Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence


Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence > Year 1909 > February 1909 Decisions > G.R. No. 4714 March 9, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. EUSEBIO BURIAS, ET AL.

013 Phil 118:




PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

EN BANC

[G.R. No. 4714. March 9, 1909. ]

THE UNITED STATES, Plaintiff, v. EUSEBIO BURIAS, ET AL., Defendants.

Solicitor-General Harvey, for Plaintiff.

J. Generoso, for Defendants.

SYLLABUS


1. CRIMINAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE; COMPETENCY OF CONFESSIONS BY ACCOMPLICES. — Confessions made by an accomplice in the commission of a crime and his allegations tending to incriminate his codefendants should be taken into account and are worthy of credit at the trial, when said accomplice confesses and affirms his participation in the crime, and when his statements are moreover corroborated by other circumstantial evidence and by certain declarations of his said codefendants, although the latter deny the charge.

2. ID.; ROBBERY WITH HOMICIDE; INDIVISIBLE PENALTIES. — Upon the proven authors of the complex crime of robbery with homicide punished by two indivisible penalties, there should be imposed the higher of the two when, in the commission of the crime, there were several aggravating circumstances without any mitigating circumstance to counteract the effects thereof.


D E C I S I O N


TORRES, J. :


Between 6 and 7 o’clock on the evening of Tuesday, the 28th of January, 1908, several pupils were gathered at the house of Miss Anna E. Hahn, situated in Calle D. Silang, in the town of Batangas, capital of the province of the same name. The said lady, as a teacher of the provincial high school, was teaching them to recite some selected pieces which they were preparing for a performance that was to take place at the school on Friday of that week.

Miss Hahn was about 50 years of age, and had been engaged in teaching in these Islands since 1901; she lived alone, in a house with a nipa roof, erected on the same lot as the provincial high-school building, and located within a short distance of the same. She was reputed among the persons who were acquainted with her as being possessed of considerable means. In the said house in which she resided, and which consisted of several rooms, was also located the school wherein she taught domestic science.

On the following morning, Wednesday, the 29th, Miss Hahn did not attend school at the usual hour and some of her pupils went to her house in search of her. The did not enter the house, but called to her from the outside. They immediately returned somewhat alarmed, and informed the principal teacher, Mr. Small, that the said lady had not responded to their calls. At this the said principal, accompanied by another teacher, Mr. Gregg, at once went to the above-mentioned house, where they found Miss Hahn lying dead in her bedroom, the body stretched partly on the floor and partly on a canvas bed. The face was covered with blood and they found blood stains on the partition wall alongside. The deceased was dressed, her shoes were on her feet, and her clothes slightly disarranged but in almost normal condition. The bed did not seem to have been occupied by its owner. There was a hand lamp with a broken chimney on the table of the bedroom, and on the table of the sala (reception or sitting room) there lay an open book, face downward. There was no lamp on this table but near by hung the frame of a hanging lamp. In an open trunk there were found some clothes belonging to the deceased, a gold watch and a ten-peso note. It should be noted that the entrance door of the house connected directly with the sala.

The municipal physician, Gregorio Limjoco, and the Army surgeon, Frederick Jenkins, visited the said house on the same date, the 29th, and examined the body of the deceased. They found seventeen wounds upon it, some of which were mortal. Fifteen of the wounds were upon the head; the skull had been fractured by blows on the forehead, on the left side, and on the back of the head. A wound was discovered on the neck and another on the right side below the ribs, both apparently inflicted with the edge of a cutting and stabbing instrument. As these wounds had not bled, it would appear that they were inflicted after the victim was dead. The injuries on the head had been produced by an instrument similar to a club, and from the appearance of the parallel edges of the wounds, it is inferred that the instrument used was similar to a large file or some grooved instrument. It should further be noted that to the south of the house of the deceased there was a cornfield, cultivated by Lucio Aldea, and separated from the house by a fence. On the morning of Thursday, the 30th of January, two policemen engaged in investigating clues found in this field, at a distance of about 15 feet from this fence, a small new trunk, containing clothing and some letters addressed to the deceased. The trunk was open and upon the cover there were some blood stains in parallel lines similar to those which might be produced by a grooved or channelled bar sliding across the surface. Various articles for ladies’ use that apparently had been taken from the trunk were strewn upon the ground. An iron bar about 14 inches long and five-eights of an inch thick was also found on March 14, near the fence of the said cornfield at a distance of about 10 or 12 feet, at a point where the fence was apparently broken and near the spot where the trunk was found. At one end of this bar was wound a spiral thread and a piece of cloth was wrapped around the other, apparently to form a handle.

From the whole of the evidence adduced in the case it would appear that the events which occurred in the house of Miss Hahn took place in the following manner: After 8 o’clock of the evening of Tuesday, the 28th of January, Macario Balangui, a cook in the service of the principal teacher, Mr. Small, left the latter’s house after supper to return home, although with the intention of calling while on his way on Pablo Berba, his friend and patron; but on reaching the junction of Calles Aguinaldo and D. Silang, he met Eusebio Burias, who invited him to accompany him to the house of Miss Hahn, whom he was going to ask to lend him some money. Balangui acceded to this request in order to please Burias, and on asking the latter what it was that the carried on his back beneath his shirt, was told that it was a stick. On arriving in front of the above-mentioned house Burias told Balangui to wait for him, and then went toward the south and the fence that separated the cornfield from Miss Hahn’s yard. When Burias arrived there he called out to some one and a few minutes later a man appeared who, on being asked who he was replied that the was Lucio Aldea, the owner of the said cornfield on the south of Miss Hahn’s house. After a short conversation Eusebio Burias and Lucio Aldea said that they would enter the teacher’s house, Burias telling Balangui to stand in front thereof and warning him not to tell anybody that they were inside. The door of the house stood open and when they had passed through, Eusebio entering first, followed by Lucio, Balangui took up a position to the north in the dark. From this point he heard Eusebio’s voice asking Miss Hahn in English to lend him some money, and the latter’s voice refusing. Immediately afterwards he heard a sound as of a human body falling to the floor. Believing that it was Miss Hahn’s body he ran toward the street, and then he heard a cry of "no-o, Sebio." He thereupon sat down, but as he could not keep still, he again approached the house to a distance of about 3 brazas (6 yards) from the steps to see what had been done. At this moment he heard the words "Hurry up or people will catch us," and immediately afterwards Eusebio and Lucio came out of the house carrying a trunk, on the top of which was a stick; this they took to the south side of the house. After seeing this Balangui went to Nicanor Berba’s store, which was still open. In a short time he saw Eusebio hurrying from the scene of the crime. Balangui went to meet him and asked whether he had obtained the money from the teacher. Eusebio replied in the negative, and on being asked why, he answered that they had killed her. When questioned as to why they had killed her Eusebio replied: "Because she knew me, and she might have given information against me." Balangui then went to Pablo Berba’s house, where he sat down upon a bench. Shortly afterwards Eusebio Burias appeared, and at the latter’s invitation Balangui accompanied him to the circus. On their way, at Burias’ request Balangui bought a piece of cake (un pionono) for 2 centavos, which was the only money he had. Eusebio ate the cake, and on reaching the circus they separated, and he did not see Burias again until he was captured.

By virtue of the foregoing, on March 26, 1908, an information was filed by the provincial fiscal in the Court of First Instance of Batangas, charging Eusebio Burias, Lucio Aldea, and Macario Balangui with the crime of robbery with homicide, and the corresponding proceedings having been instituted, the judge on the 31st of the said month rendered judgment sentencing Eusebio Burias and Lucio Aldea to be hanged by the neck until dead at the place fixed by law, and Macario Balangui to the penalty of fourteen years, eight months, and one day of cadena temporal, with the accessories, and all of them, jointly and severally, to indemnify the heirs of the deceased, Miss Anna E. Hahn, in the sum of P2,000 and to pay the costs in equal parts. The accused Burias and Aldea expressed their desire to appeal, but the lower court informed them that the judgment would be submitted for review on account of the death penalty imposed upon them. Macario Balangui appealed to this court, but a few days after the trial of the case in this second instance he filed a written request to withdraw his appeal as he was disposed to serve his sentence. This writing was ratified by him before a witness in the presence of the Director of Prisons.

The facts above-related, fully proven in this case, constitute the complex of robbery with homicide prescribed and punished by articles 502 and 503, paragraph 1, of the Penal Code, inasmuch as it appears proven beyond peradventure of doubt that between the hours 8.30 and 9.30 of the said night, the house of the unfortunate Miss Anna E. Hahn, who lived alone therein, was entered by two persons armed with a stick and an iron bar, accompanied by another who remained near by on the premises, for the purpose of robbing the same; that to that end they assaulted their victim with the said stick and iron bar, inflicting fifteen wounds on her face and head, one on her neck, and another on her right side; that some of the wounds on the head were mortal, the blows fracturing the skull, in consequence of which she died instantly; that on leaving the house the robbers took with them a traveling trunk that contained clothes and other articles belonging to the deceased, and which trunk, together with its contents was found on the morning of the third day in an adjoining cornfield, and, on the 14th of March following, the iron bar with which the crime was committed was found a short distance from the place where the trunk had been found in the same field.

It is indisputable that the said crime, which was duly qualified as robbery with homicide, was committed, since the unfortunate victim of the atrocious act was living and in good health until about 8 o’clock on the evening of Tuesday, January 28, at which time several of her pupils who had been there to receive their lessons left her at the house. On the following day she was found dead, her body showing seventeen wounds. Therefore there is no doubt that she lost her life in a violent manner, and not as the consequence of some disease. From the fact that a book was found open and lying face downward on the table it is indubitable that the deceased was reading when the robbers entered the sala and she placed the book on the table on rising from her chair to receive them. The hand lamp which probably furnished light for her reading must have been taken to the bedroom by one of the aggressors before or after assaulting her and placed on the table where it was found, for their use in committing the robbery, which was the final object of the malefactors. The cause furnishes no evidence that they had put her to death for any motive other than that which led them to the said house, therefore it is undeniable that they killed her in order to rob her with safety to themselves and without any hindrance. In fact this was so said by Eusebio Burias to Macario Balangui; that is, that they killed Miss Hahn because she recognized him in the act of the assault.

It was also clearly proven in the case that the crime of robbery was committed. The finding of a trunk containing clothes, letters addressed to the victim, and other articles belonging to her, by the local authorities and their agents in the cornfield contiguous to the scene of the crime on the third day after its execution, proves in an incontrovertible manner the commission of said crime, so that it can not be denied that the complex crime of robbery with homicide was committed.

No one witnessed the execution of the crime except the principals thereof, but by the revelations of Macario Balangui, who remained on the premises, it is possible in a way to reconstitute the acts of which the unfortunate teacher, Miss Hahn, was the victim, at least from the time the robbers entered the house up to the moment they left it carrying with them the trunk with the iron bar on top. In order to fix and determine what share the accused Burias and Aldea took in said crime it is therefore necessary to look to the testimony of Macario Balangui and the other data and merits of the case.

The judge who tried the case and made the findings of held that the participation and responsibility of Macario Balangui was that of an accomplice, who, with knowledge of the commission of the crime, cooperated in its execution by acts previous to and during its commission, thought not as principal. Macario, in relating what occurred in his presence before and after the death of Miss Hahn, and in incriminating his codefendants Burias and Aldea, neither denied nor excused, but indeed confessed the part taken by him, and which the court below qualified as cooperation in the crime, so there is no lawful reason why these confessions and incriminations against his coaccused should not be taken into account. Only those confessions and incriminations made by a coprincipal or accomplice who absolutely denies the charge and the facts alleged by the prosecution, and to excuse himself attributes to another person the execution of the crime should be rejected. The testimony of Macario Balangui is the more admissible and worthy of credit inasmuch as it is corroborated by circumstantial evidence and by certain statements of Eusebio Burias, and because it was neither denied nor proved to be false during the trial.

The two accused, Eusebio Burias and Lucio Aldea, denied the charge and pleaded not guilty, but in spite of their respective allegations in their defense, the case furnishes against them the incriminating testimony of Macario Balangui, which, coupled with a great deal of circumstantial evidence, proves in a satisfactory manner the guilt of said accused as the only principals by direct participation, fully convicted, of the complex crime of robbery with homicide.

A few days prior to the commission of the crime, Eusebio Burias left the service of the teachers Mr. Gregg and Mr. Scheer, and it is not true that he afterwards entered the service of Captain Parsons. He was then without occupation and means of living, and though he lacked the money with which to purchase the necessaries of life he proposed to resort to gambling. He attempted to buy four gamecocks from Angel Borbon on credit, but Borbon’s wife would not consent to his taking them without having first paid the price. Two days prior to the occurrence, in the presence of Valeriano Delgado, he requested a person in the cockpit to loan him some money which he promised to repay on the next day when he would get some, he said, from an American teacher who had commissioned him to look for a servant for her. On the afternoon and night of the date of the crime said Burias was walking around the streets near the house of his victim; seeing her in the store of a Chinaman he stopped to watch her. While in that position he was seen by a cavalry sergeant named William Bigger who, upon hearing of the crime, spoke of it to another person and testified to the fact in court in the presence of the accused. The latter in turn could not state with precision where he was from half past eight to ten o’clock of the said night of Tuesday, January 28, although in his testimony he says that he was in the vicinity of the place mentioned, and while Balangui related the facts under oath in the presence of the accused Burias, the latter heard impassively and without protest the statements and revelations of Balangui attributing to him the principal part in the commission of the crime herein prosecuted.

Moreover, the defendant Burias that night was dressed in khaki, and was seen by the policeman Macatangay, who was on duty after 8 o’clock at the corner of the streets P. Burgos and Aguinaldo, walking toward the place where the house of the victim is located. When brought before the municipal president on the afternoon on the 29th, spots of blood were discovered on his khaki shirt and trousers as well as on his khaki coat which was taken from his house; he alleged that the blood was that of a cock belonging to Jose Espino which he had in his possession, but the latter denied having seen him in the cockpit on Sunday the 26th.

It should further be borne in mind, that the deceased lived alone in her house, and that the accused Burias, who by the testimony of Mr. Gregg understands English very well, became acquainted with Miss Hahn’s means and resources through the conversations of Messrs. Gregg and Scheer at meal times. It is not to be wondered at that the accused, in view of his needy condition and lack of money, should have contemplated securing it from Miss Hahn either with her consent of by force. Obtain it he did, and deprived her of her life.

The third letter, written in prison by Eusebio Burias, on March 6, 1908, and addressed to John Nelson, a policeman, in the main undoubtedly relates the real facts as they occurred. With the exception of the name of a man called Balar, and other particulars invented by its author, the letter substantially agrees with the testimony of Macario Balangui. Certain statements contained in the letter, as for example that they found the deceased reading a book in the sala; that after asking them what they wanted she ran toward the bedroom wherein she attempted to confine herself; that she was struck on the head with a wooden stick and an iron bar; that she fell down inside the said room, and that a trunk was taken out of the house--all these and other details specified in the letter produced at the trial appear to be fully confirmed by the evidence in the case as above set out. The allegation made by the accused that the letter in question was dictated by the policeman can not therefore be considered as true because the said policemen denied it, and in effect they were not present at the commission of the crime of which Burias was undoubtedly one of the principals. Furthermore, the accused when questioned as to the crime by Mr. Buck, who went to the prison to investigate the case, told the latter to read the letter which he had written to Nelson because the facts were stated therein.

Against the other accused, Lucio Aldea, there is the declaration of Macario Balangui to the effect the before Burias entered the house he went toward the fence of the cornfield and called out to Aldea, who shortly afterwards appeared and made himself known to Balangui. There is also the statement of the said Burias in the aforesaid letter of March 6 to the effect that Lucio Aldea was one of those who perpetrated the crime and was the first to strike the deceased.

The stolen trunk and its contents were found in the cornfield in charge of the accused Aldea on Thursday morning, and Aldea, when asked by the municipal president in the presence of witnesses on the afternoon of the same day about the said articles, answered that, in effect, he had heard that the trunk had been found on the previous day, Wednesday, thereby giving his hearers to understand that he was aware that the trunk was in the field before it was actually discovered. Footprints similar to those of the accused Aldea were found in places where the earth was damp, leading from the spot where the trunk was found toward the house of the accused.

When this individual was arrested, blood stains were observed on his clothing, and on being questioned in regard to them he first said that they were caused by banana juice, but later declared that they proceeded from the blood of a cock whose comb he had cut on the 26th of that month.

With respect to the menaces and promises alleged by the accused Aldea and Burias to have been made by the policemen Nelson and Macatangay, the latter deny having made them, and the case offers not the slightest proof or indication to the contrary.

From all this circumstantial evidence derived from proven facts and which corroborates Balangui’s testimony, which testimony has been confirmed in its essentials by the letter written by the accused Eusebio Burias, one is fully convinced, beyond a reasonable doubt, of the guilt of the said Burias and Aldea as the proven principals of the complex crime in question, which is one of the four extremely grave crimes punished by the Penal Code in force with two indivisible penalties of cadena perpetua to death.

In the commission of the crime in question the aggravating circumstances of subdivision 9, 15, and 20 of article 10 of the Penal Code must be considered, without any mitigating circumstance to counteract their effects. The robbers perpetrated the crime of robbery with homicide, taking advantage of the silence and darkness of the night; they committed it in the dwelling of the offended party, and they assaulted her simultaneously in order to render ineffective or weaken any defense, and to prevent flight on the part of the victim, and therefore by paragraph 1 of article 80 of said code, the penalty which should be imposed is the greater of the two provided by said paragraph 1 of article 503.

By the foregoing it is shown that the errors assigned by counsel for defense as committed by the court below are without any reason or foundation.

In regard to Macario Balangui, who was sentenced as an accomplice to the medium degree of cadena temporal, no action should be taken in this decision, as he has withdrawn his appeal and stated that he is disposed to serve the sentence imposed upon him.

Therefore by virtue of the foregoing considerations and those of the judgment of the lower court which are not inconsistent herewith, we should affirm, as we do hereby affirm said judgment, with one-third of the costs against each of the accused, provided however, that the execution of the death penalty imposed upon two of the accused shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of Act No. 1577 of the Philippines Commission, and that in case the death penalty should be remitted by pardon of the guilty parties, the latter shall suffer the accessory penalties provided for by article 53 of the Penal Code, unless they be expressly remitted in the pardon.

The appeal presented by Macario Balangui from the judgment of the court below will be considered as withdrawn, and the judge below, who will immediately be informed of this decision, shall proceed according to law to the end that said Balangui shall at once commence to serve his sentence. So ordered.

Arellano, C.J., Mapa, Johnson, Carson and Willard, J.J., concur.




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  • G.R. No. 3413 March 27, 1909 - POMPOSA BONJOC, ET AL. v. CANDELARIO CUISON

    013 Phil 301

  • G.R. No. 3876 March 27, 1909 - RUFINA YATCO v. JESUALDO GANA

    013 Phil 305

  • G.R. No. 4053 March 27, 1909 - IN RE: SERAFIN CANO URQUISA

    013 Phil 315

  • G.R. No. 4575 March 27, 1909 - TEODORICA ENDENCIA CUSAR v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT

    013 Phil 319

  • G.R. No. 4783 March 27, 1909 - LUCIO J. BUZON v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT, ET AL.

    013 Phil 324

  • G.R. No. 4799 March 27, 1909 - AGRIPINO SEGOVIA v. PROVINCIAL BOARD OF ALBAY, ET AL.

    013 Phil 331

  • G.R. No. 4825 March 27, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. BERNARDO SANCHEZ

    013 Phil 337

  • G.R. No. 4882 March 27, 1909 - RUPERTO MONTINOLA v. LUCRECIO HOFILENA, ET AL.

    013 Phil 339

  • G.R. No. 4937 March 27, 1909 - CRISPULO SIDECO v. FRANCISCO PASCUA

    013 Phil 342

  • G.R. No. 4946 March 27, 1909 - MANILA RAILROAD COMPANY v. MARIA DEL CARMEN RODRIGUEZ, ET AL.

    013 Phil 347

  • G.R. No. 4966 March 27, 1909 - LUCIO BUZON v. MAXIMO LICAUCAO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 354

  • G.R. No. 5074 March 27, 1909 - VICENTA FRANCO v. C. W. O’BRIEN

    013 Phil 359

  • G.R. No. 4192 March 29, 1909 - DAVID SALVACION v. EUSTAQUIO SALVACION

    013 Phil 366

  • G.R. No. 4559 March 29, 1909 - TOMAS S. GUISON v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT

    013 Phil 374

  • G.R. No. 4952 March 29, 1909 - TOMAS OLINO v. MARIANO MEDINA

    013 Phil 379

  • G.R. No. 4329 March 30, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. EPIFANIO MAGCOMOT, ET AL.

    013 Phil 386

  • G.R. No. 4226 March 31, 1909 - LA COMPANIA GENERAL DE TABACOS DE FILIPINAS v. CANDIDA OBED, ET AL.

    013 Phil 391

  • G.R. No. 4380 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ESTANISLAO ANABAN, ET AL.

    013 Phil 398

  • G.R. No. 4462 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. AGRIPINO ZABALLERO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 405

  • G.R. No. 4705 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ANTONINA LAMPANO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 409

  • G.R. No. 4885 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VIDAL ROLDAN

    013 Phil 415

  • G.R. No. 4894 March 31, 1909 - GEO WHALEN v. PASIG IRON WORKS

    013 Phil 417

  • G.R. No. 4911 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. AGUSTIN CONCEPCION, ET AL.

    013 Phil 424

  • G.R. No. 5029 April 1, 1909 - JOSE MCMICKING v. EL BANCO ESPANOL FILIPINO

    013 Phil 429

  • G.R. No. 4957 April 2, 1909 - MIGUEL PASCUAL v. MACARIO ANGELES, ET AL.

    013 Phil 441

  • G.R. No. 4992 April 2, 1909 - AGUSTIN GA. GAVIERES v. ADMINISTRATORS OF LUIS PENA, ET AL.

    013 Phil 449

  • G.R. No. 5012 April 2, 1909 - GOVERNMENT OF U.S. IN THE PHIL. ISLANDS v. PERDO CARMEN, ET AL.

    013 Phil 455

  • G.R. No. 4129 April 12, 1909 - ESTEBAN BERSABAL v. ANTONIO BERNAL

    013 Phil 463

  • G.R. No. 4130 April 12, 1909 - REFINO BANES, ET AL. v. JACINTO CORDERO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 466

  • G.R. No. 4454 April 12, 1909 - EX PARTE JUAN ONDEVILLA, ET AL.

    013 Phil 470

  • G.R. No. 4501 April 12, 1909 - LA COMPAÑIA GENERAL DE TABACOS DE FILIPINAS v. ROMANA GANSON

    013 Phil 472

  • G.R. No. 4922 April 12, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. EULOGIO REYES CARRILLO

    013 Phil 479

  • G.R. No. 4502 April 13, 1909 - LA COMPANIA GENERAL DE TABACOS DE FILIPINAS v. ROMANA GANZON

    013 Phil 481

  • G.R. No. 3075 April 14, 1909 - ROMAN CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH v. PROVINCE OF OCCIDENTAL NEGROS

    013 Phil 486

  • G.R. No. 4394 April 19, 1909 - FRANCISCO T. FIGUERAS v. ROCHA & CO.

    013 Phil 504

  • G.R. No. 4704 April 26, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. JOAQUIN GIL

    013 Phil 530

  • G.R. No. 4999 May 13, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. MELECIO VARGAS

    013 Phil 554

  • G.R. No. 4895 June 15, 1909 - GOVERNMENT OF THE PHIL. v. W. O. BINGHAM, ET AL.

    013 Phil 558

  • G.R. No. 4773 July 13, 1909 - MANILA BUILDING and LOAN ASSOCIATION, ET AL.

    013 Phil 575

  • G.R. No. 4960 July 17, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. CIRIACO HERRERA

    013 Phil 583

  • G.R. No. 4290 July 21, 1909 - ROBERT V. DELL v. MANILA ELECTRIC RAILROAD AND LIGHT COMPANY

    013 Phil 585

  • G.R. No. 4881 July 24, 1909 - JOSE LIM v. DOMINGO LIM

    013 Phil 605

  • G.R. No. 1917 July 26, 1909 - CATALINIBALDERAMA v. LA COMPANIA GENERAL DE TABACOS DE FILIPINAS, ET AL.

    013 Phil 609

  • G.R. No. 5190 July 28, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. JOSE CONSUELO

    013 Phil 612

  • G.R. No. 5109 July 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. PEDRO BARBICHO

    013 Phil 616

  • G.R. No. 2905 August 3, 1909 - LA VIUDA DE SOLER v. AURELIO RUSCA.

    013 Phil 622

  • G.R. No. 3228 August 3, 1909 - UNITED STATES ET AL. v. WENCESLAO MERCADO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 624

  • G.R. No. 4163 August 4, 1909 - ED BANCO ESPAÑOL-FILIPINO v. FULGENCIO TAN-TONGCO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 628

  • G.R. No. 2894 August 5, 1909 - JOSE LASERNA TUPAZ v. RAFAEL LOZADA

    013 Phil 654

  • G.R. No. 5114 August 5, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. BARTOLOME ARREGLADO

    013 Phil 660

  • G.R. No. 2085 August 10, 1909 - TIBURCIO SAENZ v. FIGUERAS HERMANOS

    013 Phil 666

  • G.R. No. 5154 August 12, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. PEDRO SUPILA

    013 Phil 671

  • G.R. No. 3666 August 17, 1909 - CITY OF MANILA v. FRANCISCO GAMBE

    013 Phil 677

  • G.R. No. 5184 August 17, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. PLATON IBAÑEZ

    013 Phil 686

  • G.R. No. 343 August 18, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. DANIEL RIOTA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 1

  • G.R. No. 4378 August 18, 1909 - CHAN KEEP, ET AL. v. LEON CHAN GIOCO, ET AL.

    014 Phil 5

  • G.R. No. 4507 August 18, 1909 - MACARIA MANUEL, ET AL. v. FRIDOLIN WIGETT, ET AL.

    014 Phil 9

  • G.R. No. 4859 August 18, 1909 - MANUEL JIMENO, ET AL. v. LOPE GACILAGO

    014 Phil 16

  • G.R. No. 5071 August 18, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ALEJANDRO CAS

    014 Phil 21

  • G.R. No. 5111 August 18, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VICENTE REYES, ET AL.

    014 Phil 27

  • G.R. No. 5220 August 18, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. MIGUEL PINDONG, ET AL.

    014 Phil 31

  • G.R. No. 5235 August 18, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ESTEBAN CELESTINO, ET AL.

    014 Phil 34

  • G.R. No. 5110 August 19, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. FABIANA LEGASPI, ET AL.

    014 Phil 38

  • G.R. No. 4045 August 23, 1909 - ILDEFONSO DORONILA v. GRACIANO GONZAGA

    014 Phil 42

  • G.R. No. 4674 August 23, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VICTORIANO PANALIGAN

    014 Phil 46

  • G.R. No. 3377 August 24, 1909 - BONIFACIO PIMENTEL v. EUGENIO GUTIERREZ

    014 Phil 49

  • G.R. No. 4918 August 26, 1909 - FELICIANA DARIANO v. JOSE FERNANDEZ FIDALGO

    014 Phil 62

  • G.R. No. 3989 August 28, 1909 - LI HANG SHEONG v. VENANCIO C. DIAZ

    014 Phil 68

  • G.R. No. 4426 August 28, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. BENITO FILOTEO

    014 Phil 73

  • G.R. No. 5292 August 28, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. MORO MANALINDE

    014 Phil 77

  • G.R. No. 5153 September 1, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. BARTOLOME MIJARES

    014 Phil 83

  • G.R. No. 5171 September 1, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. LAO LOCK HING

    014 Phil 86

  • G.R. No. 5126 September 2, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. CATALINO APOSTOL

    014 Phil 92

  • G.R. No. 3862 September 6, 1909 - JUAN G. BOSQUE v. YU CHIPCO

    014 Phil 95

  • G.R. No. 4437 September 9, 1909 - TOMAS OSMEÑA v. CENONA RAMA

    014 Phil 99

  • G.R. No. 4471 September 9, 1909 - DAMASA SEGUI v. CANDIDO SEGUI

    014 Phil 102

  • G.R. No. 5273 September 9, 1909 - FRANCISCA JOSE v. WENCESLAUA DAMIAN

    014 Phil 104

  • G.R. No. 5067 September 11, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. CORNELIO MANALO

    016 Phil 654

  • G.R. No. 5618 September 14, 1909 - IN RE: H. G. SMITH

    014 Phil 112

  • G.R. No. 4177 September 15, 1909 - AGATON ARANETA v. BRAULIO MONTELIBANO

    014 Phil 117

  • G.R. No. 4235 September 15, 1909 - SANTIAGO TIN FIAN v. PABLO TAN

    014 Phil 126

  • G.R. No. 4963 September 15, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. GO CHICO

    014 Phil 128

  • G.R. No. 5156 September 15, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. SEBASTIAN MISOLA

    014 Phil 142

  • G.R. No. 5165 September 15, 1909 - GERVASIO UNSON v. SEGUNDO ABRERA

    014 Phil 146

  • G.R. No. 5185 September 15, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. BENITO MENESES

    014 Phil 151

  • G.R. No. 5150 September 16, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. MARCIANO LOPEZ

    014 Phil 155

  • G.R. No. 4236 September 18, 1909 - SANTIAGO TIU FIAN v. HILARIO YAP

    014 Phil 158

  • G.R. No. 4445 September 18, 1909 - CATALINA BUGNAO v. FRANCISCO UBAG, ET AL.

    014 Phil 163

  • G.R. No. 4609 September 18, 1909 - QUE YONG KENG v. RAFAEL TAN QUICO

    014 Phil 173

  • G.R. No. 4694 September 18, 1909 - ROMAN CATHOLIC ARCHBISHOP OF MANILA v. MUN. OF ROSARIO

    014 Phil 176

  • G.R. No. 4887 September 18, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. NICOLAS JAVELLANA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 186

  • G.R. No. 4973 September 18, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. BERNABE CATIPON, ET AL.

    014 Phil 188

  • G.R. No. 5003 September 18, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. FELIX DE JESUS

    014 Phil 190

  • G.R. No. 5262 September 18, 1909 - FRANCISCO ROSA HERNANDEZ, ET AL. v. MELECIO PADUA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 194

  • G.R. No. 4263 September 22, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ESTEFANIA MENDOZA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 198

  • G.R. No. 4837 September 22, 1909 - FRANCISCO IMPERIAL v. JOSE ALEJANDRE

    014 Phil 203

  • G.R. No. 4234 September 23, 1909 - RUPERTA ORAIS v. JACINTA ESCAÑO

    014 Phil 208

  • G.R. No. 4759 September 23, 1909 - SEBASTIAN CABILLAS v. ALFONSO APDUHAN, ET AL.

    014 Phil 213

  • G.R. No. 4971 September 23, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. AUGUSTUS HICKS

    014 Phil 217

  • G.R. No. 5194 September 23, 1909 - CHINESE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE v. PUA TE CHING, ET AL.

    014 Phil 222

  • G.R. No. 5108 September 30, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. NICOMEDES MORALES

    014 Phil 227

  • G.R. No. 4526 October 4, 1909 - TOMAS FORTUNA v. RUFINO VILORIA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 232

  • G.R. No. 4602 October 4, 1909 - JUAN CO v. JAMES J. RAFFERTY

    014 Phil 235

  • G.R. No. 5332 October 4, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. TEODORO BAGUIO, ET AL.

    014 Phil 240

  • G.R. No. 4663 October 9, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. PEDRO CABOLA ET AL.

    016 Phil 657

  • G.R. No. 4846 October 9, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VICENTE MAQUIRAYA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 243

  • G.R. No. 4970 October 9, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. SERAPIO ARTICHO, ET AL.

    014 Phil 248

  • G.R. No. 5138 October 9, 1909 - JOSE MCMICKING v. DOMINGO TREMOYA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 252

  • G.R. No. 5423 October 9, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. SERAPIO POQUIS, ET AL.

    014 Phil 261

  • G.R. No. 4009 October 11, 1909 - NICOLASA ARINGO v. URBANA ARENA

    014 Phil 263

  • G.R. No. 4339 October 11, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. PONCIANO TREYES, ET AL.

    014 Phil 270

  • G.R. No. 3865 October 16, 1909 - GREGORIO FERNANDEZ v. MLA. ELECTRIC RAILROAD AND LIGHT CO.

    014 Phil 274

  • G.R. No. 4362 October 19, 1909 - INSULAR GOV’T. v. DOROTEO NICO, ET AL.

    014 Phil 288

  • G.R. No. 4606 October 19, 1909 - JUAN RODRIGUEZ v. FINDLAY & CO.

    014 Phil 294

  • G.R. No. 5297 October 19, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. MARTINA BACAS

    014 Phil 308

  • G.R. No. 4935 October 25, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. JAMES L. BROBST

    014 Phil 310

  • G.R. No. 4998 October 25, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. JOSE C. SEDANO

    014 Phil 338

  • G.R. No. 5069 October 25, 1909 - TAN CHUCO v. YORKSHIRE FIRE AND LIFE INSURANCE CO.

    014 Phil 346

  • G.R. No. 5083 October 25, 1909 - TOMAS SUNICO v. JOSE VILLAPANDO, ET AL.

    014 Phil 352

  • G.R. No. 5167 October 25, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. JULIAN MENESES

    014 Phil 357

  • G.R. No. 5227 October 25, 1909 - INT’L. BANKING CORP. v. PILAR CORRALES, ET AL.

    014 Phil 360

  • G.R. No. 4102 October 26, 1909 - JOSE CARDELL v. RAMON MAÑERU, ET AL.

    014 Phil 368

  • G.R. No. 5072 October 27, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. SANTIAGO AUSTERO

    014 Phil 377

  • G.R. No. 5424 October 27, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. PRUDENCIO SOTO

    014 Phil 384

  • G.R. No. 4974 October 29, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. NICOLAS GUTIERREZ, ET AL.

    014 Phil 388

  • G.R. No. 5098 October 29, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VENANCIO MONASTERIAL, ET AL.

    014 Phil 391

  • G.R. No. 4934 October 30, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. A. C. V. ROSA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 394

  • G.R. No. 5100 November 3, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. EMILIO BEDOYA

    014 Phil 397

  • G.R. No. 5386 November 8, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ARSENIO PALACIO

    016 Phil 660

  • G.R. No. 4975 November 9, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. SANTIAGO NARVAS

    014 Phil 410

  • G.R. No. 5373 November 9, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. CLAUDIO DE SILVA

    014 Phil 413

  • G.R. No. 4947 November 11, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. PABLO RAYMUNDO, ET AL.

    014 Phil 416

  • G.R. No. 5181 November 13, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ANACLETO ABAD

    014 Phil 444

  • G.R. No. 4932 November 16, 1909 - WARNER, BARNES & CO. v. RAMON F. SANTOS

    014 Phil 446

  • G.R. No. 5348 November 16, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ALEJO PAGUIRIGAN

    014 Phil 450

  • G.R. No. 5503 November 16, 1909 - CATALINA MONTEMAYOR v. MATEO CUNANAN

    014 Phil 454

  • G.R. No. 4752 November 17, 1909 - FLORENTINO CORDERO v. PEDRO CABIGTING

    014 Phil 463

  • G.R. No. 5036 November 17, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. LUCIANO MALEZA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 468

  • G.R. No. 5240 November 19, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. LINO EGUIA LIM BUANCO, ET AL.

    014 Phil 472

  • G.R. No. 5432 November 20, 1909 - TOMAS INOCENCIO v. MIGUEL GATPANDAN, ET AL.

    014 Phil 491

  • G.R. No. 4996 November 26, 1909 - VICTORIANO SIGUENZA v. MUN. OF HINIGARAN

    014 Phil 495

  • G.R. No. 5009 November 26, 1909 - TOMAS SUNICO v. MANUEL RAMIREZ

    014 Phil 500

  • G.R. No. 4976 November 27, 1909 - A. J. EVELAND v. EASTERN MINING CO.

    014 Phil 509

  • G.R. No. 4709 November 29, 1909 - CHAN SUANCO v. DOROTEO ALONSO

    014 Phil 517

  • G.R. No. 5115 November 29, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. MANUEL SAMANIEGO, ET AL.

    016 Phil 663

  • G.R. No. 5208 December 1, 1909 - KUENZLE & STREIFF v. JOSE TAN SUNCO ET AL.

    016 Phil 670

  • G.R. No. 5044 December 1, 1909 - EDWIN CASE v. HEIRS OF TUASON Y SANTIBAÑEZ

    014 Phil 521

  • G.R. No. 5075 December 1, 1909 - MAURICIO RAMIREZ v. SIMEON BAUTISTA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 528

  • G.R. No. 4815 December 2, 1909 - LA YEBANA CO. v. FRANCISCO CHUA SECO & CO.

    014 Phil 535

  • G.R. No. 5096 December 2, 1909 - RAMON MORTERA v. INOCENTE MARTINEZ, ET AL.

    014 Phil 541

  • G.R. No. 5244 December 2, 1909 - EULOGIO TRIA v. RAMON ORTIZ

    014 Phil 551

  • G.R. No. 5306 December 3, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. FERNANDO JARABAS

    014 Phil 558

  • G.R. No. 5307 December 3, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. JOSE GONZAGA CHANGCO

    014 Phil 562

  • G.R. No. 5210 December 4, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VALERIA DE CHAVES

    014 Phil 565

  • G.R. No. 5385 December 4, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. GREGORIO DOMINGO, ET AL.

    014 Phil 569

  • G.R. No. 5275 December 9, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ALEJANDRO BAUTISTA

    014 Phil 579

  • G.R. No. 4871 December 10, 1909 - LEONCIO IMPERIAL v. ALFONSA TOLEDO

    014 Phil 584

  • G.R. No. 5313 December 10, 1909 - JUANA ESPIRITU v. A. S. CROSSFIELD, ET AL.

    014 Phil 588

  • G.R. No. 5217 December 13, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. DANIEL LOPEZ

    014 Phil 593

  • G.R. No. 5344 December 14, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VALERIANA DEUDA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 595

  • G.R. No. 5202 December 16, 1909 - YAP UNKI v. CHUA JAMCO

    014 Phil 602

  • G.R. No. 5295 December 16, 1909 - KUENZLE & STREIFF v. MACKE & CHANDLER, ET AL.

    014 Phil 610

  • G.R. No. 5393 December 16, 1909 - PEDRO TIRANGBUAYA, ET AL. v. JUDGE OF FIRST INSTANCE OF RIZAL, ET AL.

    014 Phil 613

  • G.R. No. 5200 December 17, 1909 - VICENTE BANDOY, ET AL. v. JUDGE OF FIRST INSTANCE OF LA LAGUNA, ET AL.

    014 Phil 621

  • G.R. No. 5397 December 17, 1909 - FABIANA C. ARRIOLA v. CAROLINA GOMEZ DE LA SERNA

    014 Phil 627

  • G.R. No. 4667 December 18, 1909 - GEO. M. LACK, ET AL. v. PANTALEONA ALONSO Y SAN LUIS, ET AL.

    014 Phil 630

  • G.R. No. 5256 December 21, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. EUSTASIO HERNANDEZ, ET AL.

    014 Phil 638

  • G.R. No. 5329 December 21, 1909 - SABINA CRUZ HERRERA DE LUKBAN v. JOSE McMICKING

    014 Phil 641

  • G.R. No. 5318 December 23, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. RAFAEL BUMANGLAG, ET AL.

    014 Phil 644

  • G.R. No. 5534 December 23, 1909 - HERBERT S. WALKER, ET AL. v. JOSE MCMICKING

    014 Phil 668

  • G.R. No. 4724 December 24, 1909 - GREGORIA MONTAÑANO v. SILVESTRE SUESA

    014 Phil 676

  • G.R. No. 5760 December 24, 1909 - MARTIN OCAMPO, ET AL. v. J. C. JENKINS, ET AL.

    014 Phil 681

  • G.R. No. 4280 February 1, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. JULIO BUSTOS

    013 Phil 690

  • G.R. No. 4206 February 1, 1909 - VICENTE M. SANDOVAL v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT

    012 Phil 648

  • G.R. No. 4717 February 1, 1909 - RAFAEL O. RAMOS v. TOMAS LEDESMA

    012 Phil 656

  • G.R. No. 4737 February 1, 1909 - ATANASIO PANDAQUILA v. MIGUEL GAZA, ET AL.

    012 Phil 663

  • G.R. No. 4785 February 1, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. HIGINIO DE LA SERNA, ET AL.

    012 Phil 672

  • G.R. No. 4839 February 1, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. SY QUIAT

    012 Phil 676

  • G.R. No. 4852 February 1, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VICENTE CALIMAG

    012 Phil 687

  • G.R. No. 4373 February 2, 1909 - SAMUEL BISCHOFF v. JUAN D. POMAR, ET AL.

    012 Phil 690

  • G.R. No. 4589 February 3, 1909 - GERONIMO DE GUZMAN v. JOAQUINA ORTIZ

    012 Phil 701

  • G.R. No. 4838 February 3, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. LIM CO

    012 Phil 703

  • G.R. No. 4013 February 4, 1909 - JUSTO GUIDO, ET AL. v. AGUSTIN DE BORJA, ET AL.

    012 Phil 718

  • G.R. No. 4904 February 5, 1909 - ROSALIA MARTINEZ v. ANGEL TAN

    012 Phil 731

  • G.R. No. 4723 February 8, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. TAN TAYCO, ET AL.

    012 Phil 739

  • G.R. No. 4566 February 9, 1909 - YUENG SHENG EXCHANGE AND TRADING COMPANY v. G. URRUTIA & CO., ET AL.

    012 Phil 747

  • G.R. No. 4910 February 10, 1909 - MARIA DE LA CONCEPCION VACANI v. ENRIQUE LLOPIS

    012 Phil 754

  • G.R. No. 4415 February 13, 1909 - PAULINO DOLIENDO, ET AL. v. SANTOS DEPIÑO, ET AL.

    012 Phil 758

  • G.R. No. 4758 February 16, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. T. E. SANTOS

    013 Phil 1

  • G.R. No. 4794 February 16, 1909 - WARNER v. ROMAN AND CIRILO JAUCIAN

    013 Phil 4

  • G.R. No. 4392 February 17, 1909 - PATRICIO UBEDA v. AGAPITO ZIALCITA

    013 Phil 11

  • G.R. No. 4790 February 18, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. AGUSTIN CONCEPCION

    013 Phil 21

  • G.R. No. 4216 February 19, 1909 - KUENZLE & STEREIFF v. A. S. WATSON & CO., ET AL.

    013 Phil 26

  • G.R. No. 4943 February 19, 1909 - JEREMIAH J. HARTY v. ANGEL LUNA

    013 Phil 31

  • G.R. No. 4939 February 20, 1909 - PHILIPPINE RAILWAY COMPANY v. ESTEBAN SOLON

    013 Phil 34

  • G.R. No. 5028 February 20, 1909 - JUANA VALENCIA v. CARMEN DE ROXAS

    013 Phil 45

  • G.R. No. 5085 February 20, 1909 - IN RE: JUAN TOLEDO

    013 Phil 48

  • G.R. No. 4386 February 24, 1909 - CHANG YONG TEK v. GENEROSA SANTOS

    013 Phil 52

  • G.R. No. 4868 February 24, 1909 - JUAN SISON v. FAUSTINO RAMOS

    013 Phil 54

  • G.R. No. 4878 February 27, 1909 - IN RE: JOAQUINA MIJARES DE FARIÑAS v. VICENTE LAVIN

    013 Phil 63