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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
November-2006 Jurisprudence                 

  • A.C. No. 6266 - ESTELA ANASTACIO-BRIONES vs ATTY. ALFREDO A. ZAPANTA

  • A.C. No. 7123 - MARIA DIVINA CRUZ-VILLANUEVA vs ATTY. CARLOS P. RIVERA, ET AL.

  • A.C. No. 7214 - AILEEN A. FERANCULLO vs ATTY. SANCHO M. FERANCULLO, JR.

  • A.C. No. 6266 - ESTELA ANASTACIO-BRIONES vs ATTY. ALFREDO A. ZAPANTA

  • A.C. No. 7123 - MARIA DIVINA CRUZ-VILLANUEVA vs ATTY. CARLOS P. RIVERA, ET AL.

  • A.C. No. 7214 - AILEEN A. FERANCULLO vs ATTY. SANCHO M. FERANCULLO, JR.

  • A.C. No. 6266 - ESTELA ANASTACIO-BRIONES vs ATTY. ALFREDO A. ZAPANTA

  • A.C. No. 7123 - MARIA DIVINA CRUZ-VILLANUEVA vs ATTY. CARLOS P. RIVERA, ET AL.

  • A.C. No. 7214 - AILEEN A. FERANCULLO vs ATTY. SANCHO M. FERANCULLO, JR.

  • Adm. Case No. 7252 - CBD 05-1434 - JOHNNY NG vs ATTY. BENJAMIN C. ALAR

  • A.C. No. 7280 - DAHLIA S. GACIAS vs ATTY. ALEXANDER BULAUITAN

  • A.M. No. 06-4-219-RTC - RE: REPORT ON THE JUDICIAL AUDIT AND PHYSICAL INVENTORY

  • A.M. No. 2004-15-SC - PROSECUTOR AGAPITO B. ROSALES vs ENGR. CELERINO BUENAVENTURA

  • A.M. No. 2005-26-SC - RE: LOST CHECKS ISSUED TO THE LATE RODERICK ROY P. MELLIZA, ETC.

  • A.M. No. MTJ-03-1503 - NATIONAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION vs JUDGE LUISITO T. ADAOAG

  • A.M. No. MTJ-06-1660 - Formerly A.M. No. OCA IPI 04-1519-MTJ - SPOUSES TREFIL AND LINA A. UMALE vs JUDGE NICOLAS V. FADUL, JR.

  • A.M. No. P-03-1731 - PNB MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION vs CARMELO CACHERO

  • A.M. No. P-03-1737 - Formerly OCA IPI No. 01-1250-P - NICOLAS PACLIBAR vs RENAN V. PAMPOSA

  • A.M. No. P-05-2092 - ATTY. PERFECTO A.S. LAGUIO, JR. vs MILA AMANTE-CASICAS

  • A.M. No. P-05-1979 - JUDGE LEONARDO P. CARREON vs ERIC ANTHONY S. ORTEGA

  • A.M. No. P-06-2109 - LIGAYA V. REYES vs MARIO PABLICO

  • A.M. No. P-06-2204 - NYDIA S. SERVINO vs MA. MAWILYNN CONCEPCION B. ADOLFO

  • A.M. No. P-06-2266 - ENCARNACION FLORES vs ROMEO S. GATCHECO, JR.

  • A.M. No. P-06-2257 - SPS. ARTHUR and LEONORA STILGROVE vs ERIBERTO R. SABAS, ET AL.

  • A.M. No. P-06-2268 - BIENVENIDO L. PUNZALAN vs RUMEL M. MACALISANG

  • A.M. No. RTJ-05-1901 - FORTUNE LIFE INSURANCE, COMPANY, INC. vs JUDGE JIMMY H. F. LUCZON, JR.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-06-2002 - ROCKLAND CONSTRUCTION CO., INC. vs JUDGE MARIANO M. SINGZON, JR.

  • G.R. No. 74269 & 92137 - SOLID HOMES, INC., ET AL. vs HON. INTERMEDIATE APPELLATE COURT, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 127636 - E. ROMMEL REALTY AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, ET AL. vs STA. LUCIA REALTY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

  • G.R. No. 126890 - UNITED PLANTERS SUGAR MILLING COMPANY, INC. vs COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 129820 - PNOC-ENERGY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION vs EMILIANO G. VENERACION, JR.

  • G.R. No. 132834 - RUPERTO LUCERO, JR., ET AL. vs CITY GOVERNMENT OF PASIG

  • G.R. No. 135817 - REYNALDO RODRIGUEZ, ET AL. vs CONCORDIA ONG LIM, ET AL.

  • G.R. NOS. 140371-72 - DY YIENG SEANGIO, ET AL. vs AMOR A. REYES, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 140833 - LACEPI T. MAGNANAO vs PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 141480 - CARLOS B. DE GUZMAN vs TOYOTA CUBAO, INC.

  • G.R. No. 142351 - ST. MARTIN FUNERAL HOMES vs NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 143219 - ASIAN TERMINALS, INC. vs RENATO P. VILLANUEVA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 143382 - SECURITY BANK and TRUST COMPANY vs MAR TIERRA CORPORATION, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 144062 - THE BASES CONVERSION AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, ET AL. vs ELPIDIO UY

  • G.R. No. 146707 - ERNESTO DUMLAO, JR., ET AL. vs RODOLFO PONFERRADA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 148090 - STRONGHOLD INSURANCE COMPANY, INC. vs NEMESIO S. FELIX, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 148490 - 7K CORPORATION vs NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. NOS. 148500-01 - TIMES TRANSPORTATION CO. INC. vs NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, ET AL.

  • G.R. NOS. 148839-40 - NAGKAHIUSANG MAMUMUO SA PICOP RESOURCES, INC. - SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES FEDERATION OF LABOR (NAMAPRI - SPFL), ET AL. vs COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 148971 - ALBERTO GARONG vs PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 149633 - EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR GABRIEL S. CASAL, ET AL. v. COMMISSION ON AUDIT

  • G.R. No. 149748 - JANG LIM, ET AL vs COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 149753 - Miguel Cosme, Jr. v. People of the Philippines

  • G.R. NO. 149764 - PHILIPPINE OVERSEAS TELECOMMUNICATIONS CORPORATION vs ENRIQUE GUTIERREZ, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 150253 - DAVAO LIGHT AND POWER CORPORATION, INC. vs ANTONIO G. DIAZ, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 150402 - EPARWA SECURITY AND JANITORIAL SERVICES, INC. vs LICEO DE CAGAYAN UNIVERSITY

  • G.R. No. 152258 - ROGELIO P. ANTALAN vs ANIANO DESIERTO

  • G.R. No. 152984 - WILLIAM G. KWONG vs ATTY. RAMON GARGANTOS, ET AL.

  • G.R. NO. 154006 - STAR PAPER CORPORATION vs CARLITO ESPIRI TU, ET AL.

  • G.R. NO. 154565 - REMEDIOS RAMOS vs TESSIE PABAS

  • G.R. No. 154685 - METROPOLITAN BANK and TRUST COMPANY, ET AL. vs COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 155645 - PHILIPPINE LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE COMPANY, INC. vs MAYFLOR T. YLAGAN

  • G.R. No. 155574 - TIMOTEO A. GARCIA vs SANDIGANBAYAN

  • G.R. No. 156294 - MELVA THERESA ALVIAR GONZALES vs RIZAL COMMERCIAL BANKING CORPORATION

  • G. R. No. 156888 - PEDRO R. SANTIAGO vs SUBIC BAY METROPOLITAN AUTHORITY

  • G.R. No. 156903 - SPOUSES CARLOS and TERESITA RUSTIA vs EMERITA RIVERA

  • G.R. No. 157107 - ALPINE LENDING INVESTORS, ET AL. vs ESTRELLA CORPUZ

  • G.R. No. 157117 - COASTAL SUBIC BAY TERMINAL, INC. vs DEPARTMENT OF LABOR and EMPLOYMENT, ET AL.

  • G.R. NOS. 157236-45 - ROMEO D. LONZANIDA vs SANDIGANBAYAN

  • G.R. No. 157906 - JOAQUINITA P. CAPILI vs SPS. DOMINADOR CARDAÑA and ROSALITA CARDAÑA,

  • G.R. No. 158676 - BPI-FAMILY SAVINGS BANK, INC. vs SPS. ZENAIDA DOMINGO & ABUNDIO S. DOMINGO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 158707 - COMMUNITY RURAL BANK OF SAN ISIDRO (N.E.), INC. vs YSAGANI V. PAEZ

  • G.R. NOS. 157294-95 - JOSEPH VICTOR G. EJERCITO vs SANDIGANBAYAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 158960 - LORNA FRANCES FILIPINO vs F. WALTER R. MACABUHAY

  • G.R. No. 159373 - JOSE R. MORENO, JR. vs PRIVATE MANAGEMENT OFFICE

  • G.R. No. 159991 - CARMELINO F. PANSACOLA vs COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE

  • G.R. No. 159734 and G.R. NO. 159745 - ROSARIO V. ASTUDILLO vs PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 160347 - ARCADIO and MARIA LUISA CARANDANG vs HEIRS OF QUIRINO A. DE GUZMAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 160618 - DENNIS D. SY vs METROPOLITAN BANK & TRUST COMPANY

  • G.R. No. 160805 - SPOUSES ADIEL DE LA CENA and CARIDAD AREVALO DE LA CENA vs SPOUSES JOSE BRIONES and HERMINIA LLEDO BRIONES

  • G.R. No. 161086 - CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION vs COURT OF APPEALS

  • G.R. No. 161136 - WILFREDO VAGILIDAD, ET AL. vs GABINO VAGILIDAD, JR., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 161115 - DOLE PHILIPPINES, INC. vs MEDEL ESTEVA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 162037 - Heirs of Enrique Diaz v. Elinor A. Virata

  • G.R. No. 162243, G.R. No. 164516 & G.R. No. 171875 - HEHERSON ALVAREZ vs PICOP RESOURCES, INC.

  • G.R. No. 162308 - G & M PHILIPPINES, INC. vs ROMIL V. CUAMBOT

  • G.R. No. 162331 - LEPANTO CONSOLIDATED MINING CO. vs WMC RESOURCES INT L. PTY. LTD., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 162366 - FEDERICA M. SERRANO, ET AL. vs SPOUSES ANSELMO GUTIERREZ AND CARMELITA GUTIERREZ

  • G.R. No. 163735 - GREEN ASIA CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, ET AL. vs COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 163712 - METROPOLITAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY, ET AL. vs JOSE B. TAN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 163763 - MALAYAN REALTY, INC. vs UY HAN YONG

  • G.R. No. 164300 - SPOUSES BENJAMIN AND AGRIFINA SIM vs M.B. FINANCE CORPORATION

  • G.R. No. 164321 - SKECHERS, U.S.A., INC. vs INTER PACIFIC INDUSTRIAL TRADING CORP., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 164545 - LORBE REBUCAN y BALTAZAR vs PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 165038 - HEIRS OF EMILIO R. DOMINGO AND FELICIDAD CORNEJO, ET AL. vs THE HEIRS OF CLARITA D. MARTIN, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 164858 - HENRY P. LANOT vs COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS

  • G.R. No. 165724 - ZAMORA REALTY and DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, ET AL. vs OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 165879 - MARIA B. CHING vs JOSEPH C. GOYANKO, JR., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 166403 - BENZON O. ALDEMITA vs HEIRS OF MELQUIADES SILVA

  • G.R. NOS. 166143-47 and G.R. NO. 166891 - ABDUSAKUR M. TAN, ET AL. vs COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 166496 - JOSEFA BAUTISTA FERRER vs SPS. MANUEL M. FERRER, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 166501 - ERNESTO B. FRANCISCO, JR. vs HON. BAYANI F. FERNANDO

  • G.R. No. 166649 - ROBERT B. CABUYOC vs INTER-ORIENT NAVIGATION SHIPMANAGEMENT, INC., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 166833 - FELIXBERTO CUBERO, ET AL. vs LAGUNA WEST MULTI-PURPOSE COOPERATIVE, INC., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 166837 - LIGAYA S. ORBETA vs RUBEN P. ORBETA, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 167680 - SAMUEL PARILLA, ET AL. vs DR. PROSPERO PILAR

  • G.R. No. 167723 - CLUB FILIPINO, INC. vs ROMEO ARAULLO

  • G.R. No. 167743 - HILARIO P. SORIANO vs OMBUDSMAN SIMEON V. MARCELO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 167844 - OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN vs COURT OF APPEALS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 168035 - MELANIE M. MESINA, ET AL. vs GLORIA C. GARCIA

  • G.R. No. 168718 - OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN vs FARIDA T. LUCERO, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 168694 - THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES vs SAIDAMIN MACABALANG y MALAMAMA

  • G.R. No. 169193 - SPOUSES ILUMINADA CAPITLE and CIRILO CAPITLE vs FORTUNATA ELBAMBUENA, ET AL.

  • G.R. NOS. 169295-96 - REMINGTON INDUSTRIAL SALES CORPORATION vs ERLINDA CASTANEDA

  • G.R. No. 169341 - City of Cebu v. Vicente B. Del Rosario

  • G.R. No. 169578 - TERESITA DIO vs ST. FERDINAND MEMORIAL PARK, INC., ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 169698 - LUPO ATIENZA vs YOLANDA DE CASTRO

  • G.R. No. 169891 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RAILWAYS vs ETHEL BRUNTY, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 170220 - JOSEFINA S. LUBRICA, ET AL. vs LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 170522 - CELSO LOPEZ OCATE vs COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, ET AL.

  • G.R. No. 170829 - Perla G. Patricio v. Marcelino G. Dario III, et al.

  • G.R. No. 171102 - ATP TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL, INC. vs MICRON PRECISION PHILS., INC.

  • G.R. No. 170840 - THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES vs GREGORIO CARPIO @ "GORIO"

  • G.R. No. 171144 - SANTOS L. NACAYTUNA vs PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. NOS. 171322-24 - MARIANITO S. VICTORIANO vs PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G.R. No. 172274 - ROMEO D. CABARLO vs PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES

  • G. R. No. 171447 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES vs FEDERICO ARNAIZ y ARMONIO

  • G.R. No. 173290 - ZENAIDA M. LIMBONA vs JUDGE RALPH S. LEE, ET AL.

  •  





     
     

    G.R. No. 159991 - CARMELINO F. PANSACOLA  vs  COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE

      G.R. No. 159991 - CARMELINO F. PANSACOLA vs COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE

    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    THIRD DIVISION

    [G.R. NO. 159991 : November 16, 2006]

    CARMELINO F. PANSACOLA, Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

    D E C I S I O N

    QUISUMBING, J.:

    For review on certiorari is the Decision1 dated June 5, 2003 of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. S.P. No. 60475. The appellate court denied petitioner's availment of the increased amounts of personal and additional exemptions under Republic Act No. 8424, the National Internal Revenue Code of 19972 (NIRC), which took effect on January 1, 1998. Also assailed is the appellate court's Resolution3 dated September 11, 2003, denying the motion for reconsideration.

    The facts are undisputed.

    On April 13, 1998, petitioner Carmelino F. Pansacola filed his income tax return for the taxable year 1997 that reflected an overpayment of P5,950. In it he claimed the increased amounts of personal and additional exemptions under Section 354 of the NIRC, although his certificate of income tax withheld on compensation indicated the lesser allowed amounts5 on these exemptions. He claimed a refund of P5,950 with the Bureau of Internal Revenue, which was denied. Later, the Court of Tax Appeals also denied his claim because according to the tax court, "it would be absurd for the law to allow the deduction from a taxpayer's gross income earned on a certain year of exemptions availing on a different taxable year' "6 Petitioner sought reconsideration, but the same was denied.7

    On appeal, the Court of Appeals denied his petition for lack of merit. The appellate court ruled that Umali v. Estanislao,8 relied upon by petitioner, was inapplicable to his case. It further ruled that the NIRC took effect on January 1, 1998, thus the increased exemptions were effective only to cover taxable year 1998 and cannot be applied retroactively.

    Petitioner, before us, raises a single issue:

    '[W]hether or not the increased personal and additional exemptions under [the NIRC] can be availed of by the [p]etitioner for purposes of computing his income tax liability for the taxable year 1997 and thus be entitled to the refund.9

    Simply stated, the issue is: Could the exemptions under Section 35 of the NIRC, which took effect on January 1, 1998, be availed of for the taxable year 1997?cralawlibrary

    Petitioner argues that the personal and additional exemptions are of a fixed character based on Section 35 (A) and (B) of the NIRC10 and as ruled by this Court in Umali, these personal and additional exemptions are fixed amounts to which an individual taxpayer is entitled. He contends that unlike other allowable deductions, the availability of these exemptions does not depend on the taxpayer's profession, trade or business for a particular taxable period. Relying again in Umali, petitioner alleges that the Court of Appeals erred in ruling that the increased exemptions were meant to be applied beginning taxable year 1998 and were to be reflected in the taxpayers' returns to be filed on or before April 15, 1999. Petitioner reasons that such ruling would postpone the availability of the increased exemptions and literally defer the effectivity of the NIRC to January 1, 1999.Petitioner insists that the increased exemptions were already available on April 15, 1998, the deadline for filing income tax returns for taxable year 1997, because the NIRC was already effective.

    Respondent, through the Office of the Solicitor General, counters that the increased exemptions were not yet available for taxable year 1997 because all provisions of the NIRC took effect on January 1, 1998 only; that the fixed character of personal and additional exemptions does not necessarily mean that these were not time bound; and petitioner's proposition was contrary to Section 35 (C)11 of the NIRC. It further stated that petitioner's exemptions were determined as of December 31, 1997 and the effectivity of the NIRC during the period of January 1 to April 15, 1998 did not affect his tax liabilities within the taxable year 1997; and the inclusive period from January 1 to April 15, 1998, the filing dates and deadline for administrative purposes, was outside of the taxable year 1997. Respondent also maintains that Umali is not applicable to this case.

    Prefatorily, personal and additional exemptions under Section 35 of the NIRC are fixed amounts to which certain individual taxpayers (citizens, resident aliens)12 are entitled. Personal exemptions are the theoretical personal, living and family expenses of an individual allowed to be deducted from the gross or net income of an individual taxpayer. These are arbitrary amounts which have been calculated by our lawmakers to be roughly equivalent to the minimum of subsistence,13 taking into account the personal status and additional qualified dependents of the taxpayer. They are fixed amounts in the sense that the amounts have been predetermined by our lawmakers as provided under Section 35 (A) and (B). Unless and until our lawmakers make new adjustments on these personal exemptions, the amounts allowed to be deducted by a taxpayer are fixed as predetermined by Congress.

    A careful scrutiny of the provisions14 of the NIRC specifically shows that Section 79 (D)15 provides that the personal and additional exemptions shall be determined in accordance with the main provisions in Title II of the NIRC. Its main provisions pertain to Section 35 (A) and (B) which state,

    SEC. 35. Allowance of Personal Exemption for Individual Taxpayer. -

    (A) In General.-For purposes of determining the tax provided in Section 24(A) of this Title,16 there shall be allowed a basic personal exemption as follows:

    x x x

    For each married individual - P32,000

    x x x

    (B) Additional Exemption for Dependents. There shall be allowed an additional exemption of Eight thousand pesos (P8,000) for each dependent not exceeding four (4). (Emphasis ours.)

    Section 35 (A) and (B) allow the basic personal and additional exemptions as deductions from gross or net income, as the case maybe, to arrive at the correct taxable income of certain individual taxpayers. Section 24 (A) (1) (a) imposed income tax on a resident citizen's taxable income derived for each taxable year. It provides as follows:

    SEC. 24. Income Tax Rates. -

    (A) Rates of Income Tax on Individual Citizen '

    (1) An income tax is hereby imposed:

    (a) On the taxable income defined in Section 31 of this Code, other than income subject to tax under Subsections (B),17 (C),18 and (D)19 of this Section, derived for each taxable year from all sources within and without the Philippines by every individual citizen of the Philippines residing therein; (Emphasis ours.)

    Section 31 defines "taxable income" as the pertinent items of gross income specified in the NIRC, less the deductions and/or personal and additional exemptions, if any, authorized for such types of income by the NIRC or other special laws. As defined in Section 22 (P),20 "taxable year" means the calendar year, upon the basis of which the net income is computed under Title II of the NIRC. Section 4321 also supports the rule that the taxable income of an individual shall be computed on the basis of the calendar year. In addition, Section 4522 provides that the deductions provided for under Title II of the NIRC shall be taken for the taxable year in which they are "paid or accrued" or "paid or incurred."

    Moreover, Section 79 (H)23 requires the employer to determine, on or before the end of the calendar year but prior to the payment of the compensation for the last payroll period, the tax due from each employee's taxable compensation income for the entire taxable year in accordance with Section 24 (A). This is for the purpose of either withholding from the employee's December salary, or refunding to him not later than January 25 of the succeeding year, the difference between the tax due and the tax withheld.

    Therefore, as provided in Section 24 (A) (1) (a) in relation to Sections 31 and 22 (P) and Sections 43, 45 and 79 (H) of the NIRC, the income subject to income tax is the taxpayer's income as derived and computed during the calendar year, his taxable year.

    Clearly from the abovequoted provisions, what the law should consider for the purpose of determining the tax due from an individual taxpayer is his status and qualified dependents at the close of the taxable year and not at the time the return is filed and the tax due thereon is paid. Now comes Section 35 (C) of the NIRC which provides,

    Sec. 35. Allowance of Personal Exemption for Individual Taxpayer. '

    x x x

    (C) Change of Status. - If the taxpayer marries or should have additional dependent(s) as defined above during the taxable year, the taxpayer may claim the corresponding additional exemption, as the case may be, in full for such year.

    If the taxpayer dies during the taxable year, his estate may still claim the personal and additional exemptions for himself and his dependent(s) as if he died at the close of such year.

    If the spouse or any of the dependents dies or if any of such dependents marries, becomes twenty-one (21) years old or becomes gainfully employed during the taxable year, the taxpayer may still claim the same exemptions as if the spouse or any of the dependents died, or as if such dependents married, became twenty-one (21) years old or became gainfully employed at the close of such year.

    Emphasis must be made that Section 35 (C) of the NIRC allows a taxpayer to still claim the corresponding full amount of exemption for a taxable year, e.g. if he marries; have additional dependents; he, his spouse, or any of his dependents die; and if any of his dependents marry, turn 21 years old; or become gainfully employed. It is as if the changes in his or his dependents' status took place at the close of the taxable year.

    Consequently, his correct taxable income and his corresponding allowable deductions e.g. personal and additional deductions, if any, had already been determined as of the end of the calendar year.

    In the case of petitioner, the availability of the aforementioned deductions if he is thus entitled, would be reflected on his tax return filed on or before the 15th day of April 1999 as mandated by Section 51 (C) (1).24 Since the NIRC took effect on January 1, 1998, the increased amounts of personal and additional exemptions under Section 35, can only be allowed as deductions from the individual taxpayer's gross or net income, as the case maybe, for the taxable year 1998 to be filed in 1999. The NIRC made no reference that the personal and additional exemptions shall apply on income earned before January 1, 1998.

    Thus, petitioner's reliance in Umali is misplaced.

    In Umali, we noted that despite being given authority by Section 29 (1) (4)25 of the National Internal Revenue Code of 1977 to adjust these exemptions, no adjustments were made to cover 1989. Note that Rep. Act No. 7167 is entitled "An Act Adjusting the Basic Personal and Additional Exemptions Allowable to Individuals for Income Tax Purposes to the Poverty Threshold Level, Amending for the Purpose Section 29, Paragraph (L), Items (1) and (2) (A), of the National Internal Revenue Code, As Amended, and For Other Purposes." Thus, we said in Umali, that the adjustment provided by Rep. Act No. 7167 effective 1992, should consider the poverty threshold level in 1991, the time it was enacted. And we observed therein that since the exemptions would especially benefit lower and middle-income taxpayers, the exemption should be made to cover the past year 1991. To such an extent, Rep. Act No. 7167 was a social legislation intended to remedy the non-adjustment in 1989. And as cited in Umali, this legislative intent is also clear in the records of the House of Representatives' Journal.

    This is not so in the case at bar. There is nothing in the NIRC that expresses any such intent. The policy declarations in its enactment do not indicate it was a social legislation that adjusted personal and additional exemptions according to the poverty threshold level nor is there any indication that its application should retroact. At the time petitioner filed his 1997 return and paid the tax due thereon in April 1998, the increased amounts of personal and additional exemptions in Section 35 were not yet available. It has not yet accrued as of December 31, 1997, the last day of his taxable year. Petitioner's taxable income covers his income for the calendar year 1997. The law cannot be given retroactive effect. It is established that tax laws are prospective in application, unless it is expressly provided to apply retroactively.26 In the NIRC, we note, there is no specific mention that the increased amounts of personal and additional exemptions under Section 35 shall be given retroactive effect. Conformably too, personal and additional exemptions are considered as deductions from gross income. Deductions for income tax purposes partake of the nature of tax exemptions, hence strictly construed27 against the taxpayer28 and cannot be allowed unless granted in the most explicit and categorical language29 too plain to be mistaken.30 They cannot be extended by mere implication or inference.31 And, where a provision of law speaks categorically, the need for interpretation is obviated, no plausible pretense being entertained to justify non-compliance. All that has to be done is to apply it in every case that falls within its terms.32

    Accordingly, the Court of Appeals and the Court of Tax Appeals were correct in denying petitioner's claim for refund.ςηαñrοblεš νιr υαl lαω lιbrαrÿ

    WHEREFORE, the petition is DENIED for lack of merit. The Decision dated June 5, 2003 and the Resolution dated September 11, 2003 of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. S.P. No. 60475 are hereby AFFIRMED.

    SO ORDERED.


    Endnotes:


    1 Rollo, pp. 18-28.

    2 Rep. Act No. 8424 entitled "An Act Amending The National Internal Revenue Code, As Amended, And For Other Purposes."

    3 Rollo, p. 43.

    4 SEC. 35. Allowance of Personal Exemption for Individual Taxpayer. -

    (A) In General. - For purposes of determining the tax provided in Section 24 (A) of this Title, there shall be allowed a basic personal exemption as follows:

    x x x

    For each married individual - P32,000

    x x x

    (B) Additional Exemption for Dependents. - There shall be allowed an additional exemption of Eight thousand pesos (P8,000) for each dependent not exceeding four (4).

    x x x x (Emphasis supplied.)

    5 Under Section 29 (l) (1) and (2) of the National Internal Revenue Code of 1977, as amended, the personal exemption for each married individual is P18,000 and the additional exemption for each dependent is P5,000. (Emphasis supplied.)

    6 Rollo, p. 25.

    7 Id. at 18-20.

    8 G.R. NOS. 104037 and 104069, May 29, 1992, 209 SCRA 446.

    9 Rollo, p. 80.

    10 Supra note 4.

    11 SEC. 35. Allowance of Personal Exemption for Individual Taxpayer. -

    x x x

    (C) Change of Status. - If the taxpayer marries or should have additional dependent(s) as defined above during the taxable year, the taxpayer may claim the corresponding additional exemption, as the case may be, in full for such year.

    If the taxpayer dies during the taxable year, his estate may still claim the personal and additional exemptions for himself and his dependent(s) as if he died at the close of such year.

    If the spouse or any of the dependents dies or if any of such dependents marries, becomes twenty-one (21) years old or becomes gainfully employed during the taxable year, the taxpayer may still claim the same exemptions as if the spouse or any of the dependents died, or as if such dependents married, became twenty-one (21) years old or became gainfully employed at the close of such year.

    x x x

    12 NIRC, Sections 35 and 24 (A) (1) (a), (b) and (c). See Section 35 (D) for the personal exemption allowable to nonresident alien individual.

    13 See also Madrigal and Paterno v. Rafferty and Concepcion, 38 Phil. 414, 418 (1918).

    14 Sections 35, 24 (A), 31, 22 (P), 43, 45, 51 (C) (1), and 79 (D) and (H).

    15 SEC. 79. Income Tax Collected at Source.'

    x x x

    (D) Personal Exemptions '

    (1) In General. - Unless otherwise provided by this Chapter, the personal and additional exemptions applicable under this Chapter shall be determined in accordance with the main provisions of this Title.

    16 Title II of the NIRC.

    17 Rate of Tax on Certain Passive Income.

    18 Capital Gains from Sale of Shares of Stock Not Traded in the Stock Exchange.

    19 Capital Gains from Sale of Real Property.

    20 The term "taxable year" means the calendar year, or the fiscal year ending during such calendar year, upon the basis of which the net income is computed under this Title.'

    21 SEC. 43. General Rule. The taxable income shall be computed upon the basis of the taxpayer's annual accounting period (fiscal year or calendar year, as the case may be) if the taxpayer is an individual, the taxable income shall be computed on the basis of the calendar year.

    22 SEC. 45. Period for which Deductions and Credits Taken. The deductions provided for in this Title shall be taken for the taxable year in which "paid or accrued" or "paid or incurred" dependent upon the method of accounting upon the basis of which the net income is computed'

    23 SEC. 79. Income Tax Collected at Source. -

    x x x

    (H) Year-end Adjustment. - On or before the end of the calendar year but prior to the payment of compensation for the last payroll period, the employer shall determine the tax due from each employee on taxable compensation income for the entire taxable year in accordance with Section 24(A). The difference between the tax due from the employee for the entire year and the sum of taxes from January to November shall either be withheld from his salary in December of the current calendar year or refunded to the employee not later than January 25 of the succeeding year.

    24 SEC. 51. Individual Return. -

    x x x

    (C) When to File '

    (1) The return of any individual'shall be filed on or before the fifteenth (15th) day of April of each year covering income for the preceding taxable year.

    25 SEC. 29. Deductions from gross income. - '

    x x x

    (l) Personal exemptions allowable to individuals. - '

    x x x

    (4) Allowances for adjustment. - Upon the recommendation of the Secretary of Finance, the President shall automatically adjust not more often than once every three years, the personal and additional exemptions taking into account, among others, the movement in consumer price indices, levels of minimum wages, and bare subsistence levels.

    26 See also Hydro Resources Contractors Corp. v. Court of Tax Appeals, G.R. No. 80276, December 21, 1990, 192 SCRA 604.

    27 Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. General Foods (Phils.) Inc., G.R. No. 143672, April 24, 2003, 401 SCRA 545, 550.

    28 Sea-land Service, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 122605, April 30, 2001, 357 SCRA 441, 444.

    29 Insular Lumber Co. v. Court of Tax Appeals, No. L-31057, May 29, 1981, 104 SCRA 710, 719-720.

    30 Davao Gulf Lumber Corporation v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, G.R. No. 117359, July 23, 1998, 293 SCRA 76, 88; Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, Inc, v. City of Davao, G.R. No. 143867, August 22, 2001, 363 SCRA 522, 529.

    31 Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, Inc. v. City of Davao, G.R. No. 143867, March 25, 2003, 399 SCRA 442, 453.

    32 Allied Brokerage Corporation v. Commissioner of Customs, No. L-27641, August 31, 1971, 40 SCRA 555, 559-560.

    G.R. No. 159991 - CARMELINO F. PANSACOLA  vs  COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE


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