Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence


Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence > Year 1909 > March 1909 Decisions > G.R. No. 4462 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. AGRIPINO ZABALLERO, ET AL.

013 Phil 405:




PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

EN BANC

[G.R. No. 4462. March 31, 1909. ]

THE UNITED STATES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. AGRIPINO ZABALLERO, ET AL., Defendants-Appellants.

Rafael Del-Pan, for Appellants.

Attorney-General Araneta, for Appellee.

SYLLABUS


1. Acts Not Constituting Coercion Under Penal Code. — Mere talking in a loud voice, expressing an intention to take possession of certain property with or without the consent of the alleged owner, when not accompanied by demeanor or gestures showing a determination to use violence, does not constitute coercion as defined by article 497 of the Penal Code. In the absence of violence or actual intimidation, a prosecution for coercion can not be maintained.


D E C I S I O N


MAPA, J. :


The defendants were convicted by the lower court of the crime of coercion as charged in the information, and sentenced to the penalty of two months and one day of arresto mayor and to the payment of a fine of 320 pesetas, with the corresponding subsidiary imprisonment in case of insolvency. From this judgment they have appealed to this court.

It appears that there was a suit pending between Agripino Zaballero, one of the defendants, and one Hipolita, over the ownership of a coconut grove. Hipolita had sold to Aquilino Cabangca, the complaining witness in this case, three hundred and fifty coconuts, the product of the aforesaid grove, which the said Cabangca deposited near his house. The above-mentioned defendant, on becoming aware of the sale and believing himself the lawful owner of the coconuts, in the company of the other defendants, proceeded to the house of Cabangca for the purpose of presenting his claim thereto. What happened there and gave rise to the institution of these criminal proceedings, will be seen in the following account by Cabangca during his testimony:jgc:chanrobles.com.ph

"Q. How long have you been acquainted with them (the accused)

A. From the time they took the coconuts from me.

x       x       x


"Q. Tell us how it happened.

A. Agripino and his companions, five in number, came to see me and requested me to deliver the coconuts to them. I replied that I could not make the delivery of the coconuts, because they were delivered to me by their owner, and because they had been already counted.

x       x       x


"Q. What else?

A. They told me that in one way or the other they would take the coconuts. I asked them to wait until I had seen the person from whom I had purchased them, so that they could see him about it. They replied that, whether delivery of the coconuts was made or not, they would take them, which they did, each of the five mentioned persons participating in the act of seizing the coconuts.

"Q. Why did not you object to it?

A. I was afraid, because they were angry.

"Q. How did you know that they were angry?

A. Because they were talking in a loud voice.

"Q. Were they armed or not?

A. No, sir, only one of them carried a bolo."cralaw virtua1aw library

Nothing else occurred, and from the whole testimony of the complaining witness it does not appear that the defendants had committed any act of violence or intimidation such as would make them liable for the crime of coercion as that offense is defined and punished by article 497 of the Penal Code. They did not, of course, make use of physical strength on the body of said complaining witness, nor did they do or commit any act which could be deemed actual intimidation. Aside from the very act of seizing the coconuts, the defendants did nothing except to tell the complaining witness that he should deliver the coconuts to them and that they would at all events take possession of them. Such words, when used in a quarrel or dispute over the rights of persons and not accompanied by such demeanor or gestures as would show the determination of the defendants to use violence in case the complaining witness should refuse to voluntarily deliver the coconuts, do not and could not have other meaning than an emphatic expression of their determination to take the coconuts, of which, with or without reason, the defendant Agripino Zaballero regarded himself as the lawful owner. At any rate and considering the question from all sides, such words did not per se constitute sufficient threat or intimidation to restrain the freedom of the complaining witness and compel him to do something he did not wish to do. This is best shown by the fact that their acts did not produce any fear in the complaining witness. Such fear as he alleged to have entertained was, he said, due to the fact that they were angry. Neither was this supposed anger fully established, the reason given by the complaining witness, who said that they were talking in a loud voice, is not and can by no means be accepted as conclusive. The mere fact that a person is talking in a loud voice, when the words used are not specified and the gravity thereof can not be ascertained, does not necessarily show anger on the part of the speaker and much less could such anger as would cause real intimidation, as is required by the Penal Code, be inferred therefrom.

The two cases quoted in the Government’s brief and decided by this court in United States v. Fernando de Vega, and United States v. Braulio Tupular (2 Phil. Rep., 167, and 7 Phil. Rep., 8, respectively), are neither similar nor analogous to the present case. In the first case cited, threats to kill which amounted to intimidation were made, and in the second real compulsion was used on the complaining witness whose liberty was restricted: "The defendant (the decision says in stating the facts) ignored the Chinaman’s objection . . . and thus the goods were forcibly taken away by the defendant, . . ." According to the merits of this case, the defendants did not execute any act which amounted to force or intimidation, and, indeed, it did not become necessary for them to use either, because the complaining witness, as he himself testified, made no opposition to the seizure of the coconuts in question.

The judgment appealed from is hereby reversed and the defendants are freely acquitted with the costs of both instances de oficio.

Arellano, C.J., Torres, Carson and Willard, JJ., concur.




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March-1909 Jurisprudence                 

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  • [G. R. No. 4462. March 31, 1909.] THE UNITED STATES, Plaintiff-Appellee, vs. AGRIPINO ZABALLERO, ET AL., Defendants-Appellants.

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    013 Phil 70

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    013 Phil 74

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    013 Phil 79

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    013 Phil 88

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    013 Phil 93

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    013 Phil 97

  • G.R. No. 4979 March 5, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VICTOR ABLANA

    013 Phil 103

  • G.R. No. 3545 March 6, 1909 - REGINO ARISTON v. MANUEL CEA, ET AL.

    013 Phil 109

  • G.R. No. 3805 March 6, 1909 - ALBINO SARMIENTO v. IGNACIO VILLAMOR

    013 Phil 112

  • G.R. No. 4202 March 9, 1909 - MAMERTO GILLESANIA, ET AL. v. NICOLAS MENASALVAS, ET AL.

    013 Phil 116

  • G.R. No. 4714 March 9, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. EUSEBIO BURIAS, ET AL.

    013 Phil 118

  • G.R. No. 5099 March 9, 1909 - ANGEL ORTIZ v. GRANT TRENT

    013 Phil 130

  • G.R. No. 5144 March 9, 1909 - BEHN, MEYER & CO., LTD. v. COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE OF MANILA, ET AL.

    013 Phil 133

  • G.R. No. 4119 March 11, 1909 - EUGENIA PAGALARAN v. VALENTIN BALLATAN, ET AL.

    013 Phil 135

  • G.R. No. 5000 March 11, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VICTOR SANTO NIÑO

    013 Phil 141

  • G.R. No. 5007 March 11, 1909 - SONG FO & CO. v. TIU CA SONG

    013 Phil 143

  • G.R. No. 5013 March 11, 1909 - JEREMIAH J. HARTY v. MUNICIPALITY OF VICTORIA

    013 Phil 152

  • G.R. No. 5200 March 11, 1909 - VICENTE BANDOY v. JUDGE OF THE COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE

    013 Phil 157

  • G.R. No. 3894 March 12, 1909 - JUAN IBAÑEZ DE ALCOA v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT

    013 Phil 159

  • G.R. No. 4555 March 12, 1909 - SEVERO HERNANDO v. SEVERO SAMBRANO

    013 Phil 175

  • G.R. No. 4962 March 12, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VICENTE AGBAYANI

    013 Phil 178

  • G.R. No. 5030 March 12, 1909 - JUAN M. MANZANO v. JOSE TAN SUNCO

    013 Phil 183

  • G.R. No. 4802 March 13, 1909 - ANDRES PUIG, ET AL. v. ANTONIO MERCADO

    013 Phil 186

  • G.R. No. 4776 March 18, 1909 - MANUEL ORMACHEA TIN-CONGCO v. SANTIAGO TRILLANA

    013 Phil 194

  • G.R. No. 5002 March 18, 1909 - MARTIN BELEN, ET AL. v. ALEJO BELEN

    013 Phil 202

  • G.R. No. 3678 March 19, 1909 - CELESTINA SANTOS, ET AL. v. JUANA MARQUEZ, ET AL.

    013 Phil 207

  • G.R. No. 4898 March 19, 1909 - SALVADOR GUERRERO v. LEOPOLDO TERAN

    013 Phil 212

  • G.R. No. 4114 March 20, 1909 - JUAN BRUSAS v. EUTIQUIO INFANTE

    013 Phil 217

  • G.R. No. 4861 March 20, 1909 - F. W. PRISING v. MILTON E. SPRINGER

    013 Phil 223

  • G.R. No. 2935 March 23, 1909 - GOVERNMENT OF THE PHIL. v. GEORGE I. FRANK

    013 Phil 236

  • G.R. No. 3643 March 23, 1909 - AMBROSIA POSTIGO v. DOLORES BORJAL

    013 Phil 240

  • G.R. No. 3683 March 23, 1909 - MARIANO PERFECTO v. MUNICIPALITY OF GUINOBATAN

    013 Phil 245

  • G.R. No. 4275 March 23, 1909 - PAULA CONDE v. ROMAN ABAYA

    013 Phil 249

  • G.R. No. 4610 March 23, 1909 - AGUSTIN GA. GAVIERES v. FLORA BROTO

    013 Phil 266

  • G.R. No. 4891 March 23, 1909 - SOFIA DEVESA v. CRISPIN ARBES

    013 Phil 273

  • G.R. No. 5045 March 23, 1909 - GUILLERMO BOWLER v. PASTRO ALCAZAR

    013 Phil 282

  • G.R. No. 4796 March 25, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. SILVERIO PEREZ, ET AL.

    013 Phil 287

  • G.R. No. 4912 March 25, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. EMILIA GUY-SAYCO

    013 Phil 292

  • G.R. No. 5008 March 25, 1909 - IN RE: MANUELA AMANCIO TOMAS, ET AL. v. JORGE PARDO

    013 Phil 297

  • G.R. No. 3413 March 27, 1909 - POMPOSA BONJOC, ET AL. v. CANDELARIO CUISON

    013 Phil 301

  • G.R. No. 3876 March 27, 1909 - RUFINA YATCO v. JESUALDO GANA

    013 Phil 305

  • G.R. No. 4053 March 27, 1909 - IN RE: SERAFIN CANO URQUISA

    013 Phil 315

  • G.R. No. 4575 March 27, 1909 - TEODORICA ENDENCIA CUSAR v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT

    013 Phil 319

  • G.R. No. 4783 March 27, 1909 - LUCIO J. BUZON v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT, ET AL.

    013 Phil 324

  • G.R. No. 4799 March 27, 1909 - AGRIPINO SEGOVIA v. PROVINCIAL BOARD OF ALBAY, ET AL.

    013 Phil 331

  • G.R. No. 4825 March 27, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. BERNARDO SANCHEZ

    013 Phil 337

  • G.R. No. 4882 March 27, 1909 - RUPERTO MONTINOLA v. LUCRECIO HOFILENA, ET AL.

    013 Phil 339

  • G.R. No. 4937 March 27, 1909 - CRISPULO SIDECO v. FRANCISCO PASCUA

    013 Phil 342

  • G.R. No. 4946 March 27, 1909 - MANILA RAILROAD COMPANY v. MARIA DEL CARMEN RODRIGUEZ, ET AL.

    013 Phil 347

  • G.R. No. 4966 March 27, 1909 - LUCIO BUZON v. MAXIMO LICAUCAO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 354

  • G.R. No. 5074 March 27, 1909 - VICENTA FRANCO v. C. W. O’BRIEN

    013 Phil 359

  • G.R. No. 4192 March 29, 1909 - DAVID SALVACION v. EUSTAQUIO SALVACION

    013 Phil 366

  • G.R. No. 4559 March 29, 1909 - TOMAS S. GUISON v. INSULAR GOVERNMENT

    013 Phil 374

  • G.R. No. 4952 March 29, 1909 - TOMAS OLINO v. MARIANO MEDINA

    013 Phil 379

  • G.R. No. 4329 March 30, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. EPIFANIO MAGCOMOT, ET AL.

    013 Phil 386

  • G.R. No. 4226 March 31, 1909 - LA COMPANIA GENERAL DE TABACOS DE FILIPINAS v. CANDIDA OBED, ET AL.

    013 Phil 391

  • G.R. No. 4380 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ESTANISLAO ANABAN, ET AL.

    013 Phil 398

  • G.R. No. 4462 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. AGRIPINO ZABALLERO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 405

  • G.R. No. 4705 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. ANTONINA LAMPANO, ET AL.

    013 Phil 409

  • G.R. No. 4885 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. VIDAL ROLDAN

    013 Phil 415

  • G.R. No. 4894 March 31, 1909 - GEO WHALEN v. PASIG IRON WORKS

    013 Phil 417

  • G.R. No. 4911 March 31, 1909 - UNITED STATES v. AGUSTIN CONCEPCION, ET AL.

    013 Phil 424