Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence


Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence > Year 1909 > March 1909 Decisions > [G. R. No. 3643. March 23, 1909.] AMBROSIA POSTIGO, Petitioner-Appellant, vs. DOLORES BORJAL, Respondent-Appellee. :




EN BANC

[G. R. No.  3643.  March 23, 1909.]

AMBROSIA POSTIGO, Petitioner-Appellant, vs. DOLORES BORJAL, Respondent-Appellee.

 

D E C I S I O N

TORRES, J.:

On the 2d of September, 1903, Enrique Borjal executed his will and testament, of which the following extract is pertinent to this issue: chanrobles virtualawlibrary

“I hereby declare that I have been married to Doña Ambrosia Postigo for nearly twenty-five years, and that we have had no issue during our marriage. I also declare that all our property, with the exception of two parcels of land in the sitio of Caraycayon Gignaroy was acquired during marriage. The first of these parcels is bounded on the north by the great River Baraton (here follows the description); the second, or that of Gignaroy, is bounded on the north (description follows). All of said property shall be administered by my wife for the space of four years in order to satisfy all of our debts, particularly that due to Don Domingo Monasterio. At the expiration of the four years my wife shall transfer the parcels in Gignaroy which extend from the great River Barayon down to the Arroyo de Gignaroy (description follows) to my sisters Dolores Borjal. ”

On the 26th of November, 1904, the Court of First Instance of Ambos Camarines appointed commissioners to appraise the property of the deceased. They submitted to the court their report on the 30th of October, 1905, stating that they took the oath of office before the justice of the peace of Tigaon and immediately proceeded to assess the property presented by the administratrix of the estate. At the same time they published notices summoning all creditors who had claims against the said property and fixed the 15th and 30th day of each month for the hearing of claims. The first hearing by the commissioners took place on the 30th of December, 1904; successive ones were held on the 15th and 30th of each month from January to October, 1905, but no claims whatever were presented by the creditors of the said estate of the late Enrique Borjal.

The court below, on the 9th of July, 1906, thereupon approved the partition of the hereditary property made by said commissioners in all of its parts, and ordered that the latter place Dolores Borjal in possession of that portion of the inheritance corresponding to her without the necessity of waiting for the four years stipulated in the will. To this end the court ordered that a formal deed of transfer be made out and forwarded to the court in order that it might be included in the proceedings; that a certified copy of the deed of transfer be also sent to the registrar of property in compliance with law; that the fees of the commissioners appointed by the court be charged in equal parts to both inheritances, and that the bond given by the executrix be canceled.

From said decision the latter appealed, and after giving bond for P500 he appeal was admitted and forwarded to this court.

All debts that might be outstanding against the estate of the late Enrique Borjal having been held to be barred by reason of their not being presented for collection within the period fixed for the purpose by the duly appointed commissioners, the question at issue and presented to this court is whether the clause which provided for the retention by the widow of the property which the deceased willed to his sister, Dolores Borjal, may be considered as set aside, and the usufruct of the said property bequeathed to his widow, Ambrosia Postigo, for the period of four years from the death of the testator for the purposes of meeting the debts of the estate, particularly that owing to Domingo Monasterio, should be considered as having terminated.

A rule that is uniformly laid down by the courts is, that the will of the testator is the primary and principal law governing wills and testaments, and when the testamentary provisions are clearly and positively stated, questions arising in the courts in connection with the execution of and compliance therewith shall be adjusted in harmony with the plain and literal meaning of the language of the testator, except where it clearly appears that his intention was other than that actually expressed. (Decisions of the supreme court of Spain of May 24, 1882; October 13, 1896; October 8, 1902.)  cralaw

The above legal doctrine already constitutes a uniform settled rule and is in accord with the conclusive provision of article 675 of the Civil Code which reads: chanrobles virtualawlibrary

“Every testamentary provision shall be understood in the literal meaning of its words, unless it clearly appears that the will of the testator was different. In case of doubt, that which appears most in accordance with the intention of the testator, according to the tenor of the same will, shall be observed.”

Section 640 of the Code of Civil Procedure provides, among other things, that after payment of the debts and of the expenses of administration, the property of the testator shall be disposed of according to his will; and section 643 of said code when enumerating the duties of an executor states that one of them is to administer all property coming into his possession according to the will of the testator.

The testator bequeathed to his widow the usufruct of two parcels of land for the period of four years, in order that she might meet the debts of her husband. Consequently, the circumstance that outstanding debts of the said estate were declared to be barred, owing to the failure of the various creditors and especially of the one named in the will, to appear within the time specified by the commissioners, is no valid reason for shortening the period fixed in the will within which the usufruct should accrue to the widow and executrix. The barring of the debts of the estate cannot effect a modification of the will, nor cause the testamentary provision of the testator to be interpreted as meaning anything but that stated in his will.

Clearly and precisely the testator provided as his last will that his said wife should administer the said parcels of land for four years, in order that she might pay his debts. The fact that no creditor ever appeared to collect them is no reason why the widow and executrix should be deprived of the usufruct of said properties before the lapse of the said four years. Such deprivation would be in violation of the special law that governs the matter, that is, the will of the testator, by which his property must be administered, according to the legal provisions and settled rules hereinbefore cited.

The validity and efficiency of the usufruct bequeathed to the widow and executrix of the testator is not incompatible with the provisions of section 695 of the Code of Civil Procedure, because apart from the obligation imposed by the testator upon his wife in the matte of the payment of his debts, which obligation she was unable to fulfill inasmuch as no creditor presented himself, there exists the order or request that she should retain the said lands in her possession for four years, and there is no valid reason why the will of the testator should not be complied with and the land be delivered to Dolores Borjal at the expiration of said four years.

Therefore, in view of the foregoing, it is our opinion that the judgment appealed from should be reversed, and that it be held, as we do hereby hold, that Ambrosia Postigo is entitled to possession and to administer for the period of four years, from the death of the testator, the two parcels of land and that Dolores Borjal cannot take possession thereof until after the lease of the said term. No special ruling is made as to the costs in either instance.

Arellano, C.J., Mapa, Johnson and Carson, JJ., concur.

 

Separate Opinions

 

WILLARD, J., concurring: chanrobles virtualawlibrary

I concur in the result on the ground that this case falls within the provisions of article 797 of the Civil Code, and of the decisions entered in the matters of Chiong Joc-Soy vs. Vano (8 Phil. Rep., 119), and Fuestes vs. Canon (6 Phil. Rep., 117).




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March-1909 Jurisprudence                 

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  • [G. R. No. 5074. March 27, 1909.] VICENTA FRANCO, Plaintiff-Appellant, vs. C. W. O’BRIEN, Defendant-Appellee.

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  • [G. R. No. 4462. March 31, 1909.] THE UNITED STATES, Plaintiff-Appellee, vs. AGRIPINO ZABALLERO, ET AL., Defendants-Appellants.

  • [G. R. No. 4705. March 31, 1909.] THE UNITED STATES, Plaintiff-Appellee, vs. ANTONINA LAMPANO and RAYMUNDO ZAPANTA, Defendants-Appellants.

  • [G. R. No. 4885. March 31, 1909.] THE UNITED STATES, Plaintiff-Appellee, vs. VIDAL ROLDAN, Defendant-Appellant.

  • [G. R. No. 4894. March 31, 1909.] GEO WHALEN, Plaintiff-Appellant, vs. THE PASIG IRON WORKS, Defendant-Appellee.

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  • G.R. No. 4978 March 1, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. MELECIO MABILING

    013 Phil 70

  • G.R. No. 4761 March 2, 1909 - GUTIERREZ HERMANOS v. MARIANO FUENTEBELLA

    013 Phil 74

  • G.R. No. 4874 March 2, 1909 - MARIANO VELOSO v. ANICETA FONTANOSA

    013 Phil 79

  • G.R. No. 4899 March 2, 1909 - JUANA DIZON v. EDMUNDO ULLMANN

    013 Phil 88

  • G.R. No. 4443 March 4, 1909 - CHO CHUNG LUNG v. FIGUERAS HERMANOS

    013 Phil 93

  • G.R. No. 4929 March 5, 1909 - JUAN BUENCAMINO v. NICASIA VICEO

    013 Phil 97

  • G.R. No. 4979 March 5, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VICTOR ABLANA

    013 Phil 103

  • G.R. No. 3545 March 6, 1909 - REGINO ARISTON v. MANUEL CEA, ET AL.

    013 Phil 109

  • G.R. No. 3805 March 6, 1909 - ALBINO SARMIENTO v. IGNACIO VILLAMOR

    013 Phil 112

  • G.R. No. 4202 March 9, 1909 - MAMERTO GILLESANIA, ET AL. v. NICOLAS MENASALVAS, ET AL.

    013 Phil 116

  • G.R. No. 4714 March 9, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. EUSEBIO BURIAS, ET AL.

    013 Phil 118

  • G.R. No. 5099 March 9, 1909 - ANGEL ORTIZ v. GRANT TRENT

    013 Phil 130

  • G.R. No. 5144 March 9, 1909 - BEHN, MEYER & CO., LTD. v. COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE OF MANILA, ET AL.

    013 Phil 133

  • G.R. No. 4119 March 11, 1909 - EUGENIA PAGALARAN v. VALENTIN BALLATAN, ET AL.

    013 Phil 135

  • G.R. No. 5000 March 11, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VICTOR SANTO NIÑO

    013 Phil 141

  • G.R. No. 5007 March 11, 1909 - SONG FO & CO. v. TIU CA SONG

    013 Phil 143

  • G.R. No. 5013 March 11, 1909 - JEREMIAH J. HARTY v. MUNICIPALITY OF VICTORIA

    013 Phil 152

  • G.R. No. 5200 March 11, 1909 - VICENTE BANDOY v. JUDGE OF THE COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE

    013 Phil 157

  • G.R. No. 3894 March 12, 1909 - JUAN IBAÑEZ DE ALCOA v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT

    013 Phil 159

  • G.R. No. 4555 March 12, 1909 - SEVERO HERNANDO v. SEVERO SAMBRANO

    013 Phil 175

  • G.R. No. 4962 March 12, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VICENTE AGBAYANI

    013 Phil 178

  • G.R. No. 5030 March 12, 1909 - JUAN M. MANZANO v. JOSE TAN SUNCO

    013 Phil 183

  • G.R. No. 4802 March 13, 1909 - ANDRES PUIG, ET AL. v. ANTONIO MERCADO

    013 Phil 186

  • G.R. No. 4776 March 18, 1909 - MANUEL ORMACHEA TIN-CONGCO v. SANTIAGO TRILLANA

    013 Phil 194

  • G.R. No. 5002 March 18, 1909 - MARTIN BELEN, ET AL. v. ALEJO BELEN

    013 Phil 202

  • G.R. No. 3678 March 19, 1909 - CELESTINA SANTOS, ET AL. v. JUANA MARQUEZ, ET AL.

    013 Phil 207

  • G.R. No. 4898 March 19, 1909 - SALVADOR GUERRERO v. LEOPOLDO TERAN

    013 Phil 212

  • G.R. No. 4114 March 20, 1909 - JUAN BRUSAS v. EUTIQUIO INFANTE

    013 Phil 217

  • G.R. No. 4861 March 20, 1909 - F. W. PRISING v. MILTON E. SPRINGER

    013 Phil 223

  • G.R. No. 2935 March 23, 1909 - GOVERNMENT OF THE PHIL. v. GEORGE I. FRANK

    013 Phil 236

  • G.R. No. 3643 March 23, 1909 - AMBROSIA POSTIGO v. DOLORES BORJAL

    013 Phil 240

  • G.R. No. 3683 March 23, 1909 - MARIANO PERFECTO v. MUNICIPALITY OF GUINOBATAN

    013 Phil 245

  • G.R. No. 4275 March 23, 1909 - PAULA CONDE v. ROMAN ABAYA

    013 Phil 249

  • G.R. No. 4610 March 23, 1909 - AGUSTIN GA. GAVIERES v. FLORA BROTO

    013 Phil 266

  • G.R. No. 4891 March 23, 1909 - SOFIA DEVESA v. CRISPIN ARBES

    013 Phil 273

  • G.R. No. 5045 March 23, 1909 - GUILLERMO BOWLER v. PASTRO ALCAZAR

    013 Phil 282

  • G.R. No. 4796 March 25, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. SILVERIO PEREZ, ET AL.

    013 Phil 287

  • G.R. No. 4912 March 25, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. EMILIA GUY-SAYCO

    013 Phil 292

  • G.R. No. 5008 March 25, 1909 - IN RE: MANUELA AMANCIO TOMAS, ET AL. v. JORGE PARDO

    013 Phil 297

  • G.R. No. 3413 March 27, 1909 - POMPOSA BONJOC, ET AL. v. CANDELARIO CUISON

    013 Phil 301

  • G.R. No. 3876 March 27, 1909 - RUFINA YATCO v. JESUALDO GANA

    013 Phil 305

  • G.R. No. 4053 March 27, 1909 - IN RE: SERAFIN CANO URQUISA

    013 Phil 315

  • G.R. No. 4575 March 27, 1909 - TEODORICA ENDENCIA CUSAR v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT

    013 Phil 319

  • G.R. No. 4783 March 27, 1909 - LUCIO J. BUZON v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT, ET AL.

    013 Phil 324

  • G.R. No. 4799 March 27, 1909 - AGRIPINO SEGOVIA v. PROVINCIAL BOARD OF ALBAY, ET AL.

    013 Phil 331

  • G.R. No. 4825 March 27, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. BERNARDO SANCHEZ

    013 Phil 337

  • G.R. No. 4882 March 27, 1909 - RUPERTO MONTINOLA v. LUCRECIO HOFILENA, ET AL.

    013 Phil 339

  • G.R. No. 4937 March 27, 1909 - CRISPULO SIDECO v. FRANCISCO PASCUA

    013 Phil 342

  • G.R. No. 4946 March 27, 1909 - MANILA RAILROAD COMPANY v. MARIA DEL CARMEN RODRIGUEZ, ET AL.

    013 Phil 347

  • G.R. No. 4966 March 27, 1909 - LUCIO BUZON v. MAXIMO LICAUCAO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 354

  • G.R. No. 5074 March 27, 1909 - VICENTA FRANCO v. C. W. O’BRIEN

    013 Phil 359

  • G.R. No. 4192 March 29, 1909 - DAVID SALVACION v. EUSTAQUIO SALVACION

    013 Phil 366

  • G.R. No. 4559 March 29, 1909 - TOMAS S. GUISON v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT

    013 Phil 374

  • G.R. No. 4952 March 29, 1909 - TOMAS OLINO v. MARIANO MEDINA

    013 Phil 379

  • G.R. No. 4329 March 30, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. EPIFANIO MAGCOMOT, ET AL.

    013 Phil 386

  • G.R. No. 4226 March 31, 1909 - LA COMPANIA GENERAL DE TABACOS DE FILIPINAS v. CANDIDA OBED, ET AL.

    013 Phil 391

  • G.R. No. 4380 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ESTANISLAO ANABAN, ET AL.

    013 Phil 398

  • G.R. No. 4462 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. AGRIPINO ZABALLERO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 405

  • G.R. No. 4705 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ANTONINA LAMPANO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 409

  • G.R. No. 4885 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VIDAL ROLDAN

    013 Phil 415

  • G.R. No. 4894 March 31, 1909 - GEO WHALEN v. PASIG IRON WORKS

    013 Phil 417

  • G.R. No. 4911 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. AGUSTIN CONCEPCION, ET AL.

    013 Phil 424