BE USED TO SHIELD INCOMPETENCE OR DEPRIVE AN EMPLOYER OF ITS PREROGATIVE TO DISMISS AN EMPLOYEE FOR FAILURE TO MEET REASONABLE STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE. — Petitioners argue that termination of employment is such a harsh and drastic measure to take against them. Petitioners were given sufficient time (three years), however, within which to make the necessary adjustment and self-improvement, but they failed to come up to the school’s standards. It would be an act of oppression against the employer for courts to compel private respondent to retain petitioners in its faculty even when it is clear that they cannot meet reasonable standards. Security of tenure, while constitutionally guaranteed, cannot be used to shield incompetence or deprive an employer of its prerogatives under the law. We think the grant of separation pay to petitioners, while vindicating the employer’s prerogative to set reasonable standards of performance, at the same time sufficiently gives recognition for past services of petitioners. The demands of justice are thus satisfied.


    D E C I S I O N


    MENDOZA, J.:


    This is a petition for certiorari to set aside the decision, dated December 28, 1990, of the National Labor Relations Commission reversing the decision of the Labor Arbiter and sustaining the termination of petitioners’ employment.

    Petitioners were teachers at the Naga Parochial School in Naga City. They had been employed there for more than three years and, as a consequence, had enjoyed permanent status. On May 4, 1988, however, they were given notice of the termination of their employment on the ground that they had failed to obtain a minimum efficiency rating of 85% in the two previous schoolyears as required in the teacher’s manual of respondent school.

    Petitioners filed a complaint for illegal dismissal which the Labor Arbiter, after hearing, found to be well founded. Among other things, the Labor Arbiter held that the criteria used to determine the efficiency rating of petitioners were unclear and arbitrary. Accordingly, they were ordered reinstated and paid backwages and attorney’s fees.

    On appeal, the NLRC reversed on the ground that the petitioners had been sufficiently warned after failing to obtain the required efficiency rating in the two preceding schoolyears (1985-1986 and 1986-1987) and given time to improve their skills and performance. Nonetheless, considering the length of service of petitioners, the NLRC awarded them separation pay equal to one month for every year of service.

    In the present petition, petitioners invoke the Manual of Regulations for Private Schools of the Department of Education (1970), pursuant to which full-time teachers, who have rendered three consecutive years of satisfactory service, are considered permanent and entitled to security of tenure. They contend that their employment could be terminated only on the ground of gross incompetence or inefficiency and that, although their performance ratings were below 85%, they should be considered above satisfactory. Petitioners’ ratings are as follows:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    PETITIONERS SY 1985-1986 SY 1986-1987 SY 1987-1988

    Enelyn E. Peña 83 83 81.23

    Erlinda A. Biron 82 82 79.25

    Flordeliza A. Abogado 82 84 83.01

    Rosario A. Raña 77 84 80.01

    Ma. Luisa P. Lanuza 78 84 82.33

    Josephine S. dela Cruz 77 84 80.02

    Petitioners claim that the NLRC gravely abused its discretion in approving the termination of their employment. They maintain that the criteria used by the respondent school for rating them were unreasonable.

    We find the petition to be without merit.

    First. Petitioners argue that to require a minimum efficiency rating of 85% is unreasonable and unfair because, by any other standard, the average grade is 75%.

    This contention is untenable. It is the prerogative of the school to set high standards of efficiency for its teachers since quality education is a mandate of the Constitution. 1 As long as the standards fixed are reasonable and not arbitrary, courts are not at liberty to set them aside. Schools cannot be required to adopt standards which barely satisfy criteria set for government recognition. 2

    Petitioners do not complain of unreasonable grading by school authorities. The fact is that the evaluation of their performance left nothing to be desired. As private respondent explains, the following procedure was followed in evaluating teacher performance:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    Teacher performance is evaluated by a panel composed of the Principal, Assistant Principal, Area Coordinators, the Prefect of Discipline, the Registrar and the Student Activity Program Coordinator. The minimum number of evaluators for each teacher is eight and the maximum is ten. In addition, there is a system of "peer evaluation" for demonstration teaching and grade level coordinatorship and "self-evaluation" on unannounced observation (classroom), and personality traits. After the announced and unannounced visits are completed, a post conference with area coordinators is held to assess and evaluate the results.

    In the evaluation of teachers’ efficiency, not only the performance in actual teaching is considered but, in addition, such other factors as personality traits, educational attainment, professional growth, pupils’ management and discipline, preparation/submission of reports, and teaching experience are taken into account. 3

    Petitioners have not disputed the school’s claim that, after each evaluation period, they were informed of their ratings and invited to examine their grades and discuss them with the evaluators but petitioners did not object to the ratings they received.

    What petitioners complain against is that the criteria by which their performances were evaluated varied from year to year as shown by the fact that prior to the schoolyear 1985-1986, a rating of 85% was considered "good" and not merely "satisfactory." Petitioners have not shown, however, how such description could affect the numerical ratings given to them, which appear to be the real basis for the evaluation of their performance. Indeed, when the evaluation system was first included in the teacher’s manual in 1984 for the purpose of upgrading the competence of faculty members, petitioners did not object. The criteria for evaluation of teacher performance were presented and explained to the teachers and the staff prior to their implementation. 4 Neither did petitioners object to the ratings given to them. They did so only after they had been given notice of termination.

    We are satisfied that petitioners’ employment was terminated for a just and legal cause. Their fear that, in the future, unachievable standards might be imposed by the school as a scheme to ease out tenured members of the faculty is unfounded. The fact is that the evidence in this case does not bear out petitioners’ misgivings. To the contrary, it appears that only the six petitioners, out of the school’s 47 teachers, failed to obtain the grade of 85%, which proves that the rating is neither unattainable nor unrealistic. Anyway, if in the future petitioners’ fears prove to be real and not merely imagined, there are appropriate agencies for the redress of grievances.

    Second. Petitioners argue that termination of employment is such a harsh and drastic measure to take against them. Petitioners were given sufficient time (three years), however, within which to make the necessary adjustment and self-improvement, but they failed to come up to the school’s standard. It would be an act of oppression against the employer for courts to compel private respondent to retain petitioners in its faculty even when it is clear that they cannot meet reasonable standards. Security of tenure, while constitutionally guaranteed, cannot be used to shield incompetence or deprive an employer of its prerogatives under the law. We think the grant of separation pay to petitioners, while vindicating the employer’s prerogative to set reasonable standards of performance, at the same time sufficiently gives recognition for past services of petitioners. The demands of justice are thus satisfied.

    WHEREFORE, the petition is DISMISSED for lack of merit.

    SO ORDERED.

    Regalado, Romero, Puno and Torres, Jr., JJ., concur.

    Endnotes:



    1. Art. XIV, 1.

    2. Compare the statement in Buiser v. Leogardo, 131 SCRA 151, 152 (1984): "Failure to observe prescribed standards of work, or to fulfill reasonable work assignments due to inefficiency may constitute just cause for dismissal. Such inefficiency is understood to mean failure to attain work goals or work quotas, either by failing to complete the same within the allotted reasonable period, or by producing unsatisfactory results. This management prerogative of requiring standards may be availed of so long as they are exercised in good faith for the advancement of the employer’s interest."cralaw virtua1aw library

    3. Private respondents’ Comment, pp. 9-10; Rollo, pp. 102-103.

    4. Comment, p. 2, Rollo, p. 95.

    G.R. No. 100629   July 5, 1996 - ENELYN E. PEÑA, ET AL. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.


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