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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
January-2014 Jurisprudence                 

  • A.C. No. 10135, January 15, 2014 - EDGARDO AREOLA, Complainant, v. ATTY. MARIA VILMA MENDOZA, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 5581, January 14, 2014 - ROSE BUNAGAN-BANSIG, Complainant, v. ATTY. ROGELIO JUAN A. CELERA, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. P-12-3043, January 15, 2014 - (Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 08-2953-P] - ATTY. MARCOS R. SUNDIANG, Complainant, v. ERLITO DS. BACHO, Sheriff IV, Regional Trial Court, Branch 124, Caloocan City, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-14-2367, January 13, 2014 - (Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 12-3879-RTJ) - SR. REMY ANGELA JUNIO, SPC and JOSEPHINE D. LORICA, Complainants, v. JUDGE MARIVIC A. CACATIAN-BELTRAN, BRANCH 3, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT TUGUEGARAO CITY, CAGAYAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 160600, January 15, 2014 - DOMINGO GONZALO, Petitioner, v. JOHN TARNATE, JR., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 161106, January 13, 2014 - WORLDWIDE WEB CORPORATION and CHERRYLL L. YU, Petitioners, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES and PHILIPPINE LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE COMPANY, Respondents.; G.R. No. 161266 - PLANET INTERNET CORP.,Petitioner, v. PHILIPPINE LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE COMPANY, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 164246, January 15, 2014 - HERMINIA ACBANG, Petitioner, v. HON. JIMMY H.F. LUCZON, JR., PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 01, SECOND JUDICIAL REGION, TUGUEGARAO CITY, CAGAYAN, and SPOUSES MAXIMO LOPEZ and HEIDI L. LOPEZ, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 164985, January 15, 2014 - FIRST UNITED CONSTRUCTORS CORPORATION and BLUE STAR CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Petitioners, v. BAYANIHAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No 166995, January 13, 2014 - DENNIS T. VILLAREAL, Petitioner, v. CONSUELO C. ALIGA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No.172551, January 15, 2014 - LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. YATCO AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 176043, January 15, 2014 - SPOUSES BERNADETTE and RODULFO VILBAR, Petitioners, v. ANGELITO L. OPINION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 176439, January 15, 2014 - THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS, Petitioner, v. BTL CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Respondent.; G.R. No. 176718 - BTL CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION,Petitioner, v. THE PRESIDENT OF THE MANILA MISSION OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS and BPI-MS INSURANCE CORPORATION, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 178564, January 15, 2014 - INC. SHIPMANAGEMENT, INC., CAPTAIN SIGFREDO E. MONTERROYO AND/OR INTERORIENT NAVIGATION LIMITED, Petitioners, v. ALEXANDER L. MORADAS, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 178564, January 15, 2014 : CONCURRING AND DISSENTING OPINION - Brion, J. : INC. SHIPMANAGEMENT, INC., CAPTAIN SIGFREDO E. MONTERROYO AND/OR INTERORIENT NAVIGATION LIMITED, Petitioners, v. ALEXANDER L. MORADAS, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 183015, January 15, 2014 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, represented by THE SECRETARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS (DPWH), Petitioner, v. TETRO ENTERPRISES, INCORPORATED, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 183204, January 13, 2014 - THE METROPOLITAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY, Petitioner, v. ANA GRACE ROSALES AND YO YUK TO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 183860, January 15, 2014 - RODOLFO LABORTE and PHILIPPINE TOURISM AUTHORITY, Petitioners, v. PAGSANJAN TOURISM CONSUMERS COOPERATIVE and LELIZA S. FABRICIO, WILLIAM BASCO, FELICIANO BASCO, FREDIE BASCO, ROGER MORAL NIDA ABARQUEZ, FLORANTE MUNAR, MARY JAVIER, MARIANO PELAGIO ALEX EQUIZ, ALEX PELAGIO ARNOLD OBIEN, EDELMIRO ABAQUIN, ARCEDO MUNAR, LIBRADO MALIWANAG, OSCAR LIWAG, OSCAR ABARQUEZ, JOEL BALAGUER, LIZARDO MUNAR, ARMANDO PANCHACOLA, MANUEL SAYCO, EDWIN MATIBAG, ARNEL VILLAGRACIA, RODOLFO LERON, ALFONSO ABANILLA, SONNY LAVA, AND DENNIS BASCO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 183918, January 15, 2014 - FRANCISCO LIM, Petitioner, v. EQUITABLE PCI BANK, now known as the BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC.,* Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 185798, January 13, 2014 - FIL-ESTATE PROPERTIES, INC. AND FIL-ESTATE NETWORK INC., Petitioners, v. SPOUSES CONRADO AND MARIA VICTORIA RONQUILLO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 185922, January 15, 2014 - HEIRS OF DR. MARIANO FAVIS SR. represented by their co-heirs and Attorneys-in-Fact MERCEDES A. FAVIS and NELLY FAVIS- VILLAFUERTE, Petitioners, v. JUANA GONZALES, her son MARIANO G. FAVIS, MA. THERESA JOANA D. FAVIS, JAMES MARK D. FAVIS, all minors represented herein by their parents SPS. MARIANO FAVIS and LARCELITA D. FAVIS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 186063, January 15, 2014 - PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK, Petitioner, v. SAN MIGUEL CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 190106, January 15, 2014 - MAGDALENA T. VILLASI, Petitioner, v. FILOMENO GARCIA, substituted by his heirs, namely, ERMELINDA H. GARCIA, LIZA GARCIA-GONZALEZ, THERESA GARCIA-TIANGSON, MARIVIC H. GARCIA, MARLENE GARCIA-MOMIN, GERARDO H. GARCIA, GIDEON H. GARCIA and GENEROSO H. GARCIA, and ERMELINDA H. GARCIA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 190928, January 13, 2014 - TEAM ENERGY CORPORATION (formerly MIRANT PAGBILAO CORP.), Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 191498, January 15, 2014 - COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Petitioner, v. MINDANAO II GEOTHERMAL PARTNERSHIP, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 191555, January 20, 2014 - UNION BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. DEVELOPMENT BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 192034, January 13, 2014 - ALPHA SHIP MANAGEMENT CORPORATION/JUNEL M CHAN and/or CHUO-KAIUN COMPANY, LIMITED, Petitioners, v. ELEOSIS V. CALO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 192371, January 15, 2014 - LAND BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. EMMANUEL OÑATE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 193517, January 15, 2014 - THE HEIRS OF VICTORINO SARILI, NAMELY: ISABEL A. SARILI,* MELENCIA** S. MAXIMO, ALBERTO A. SARILI, IMELDA S. HIDALGO, all herein represented by CELSO A. SARILI, Petitioners, v. PEDRO F. LAGROSA, represented in this act by his Attorney-in-Fact LOURDES LABIOS MOJICA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 193986, January 15, 2014 - EASTERN SHIPPING LINES INC., Petitioner, v. BPI/MS INSURANCE CORP. and MITSUI SUM TOMO INSURANCE CO. LTD., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 195064, January 15, 2014 - NARI K. GIDWANI, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 196047, January 15, 2014 - LEPANTO CONSOLIDATED MINING CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. BELIO ICAO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 196156, January 15, 2014 - VISAYAS COMMUNITY MEDICAL CENTER (VCMC), Formerly known as METRO CEBU COMMUNITY HOSPITAL (MCCH), Petitioner, v. ERMA YBALLE, NELIA ANGEL, ELEUTERIA CORTEZ and EVELYN ONG, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 196171, January 15, 2014 - RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC. (now BDO UNIBANK, INC.), Respondent.; G.R. No. 199238 - BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC., Petitioner, v. COURT OF APPEALS and RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION, Respondents.; G.R. No. 200213 - BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC., Petitioner, v. RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION and THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL IN ICC ARBITRATION REF. NO. 13290/MS/JEM AND/OR RICHARD IAN BARKER, NEIL KAPLAN AND SANTIAGO KAPUNAN, in their official capacity as Members of THE ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 197760, January 13, 2014 - TEAM ENERGY CORPORATION (Formerly MIRANT PAGBILAO CORPORATION), Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. Nos. 198729-30, January 15, 2014 - CBK POWER COMPANY LIMITED, Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 199226, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. ROEL VERGARA y CLAVERO, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 200304, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. DONALD VASQUEZ y SANDIGAN @ "DON," Accused-Appellant,

  • G.R. No. 201092, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JOEL AQUINO y CENDANA @ "AKONG," Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 203028, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JOSELITO BERAN y ZAPANTA @ "Jose", Accused-Appellant.

  • UDK No. 14817, January 13, 2014 - IN THE MATTER OF THE PETITION FOR HABEAS CORPUS OF MINOR SHANG KO VINGSON YU SHIRLY [email protected] SHIRLY VINGSON DEMAISIP, Petitioner, v. JOVY CABCABAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 188747, January 29, 2014 - MANILA WATER COMPANY, Petitioner, v. CARLITO DEL ROSARIO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 191189, January 29, 2014 - MANLAR RICE MILL, INC., Petitioner, v. LOURDES L. DEYTO, DOING BUSINESS UNDER THE TRADE NAME “J.D. GRAINS CENTER” AND JENNELITA DEYTO ANG, A.K.A. “JANET ANG,” Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 188653, January 29, 2014 - LITO LOPEZ, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 178184, January 29, 2014 - GRAND ASIAN SHIPPING LINES, INC., EDUARDO P. FRANCISCO AND WILLIAM HOW, Petitioners, v. WILFREDO GALVEZ, JOEL SALES, CRISTITO GRUTA, DANILO ARGUELLES, RENATO BATAYOLA, PATRICIO FRESMILLO,* JOVY NOBLE, EMILIO DOMINICO, BENNY NILMAO, AND JOSE AUSTRAL, Respondents.

  • A.M. No. P–13–3171 (formerly A.M. OCA IPI No. 11–11–116–MeTC), January 28, 2014 - RE: HABITUAL TARDINESS OF CESAR E. SALES, CASH CLERK III, METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT, OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, MANILA.

  • G.R. No. 179367, January 29, 2014 - UNILEVER PHILIPPINES, INC., Petitioner, v. MICHAEL TAN A.K.A. PAUL D. TAN, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 9872, January 28, 2014 - NATIVIDAD P. NAVARRO AND HILDA S. PRESBITERO, Complainants, v. ATTY. IVAN M. SOLIDUM, JR., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 159926, January 20, 2014 - PINAUSUKAN SEAFOOD HOUSE, ROXAS BOULEVARD, INC., Petitioner, v. FAR EAST BANK & TRUST COMPANY, NOW BANK OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND HECTOR IL. GALURA, Respondents.

  • A.M. No. P–12–3069, January 20, 2014 - ATTY. VIRGILIO P. ALCONERA, Complainant, v. ALFREDO T. PALLANAN, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 202122, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff–Appellee, v. BERNABE PAREJA Y CRUZ, Accused–Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 189618, January 15, 2014 - RIVELISA REALTY, INC., REPRESENTED BY RICARDO P. VENTURINA, Petitioner, v. FIRST STA. CLARA BUILDERS CORPORATION, REPRESENTED BY RAMON A. PANGILINAN, AS PRESIDENT, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 186439, January 15, 2014 - UNIVERSAL ROBINA SUGAR MILLING CORPORATION AND RENE CABATI, Petitioners, v. FERDINAND ACIBO, ROBERTO AGUILAR, EDDIE BALDOZA, RENE ABELLAR, DIOMEDES ALICOS, MIGUEL ALICOS, ROGELIO AMAHIT, LARRY AMASCO, FELIPE BALANSAG, ROMEO BALANSAG, MANUEL BANGOT, ANDY BANJAO, DIONISIO BENDIJO, JR., JOVENTINO BROCE, ENRICO LITERAL, RODGER RAMIREZ, BIENVENIDO RODRIGUEZ, DIOCITO PALAGTIW, ERNIE SABLAN, RICHARD PANCHO, RODRIGO ESTRABELA, DANNY KADUSALE AND ALLYROBYL OLPUS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 196435, January 29, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff?Appellee, v. JOEL CRISOSTOMO Y MALLIAR, Accused?Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 185922, January 15, 2014 - HEIRS OF DR. MARIANO FAVIS, SR., REPRESENTED BY THEIR CO?HEIRS AND ATTORNEYS?IN?FACT MERCEDES A. FAVIS AND NELLY FAVIS?VILLAFUERTE, Petitioners, v. JUANA GONZALES, HER SON MARIANO G. FAVIS, MA. THERESA JOANA D. FAVIS, JAMES MARK D. FAVIS, ALL MINORS REPRESENTED HEREIN BY THEIR PARENTS, SPS. MARIANO FAVIS AND LARCELITA D. FAVIS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 161308, January 15, 2014 - RICARDO MEDINA, JR. Y ORIEL, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 201156, January 29, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff–Appellee, v. JOSELITO MORATE Y TARNATE, Accused–Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 186622, January 22, 2014 - PEBLIA ALFARO AND THE HEIRS OF PROSPEROUS ALFARO, NAMELY: MARY ANN PEARL ALFARO & ROUSLIA ALFARO, Petitioners, v. SPOUSES EDITHO AND HERA DUMALAGAN, SPOUSES CRISPIN AND EDITHA DALOGDOG, ET. AL., Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 156407, January 15, 2014 - THELMA M. ARANAS, Petitioner, v. TERESITA V. MERCADO, FELIMON V. MERCADO, CARMENCITA M. SUTHERLAND, RICHARD V. MERCADO, MA. TERESITA M. ANDERSON, AND FRANKLIN L. MERCADO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 173188, January 15, 2014 - THE CONJUGAL PARTNERSHIP OF THE SPOUSES VICENTE CADAVEDO AND BENITA ARCOY-CADAVEDO (BOTH DECEASED), SUBSTITUTED BY THEIR HEIRS, NAMELY: HERMINIA, PASTORA, HEIRS OF FRUCTUOSA, HEIRS OF RAQUEL, EVANGELINE, VICENTE, JR., AND ARMANDO, ALL SURNAMED CADAVEDO, Petitioners, v. VICTORINO (VIC) T. LACAYA, MARRIED TO ROSA LEGADOS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 178564, January 15, 2014 - INC SHIPMANAGEMENT, INC., CAPTAIN SIGFREDO E. MONTERROYO AND/OR INTERORIENT NAVIGATION LIMITED, Petitioners, v. ALEXANDER L. MORADAS, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 176043, January 15, 2014 - SPOUSES BERNADETTE AND RODULFO VILBAR, Petitioners, v. ANGELITO L. OPINION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 164985, January 15, 2014 - FIRST UNITED CONSTRUCTORS CORPORATION AND BLUE STAR CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Petitioners, v. BAYANIHAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 194612, January 27, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. FLORO MANIGO Y MACALUA, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 164246, January 15, 2014 - HERMINIA ACBANG, Petitioner, v. HON. JIMMY H.F. LUCZON, JR., PRESIDING JUDGE, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 01, SECOND JUDICIAL REGION, TUGUEGARAO CITY, CAGAYAN, AND SPOUSES MAXIMO LOPEZ AND HEIDI L. LOPEZ, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 192479, January 27, 2014 - DIONES BELZA, Petitioner, v. DANILO T. CANONERO, ANTONIO N. ESQUIVEL AND CEZAR I. BELZA, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 201860, January 22, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. MARCELINO DADAO, ANTONIO SULINDAO, EDDIE MALOGSI (DECEASED) AND ALFEMIO MALOGSI,* Accused-Appellants.

  • G.R. No. 163753, January 15, 2014 - DR. ENCARNACION C. LUMANTAS, M.D., Petitioner, v. HANZ CALAPIZ, REPRESENTED BY HIS PARENTS, HILARIO CALAPIZ, JR. AND HERLITA CALAPIZ, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 200804, January 22, 2014 - A.L. ANG NETWORK, INC., Petitioner, v. EMMA MONDEJAR, ACCOMPANIED BY HER HUSBAND, EFREN MONDEJAR, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 162365, January 15, 2014 - ROBERTO R. DAVID, Petitioner, v. EDUARDO C. DAVID, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 198804, January 22, 2014 - CARLITO VALENCIA Y CANDELARIA, Petitioner, v. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 160758, January 15, 2014 - DEVELOPMENT BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. GUARIÑA AGRICULTURAL AND REALTY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 160600, January 15, 2014 - DOMINGO GONZALO, Petitioner, v. JOHN TARNATE, JR., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 184045, January 22, 2014 - SPOUSES NICASIO C. MARQUEZ AND ANITA J. MARQUEZ, Petitioners, v. SPOUSES CARLITO ALINDOG AND CARMEN ALINDOG, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 173540, January 22, 2014 - PEREGRINA MACUA VDA. DE AVENIDO, Petitioner, v. TECLA HOYBIA AVENIDO, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 10135, January 15, 2014 - EDGARDO AREOLA, Complainant, v. ATTY. MARIA VILMA MENDOZA, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 170701, January 22, 2014 - RALPH P. TUA, Petitioner, v. HON. CESAR A. MANGROBANG, PRESIDING JUDGE, BRANCH 22, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, IMUS, CAVITE; AND ROSSANA HONRADO-TUA, Respondents.

  • A.M. No. RTJ-11-2287 (Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 11-3640-RTJ), January 22, 2014 - OFFICE OF THE COURT ADMINISTRATOR, Complainant, v. HON. CADER P. INDAR, AL HAJ, PRESIDING JUDGE AND ABDULRAHMAN D. PIANG, PROCESS SERVER, BRANCH 14, BOTH OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 14, COTABATO CITY, Respondents.

  • A.M. No. P-12-3043 [Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 08-2953-P], January 15, 2014 - ATTY. MARCOS R. SUNDIANG, Complainant, v. ERLITO DS. BACHO, SHERIFF IV, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 124, CALOOCAN CITY, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. P-08-2574 (Formerly A.M. OCA IPI No. 08-2748-P), January 22, 2014 - RAUL K. SAN BUENAVENTURA, Complainant, v. TIMOTEO A. MIGRIÑO, CLERK OF COURT III, METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 69, PASIG CITY, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 8644 [Formerly CBD Case No. 11-2908], January 22, 2014 - AIDA R. CAMPOS, ALISTAIR R. CAMPOS AND CHARMAINE R. CAMPOS, Complainants, v. ATTY. ELISEO M. CAMPOS, Respondent.

  • A.C. No. 5581, January 14, 2014 - ROSE BUNAGAN-BANSIG, Complainant, v. ATTY. ROGELIO JUAN A. CELERA, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. P-13-3141 [Formerly OCA I.P.I. No. 08-2875-P], January 21, 2014 - ATTY. RHEA R. ALCANTARA-AQUINO, Complainant, v. MYLENE H. DELA CRUZ, CLERK III, OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, SANTA CRUZ, LAGUNA, Respondent.

  • A.M. No. P-05-2051, January 21, 2014 - OFFICE OF THE COURT ADMINISTRATOR, Complainant, v. ATTY. MONA LISA A. BUENCAMINO, CLERK OF COURT IV, DAVID E. MANIQUIS, CLERK OF COURT III, AND CIELITO M. MAPUE, SHERIFF III, ALL OF THE OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT, CALOOCAN CITY, Respondents.; A.M. No. 05-4-118-MeTC - RE: REPORT ON THE FINANCIAL AUDIT CONDUCTED IN THE METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT, OFFICE OF THE CLERK OF COURT, CALOOCAN CITY

  • G.R. No. 197760, January 13, 2014 - TEAM ENERGY CORPORATION (FORMERLY MIRANT PAGBILAO CORPORATION), Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 191555, January 20, 2014 - UNION BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Petitioner, v. DEVELOPMENT BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 183880, January 20, 2014 - COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Petitioner, v. TOLEDO POWER, INC., Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 180972, January 20, 2014 - JONAS MICHAEL R. GARZA, Petitioner, v. COCA-COLA BOTTLERS PEREZ, AND PHILIPPINES, INC. CHRISTINE BANAL/ CALIXTO MANAIG, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 192034, January 13, 2014 - ALPHA SHIP MANAGEMENT CORPORATION/JUNEL M. CHAN AND/OR CHUO-KAIUN COMPANY, LIMITED, Petitioners, v. ELEOSIS V. CALO, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 176439, January 15, 2014 - THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS, Petitioner, v. BTL CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, RESPONDENT.; G.R. No. 176718 - BTL CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. THE PRESIDENT OF THE MANILA MISSION OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS AND BPI-MS INSURANCE CORPORATION, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 185798, January 13, 2014 - FIL-ESTATE PROPERTIES, INC. AND FIL-ESTATE NETWORK, INC., Petitioners, v. SPOUSES CONRADO AND MARIA VICTORIA RONQUILLO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 190928, January 13, 2014 - TEAM ENERGY CORPORATION (FORMERLY MIRANT PAGBILAO CORP.), Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 201011, January 27, 2014 - THERESITA, JUAN, ASUNCION, PATROCINIA, RICARDO, AND GLORIA, ALL SURNAMED DIMAGUILA, Petitioners, v. JOSE AND SONIA A. MONTEIRO, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 187973, January 20, 2014 - LZK HOLDINGS AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. PLANTERS DEVELOPMENT BANK, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 196231, January 28, 2014 - EMILIO A. GONZALES III, Petitioner, v. OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES, ACTING THROUGH AND REPRESENTED BY EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PAQUITO N. OCHOA, JR., SENIOR DEPUTY EXECUTIVE SECRETARY JOSE AMOR M. AMORANDO, OFFICER-IN-CHARGE - OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY EXECUTIVE SECRETARY FOR LEGAL AFFAIRS, ATTY. RONALDO A. GERON, DIR. ROWENA TURINGAN-SANCHEZ, AND ATTY. CARLITO D. CATAYONG, Respondents.; G.R. No. 196232 - WENDELL BARRERAS-SULIT, Petitioner, v. ATTY. PAQUITO N. OCHOA, JR., IN HIS CAPACITY AS EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT, ATTY. DENNIS F. ORTIZ, ATTY. CARLO D. SULAY AND ATTY. FROILAN D. MONTALBAN, JR., IN THEIR CAPACITIES AS CHAIRMAN AND MEMBERS OF OFFICE OF MALACAÑANG LEGAL AFFAIRS, Respondents.

  • G.R. No. 200304, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. DONALD VASQUEZ Y SANDIGAN @ “DON,” Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 201092, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JOEL AQUINO Y CENDANA @ “AKONG,” Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 199226, January 15, 2014 - PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. ROEL VERGARA Y CLAVERO, Accused-Appellant.

  • G.R. No. 196171, January 15, 2014 - RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC. (NOW BDO UNIBANK, INC.), Respondent.; G.R. NO. 199238 - BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC., Petitioner, v. COURT OF APPEALS AND RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION, Respondents.; G.R. NO. 200213 - BANCO DE ORO UNIBANK, INC., Petitioner, v. RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION AND THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL IN ICC ARBITRATION REF. NO. 13290/MS/JEM AND/OR RICHARD IAN BARKER, NEIL KAPLAN AND SANTIAGO KAPUNAN, IN THEIR OFFICIAL CAPACITY AS MEMBERS OF THE ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL, Respondents.

  • G.R. Nos. 198729-30, January 15, 2014 - CBK POWER COMPANY LIMITED, Petitioner, v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent.

  • G.R. No. 196156, January 15, 2014 - VISAYAS COMMUNITY MEDICAL CENTER (VCMC), FORMERLY KNOWN AS METRO CEBU COMMUNITY HOSPITAL (MCCH), Petitioner, v. ERMA YBALLE, NELIA ANGEL, ELEUTERIA CORTEZ AND EVELYN ONG, Respondents.

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  •  





     
     

    G.R. No. 164985, January 15, 2014 - FIRST UNITED CONSTRUCTORS CORPORATION and BLUE STAR CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Petitioners, v. BAYANIHAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATION, Respondent.

      G.R. No. 164985, January 15, 2014 - FIRST UNITED CONSTRUCTORS CORPORATION and BLUE STAR CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Petitioners, v. BAYANIHAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATION, Respondent.

    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    FIRST DIVISION

    G.R. No. 164985, January 15, 2014

    FIRST UNITED CONSTRUCTORS CORPORATION and BLUE STAR CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Petitioners, v. BAYANIHAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATION, Respondent.

    D E C I S I O N

    BERSAMIN, J.:

    This case concerns the applicability of the legal principles of recoupment and compensation.

    The Case

    Under review is the decision promulgated on July 26, 2004,1 whereby the Court of Appeals CA) affirmed the judgment rendered on May 14 1996 by the Regional Trial Court, Branch 107, in Quezon City adjudging the petitioners defendants) liable to pay to the respondent plaintiff) various sums of money and damages.2

    Antecedents

    Petitioner First United Constructors Corporation (FUCC) and petitioner Blue Star Construction Corporation (Blue Star) were associate construction firms sharing financial resources, equipment and technical personnel on a case-to-case basis. From May 27, 1992 to July 8, 1992, they ordered six units of dump trucks from the respondent, a domestic corporation engaged in the business of importing and reconditioning used Japan-made trucks, and of selling the trucks to interested buyers who were mostly engaged in the construction business, to wit:

    UNIT TO WHOM
    DELIVERY
    DATE OF DELIVERY
    Isuzu Dump Truck FUCC 27 May 1992
    Isuzu Dump Truck FUCC 27 May 1992
    Isuzu Dump Truck FUCC 10 June 1992
    Isuzu Dump Truck FUCC 18 June 1992
    Isuzu Dump Truck Blue Star 4 July 1992
    Isuzu Dump Truck FUCC 8 July 1992

    The parties established a good business relationship, with the respondent extending service and repair work to the units purchased by the petitioners. The respondent also practiced liberality towards the petitioners in the latter’s manner of payment by later on agreeing to payment on terms for subsequent purchases.

    On September 19, 1992, FUCC ordered from the respondent one unit of Hino Prime Mover that the respondent delivered on the same date. On September 29, 1992, FUCC again ordered from the respondent one unit of Isuzu Transit Mixer that was also delivered to the petitioners. For the two purchases, FUCC partially paid in cash, and the balance through post-dated checks, as follows:

    BANK/CHECK NO. DATE AMOUNT
    Pilipinas Bank 18027379 23 November 1992 P360,000.00
    Pilipinas Bank 18027384 1 December 1992 P375,000.00

    Upon presentment of the checks for payment, the respondent learned that FUCC had ordered the payment stopped. The respondent immediately demanded the full settlement of their obligation from the petitioners, but to no avail. Instead, the petitioners informed the respondent that they were withholding payment of the checks due to the breakdown of one of the dump trucks they had earlier purchased from respondent, specifically the second dump truck delivered on May 27, 1992.

    Due to the refusal to pay, the respondent commenced this action for collection on April 29, 1993, seeking payment of the unpaid balance in the amount of P735,000.00 represented by the two checks.

    In their answer, the petitioners averred that they had stopped the payment on the two checks worth P735,000.00 because of the respondent’s refusal to repair the second dump truck; and that they had informed the respondent of the defects in that unit but the respondent had refused to comply with its warranty, compelling them to incur expenses for the repair and spare parts. They prayed that the respondent return the price of the defective dump truck worth P830,000.00 minus the amounts of their two checks worth P735,000.00, with 12% per annum interest on the difference of P90,000.00 from May 1993 until the same is fully paid; that the respondent should also reimburse them the sum of P247,950.00 as their expenses for the repair of the dump truck, with 12% per annum interest from December 16, 1992, the date of demand, until fully paid; and that the respondent pay exemplary damages as determined to be just and reasonable but not less than P500,000, and attorney’s fees of P50,000 plus P1,000.00 per court appearance and other litigation expenses.

    It was the position of the respondent that the petitioners were not legally justified in withholding payment of the unpaid balance of the purchase price of the Hino Prime Mover and the Isuzu Transit Mixer due the alleged defects in second dump truck because the purchase of the two units was an entirely different transaction from the sale of the dump trucks, the warranties for which having long expired.

    Judgment of the RTC

    On May 14, 1996, the RTC rendered its judgment,3 finding the petitioners liable to pay for the unpaid balance of the purchase price of the Hino Prime Mover and the Isuzu Transit Mixer totaling P735,000.00 with legal interest and attorney’s fees; and declaring the respondent liable to pay to the petitioners the sum of P71,350.00 as costs of the repairs incurred by the petitioners. The RTC held that the petitioners could not avail themselves of legal compensation because the claims they had set up in the counterclaim were not liquidated and demandable. The fallo of the judgment states:

    WHEREFORE, judgment is hereby rendered:

    1. Ordering defendants, jointly and severally to pay plaintiff the sum of P360,000.00 and P375,000.00 with interest at the legal rate of 12% per annum computed from February 11, 1993, which is the date of the first extrajudicial demand, until fully paid;

    2. Ordering the defendants, jointly and severally, to pay plaintiff the sum equivalent to 10% of the principal amount due, for attorney’s fees;

    3. On the counterclaim, ordering plaintiff to pay defendants the sum of P71,350.00 with interest at the legal rate of 12% per annum computed from the date of this decision until fully paid;

    4. Ordering plaintiff to pay the defendants attorney’s fees equivalent to 10% of the amount due;

    5. No pronouncement as to costs.

    SO ORDERED.4

    Decision of the CA

    The petitioners appealed, stating that they could justifiably stop the payment of the checks in the exercise of their right of recoupment because of the respondent’s refusal to settle their claim for breach of warranty as to the purchase of the second dump truck.

    In its decision promulgated on July 26, 2004,5 however, the CA affirmed the judgment of the RTC. It held that the remedy of recoupment could not be properly invoked by the petitioners because the transactions were different; that the expenses incurred for the repair and spare parts of the second dump truck were not a proper subject of recoupment because they did not arise out of the purchase of the Hino Prime Mover and the Isuzu Transit Mixer; and that the petitioners’ claim could not also be the subject of legal compensation or set-off, because the debts in a set-off should be liquidated and demandable.

    Issues

    The petitioners are now before the Court asserting in their petition for review on certiorari that the CA erred in:

    I

    x x x NOT UPHOLDING THE RIGHT OF PETITIONER[S] TO RECOUPMENT UNDER PAR. (1) OF ART. 1599 OF THE CIVIL CODE, WHICH PROVIDES [FOR] THE RIGHTS AND REMEDIES AVAILABLE TO A BUYER AGAINST A SELLER’S BREACH OF WARRANTY.

    II

    x x x RULING THAT PETITIONERS CANNOT AVAIL OF COMPENSATION ALLEGEDLY BECAUSE THEIR CLAIMS AGAINST RESPONDENT ARE NOT LIQUIDATED AND DEMANDABLE.

    III

    x x x NOT HOLDING RESPONDENT LIABLE TO PETITIONERS FOR LEGAL INTEREST COMPUTED FROM THE FIRST EXTRAJUDICIAL DEMAND, AND FOR ACTUAL EXEMPLARY DAMAGES.6

    The petitioners submit that they were justified in stopping the payment of the two checks due to the respondent’s breach of warranty by refusing to repair or replace the defective second dump truck earlier purchased; that the withholding of payments was an effective exercise of their right of recoupment as allowed by Article 1599(1) of the Civil Code; due to the seller’s breach of warranty that the CA’s interpretation (that recoupment in diminution or extinction of price in case of breach of warranty by the seller should refer to the reduction or extinction of the price of the same item or unit sold and not to a different transaction or contract of sale) was not supported by jurisprudence; that recoupment should not be restrictively interpreted but should include the concept of compensation or set-off between two parties who had claims arising from different transactions; and that the series of purchases and the obligations arising therefrom, being inter-related, could be considered as a single and ongoing transaction for all intents and purposes.

    The respondent counters that the petitioners could not refuse to pay the balance of the purchase price of the Hino Prime Mover and the Isuzu Transit Mixer on the basis of the right of recoupment under Article 1599 of the Civil Code; that the buyer’s remedy of recoupment related only to the same transaction; and that compensation was not proper because the claims of the petitioners as alleged in their counterclaim were not liquidated and demandable.

    There is no longer any question that the petitioners were liable to the respondent for the unpaid balance of the purchase price of the Hino Prime Mover and the Isuzu Transit Mixer. What remain to be resolved are strictly legal, namely: one, whether or not the petitioners validly exercised the right of recoupment through the withholding of payment of the unpaid balance of the purchase price of the Hino Prime Mover and the Isuzu Transit Mixer; and, two, whether or not the costs of the repairs and spare parts for the second dump truck delivered to FUCC on May 27, 1992 could be offset for the petitioners’ obligations to the respondent.

    Ruling

    We affirm the decision of the CA with modification.

    1.
    Petitioners could not validly resort to recoupment against respondent

    Recoupment (reconvencion) is the act of rebating or recouping a part of a claim upon which one is sued by means of a legal or equitable right resulting from a counterclaim arising out of the same transaction.7 It is the setting up of a demand arising from the same transaction as the plaintiff’s claim, to abate or reduce that claim.

    The legal basis for recoupment by the buyer is the first paragraph of Article 1599 of the Civil Code, viz:

    Article 1599. Where there is a breach of warranty by the seller, the buyer may, at his election:

    (1) Accept or keep the goods and set up against the seller, the breach of warranty by way of recoupment in diminution or extinction of the price;

    (2) Accept or keep the goods and maintain an action against the seller for damages for the breach of warranty;

    (3) Refuse to accept the goods, and maintain an action against the seller for damages for the breach of warranty;

    (4) Rescind the contract of sale and refuse to receive the goods or if the goods have already been received, return them or offer to return them to the seller and recover the price or any part thereof which has been paid.

    When the buyer has claimed and been granted a remedy in anyone of these ways, no other remedy can thereafter be granted, without prejudice to the provisions of the second paragraph of article 1191. (Emphasis supplied)

    x x x

    In its decision, the CA applied the first paragraph of Article 1599 of the Civil Code to this case, explaining thusly:

    Paragraph (1) of Article 1599 of the Civil Code which provides for the remedy of recoupment in diminution or extinction of price in case of breach of warranty by the seller should therefore be interpreted as referring to the reduction or extinction of the price of the same item or unit sold and not to a different transaction or contract of sale. This is more logical interpretation of the said article considering that it talks of breach of warranty with respect to a particular item sold by the seller. Necessarily, therefore, the buyer’s remedy should relate to the same transaction and not to another.

    Defendants-appellants’ act of ordering the payment on the prime mover and transit mixer stopped was improper considering that the said sale was a different contract from that of the dump trucks earlier purchased by defendants-appellants.

    The claim of defendants-appellants for breach of warranty, i.e. the expenses paid for the repair and spare parts of dump truck no. 2 is therefore not a proper subject of recoupment since it does not arise out of the contract or transaction sued on or the claim of plaintiff-appellee for unpaid balances on the last two (2) purchases, i. e. the prime mover and the transit mixer.8

    The CA was correct. It was improper for petitioners to set up their claim for repair expenses and other spare parts of the dump truck against their remaining balance on the price of the prime mover and the transit mixer they owed to respondent. Recoupment must arise out of the contract or transaction upon which the plaintiff’s claim is founded.9 To be entitled to recoupment, therefore, the claim must arise from the same transaction, i.e., the purchase of the prime mover and the transit mixer and not to a previous contract involving the purchase of the dump truck. That there was a series of purchases made by petitioners could not be considered as a single transaction, for the records show that the earlier purchase of the six dump trucks was a separate and distinct transaction from the subsequent purchase of the Hino Prime Mover and the Isuzu Transit Mixer. Consequently, the breakdown of one of the dump trucks did not grant to petitioners the right to stop and withhold payment of their remaining balance on the last two purchases.

    2.
    Legal compensation was permissible

    Legal compensation takes place when the requirements set forth in Article 1278 and Article 1279 of the Civil Code are present, to wit:

    Article 1278. Compensation shall take place when two persons, in their own right, are creditors and debtors of each other."

    Article 1279. In order that compensation may be proper, it is necessary:

    (1) That each of the obligors be bound principally, and that he be at the same time a principal creditor of the other;

    (2) That both debts consists in a sum of money, or if the things due are consumable, they be of the same kind, and also of the same quality if the latter has been stated;

    (3) That the two debts be due;

    (4) That they be liquidated and demandable;

    (5) That over neither of them there be any retention or controversy, commenced by third persons and communicated in due time to the debtor.

    As to whether petitioners could avail themselves of compensation, both the RTC and CA ruled that they could not because the claims of petitioners against respondent were not liquidated and demandable.

    The Court cannot uphold the CA and the RTC.

    The RTC already found that petitioners were entitled to the amount of P71,350.00 stated in their counterclaim, and the CA concurred in the finding, stating thusly:

    It is noteworthy that in the letter of December 16, 1992 (Exh. "1") defendants were charging plaintiff only for the following items of repair:

    1. Cost of repair and spare parts - P46,800.00
    2. Cost of repair and spare parts - 24,550.00


    P71,350.00

    Said amounts may be considered to have been spent for repairs covered by the warranty period of three (3) months. While the invoices (Exhs. "2-B" and "3-A") dated September 26, 1992 and September 18, 1992, this delay in repairs is attributable to the fact that when defects were brought to the attention of the plaintiff in the letter of August 14, 1992 (Exh. "8") which was within the warranty period, the plaintiff did not respond with the required repairs and actual repairs were undertaken by defendants. Thereafter, the spare parts covered by Exhibits "2-B" and "3-A" pertain to the engine, which was covered by the warranty.

    x x x. Defendants in their letter of August 14, 1992 (Exhb. "8") demanded correction of defects. In their letter of August 22, 1992 (Exh. "9") they demanded replacement. In their letter of August 27, 1992 (Exh. "10"), they demanded replacement/repair . In September, 1992, they undertook repairs themselves (Exhs. "2-B" and "3-A") and demanded payment for the expenses in their letter of December 16, 1992 (Exh. "1"). All other items of expenses connected with subsequent breakdowns are no longer chargeable to plaintiff which granted only a 3-month warranty. x x x10

    Considering that preponderant evidence showing that petitioners had spent the amount of P71,350.00 for the repairs and spare parts of the second dump truck within the warranty period of three months supported the finding of the two lower courts, the Court accepts their finding. Verily, factual findings of the trial court, when affirmed by the CA, are conclusive on the Court when supported by the evidence on record.11

    A debt is liquidated when its existence and amount are determined.12 Accordingly, an unliquidated claim set up as a counterclaim by a defendant can be set off against the plaintiff’s claim from the moment it is liquidated by judgment.13 Article 1290 of the Civil Code provides that when all the requisites mentioned in Article 1279 of the Civil Code are present, compensation takes effect by operation of law, and extinguishes both debts to the concurrent amount. With petitioners’ expenses for the repair of the dump truck being already established and determined with certainty by the lower courts, it follows that legal compensation could take place because all the requirements were present. Hence, the amount of P71,350.00 should be set off against petitioners’ unpaid obligation of P735,000.00, leaving a balance of P663,650.00, the amount petitioners still owed to respondent.

    We deem it necessary to modify the interest rate imposed by the trial and appellate courts. The legal interest rate to be imposed from February 11, 1993, the time of the extrajudicial demand by respondent, should be 6% per annum in the absence of any stipulation in writing in accordance with Article 2209 of the Civil Code, which provides:

    Article 2209. If the obligation consists in the payment of a sum of money, and the debtor incurs in delay, the indemnity for damages, there being no stipulation to the contrary, shall be the payment of the interest agreed upon, and in the absence of stipulation, the legal interest, which is six per cent per annum.

    WHEREFORE, the Court AFFIRMS the decision promulgated on July 26, 2004 in all respects subject to the MODIFICATION that petitioners are ordered, jointly and severally, to pay to respondent the sum of 1 663,650.00, plus interest of 6% per annum computed from February

    11, 1993, the date of the first extrajudicial demand, until fully paid; and ORDERS the petitioners to pay the costs of suit.

    SO ORDERED.

    LUCAS P. BERSAMIN
    Associate Justice

    WE CONCUR:

    MARIA LOURDES P. A. SERENO
    Chief Justice

    TERESITA J. LEONARDO-DE CASTRO
    Associate Justice
    MARTIN S. VILLARAMA, JR.
    Associate Justice

    ESTELA M. PERLAS-BERNABE*
    Associate Justice

    C E R T I F I C A T I O N

    Pursuant to Section 13, Article VIII of the Constitution, I certify that the conclusions in the above Decision had been reached in consultation before the case was assigned to the writer of the opinion of the Court's Division.

    MARIA LOURDES P. A. SERENO
    Chief Justice




    Endnotes:


    * Vice Associate Justice Bienvenido L. Reyes, who took part in the Court of Appeals, per the raffle of December 9, 2013.

    1 Rollo, pp. 8-20; penned by Associate Justice Rosalinda Asuncion-Vicente retired), with the concurrence of Associate Justice Eugenio S. Labitoria retired) and Associate Justice Bienvenido L. Reyes now a Member of this Court).

    2 Id. at 52-69; penned by Presiding Judge Rosalina L. Luna Pison.

    3 Id. at 52-69.

    4 Id. at 52-69.

    5 Id. at 8-20.

    6 Id. at 26-27.

    7 Lopez v. Gloria and Sheriff of Leyte, 40 Phil. 26, 31 (1919).

    8 Rollo, pp. 48-49.

    9 Korea Exchange Bank v. Gonzales, G.R. Nos. 142286-87, April 15, 2005, 456 SCRA 224, 239.

    10 Rollo, pp. 65-66.

    11 Dimaranan v. Heirs of Spouses Hermogenes Arayata and Flaviana Arayata, G.R. No. 184193, March 29, 2010, 617 SCRA 101.

    12 Tolentino, Civil Code of the Philippines, Vol. IV, 2002 Ed., p. 371, cited in Montemayor v. Millora, G.R .No. 168251, July 27, 2011, 654 SCRA 580, 589.

    13 Lao v. Special Plans, Inc., G.R. No. 164791, June 29, 2010, 622 SCRA 27, 36.


    G.R. No. 164985, January 15, 2014 - FIRST UNITED CONSTRUCTORS CORPORATION and BLUE STAR CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION, Petitioners, v. BAYANIHAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATION, Respondent.


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