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Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan's The Labor Code of the Philippines, Annotated Labor Standards & Social Legislation Volume I of a 3-Volume Series 2019 Edition (3rd Revised Edition)
 

 
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UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

 
PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT JURISPRUDENCE
 

   
May-1949 Jurisprudence                 

  • G.R. No. L-1674 May 9, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PABLO SOMERA

    083 Phil 548

  • G.R. No. L-1765 May 9, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MARIO TANDUG

    083 Phil 551

  • G.R. No. L-1881 May 9, 1949 - MANILA TERMINAL COMPANY v. LA CORTE DE RELACIONES INDUSTRIALES

    083 Phil 559

  • G.R. No. L-1512 May 12, 1949 - EL PUEBLO DE FILIPINAS v. FEDERICO

    083 Phil 569

  • G.R. No. L-1900 May 12, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ALFREDO LACSON

    083 Phil 574

  • G.R. No. L-2064 May 12, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. ELIGIO TORRES

    083 Phil 595

  • G.R. No. L-1769 May 13, 1949 - PURITA PANAGUITON v. FLORENTINO PATUBO

    083 Phil 605

  • G.R. No. L-1833 May 13, 1949 - MEDARDO MUÑOZ v. EMILIO RILLORAZA

    083 Phil 609

  • G.R. No. L-792 May 14, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. E.C. CAÑADA

    083 Phil 612

  • G.R. No. L-1429 May 16, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. RICARDO AQUINO Y ABALOS

    083 Phil 614

  • G.R. No. L-1950 May 16, 1949 - LAO SENG HIAN v. NATIVIDAD ALMEDA LOPEZ

    083 Phil 617

  • G.R. No. L-2014 May 16, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. BENJAMIN Z. YELO

    083 Phil 618

  • G.R. No. L-1212 May 18, 1949 - EL PUEBLO DE FILIPINAS v. CELESTINO BASA Y OTROS

    083 Phil 622

  • G.R. No. L-1918 May 18, 1949 - PEDRO L. FLORES v. PERFECTO R. PALACIO

    083 Phil 626

  • G.R. No. L-2484 May 18, 1949 - LEE KO v. DIONISIO DE LEON

    083 Phil 628

  • G.R. No. L-2117 May 19, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. APOLONIO SOMBILON

    083 Phil 631

  • G.R. No. L-1471 May 20, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JULIAN ORAZA

    083 Phil 633

  • G.R. No. L-1917 May 20, 1949 - CATALINO MAGLASANG v. CIRILO C. MACEREN

    083 Phil 637

  • G.R. No. L-2245 May 20, 1949 - AMBROSIO CARBUNGCO v. RAFAEL AMPARO

    083 Phil 638

  • G.R. No. L-2831 May 20, 1949 - BERNARDO TORRES v. MAMERTO S. RIBO

    083 Phil 642

  • G.R. No. L-432 May 23, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. IGNACIO CALINAWAN

    083 Phil 647

  • G.R. No. L-1795-6 May 23, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PEDRO VALDEZ

    083 Phil 650

  • G.R. No. L-1989 May 23, 1949 - JOSE REYES y RAMIREZ v. EL TRIBUNAL DE APELACION

    083 Phil 658

  • G.R. No. L-2203 May 23, 1949 - SAN MIGUEL BREWERY v. LA CORTE DE RELACIONES INDUSTRIALES

    083 Phil 663

  • G.R. No. L-2431 May 23, 1949 - CEFERINO TAVORA v. PEDRO OFIANA

    083 Phil 672

  • G.R. No. 213 May 24, 1949 - GENEROSA A. DIA v. FINANCE & MINING INVESTMENT CORP.

    083 Phil 675

  • G.R. No. L-1700 May 24, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. LORENZO MINTU

    083 Phil 678

  • G.R. No. L-2004 May 24, 1949 - PABLO COTAOCO v. RAFAEL DINGLASAN

    083 Phil 681

  • G.R. No. L-2251 May 24, 1949 - EL PUEBLO DE FILIPINAS v. ELISA TANDAG

    083 Phil 683

  • G.R. No. L-1980 May 25, 1949 - CIPRIANO SEVILLA v. CEFERINO DE LOS SANTOS

    083 Phil 686

  • G.R. No. L-944 May 26, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FAUSTO AVILA

    083 Phil 687

  • G.R. No. L-1823 May 26, 1949 - GERONIMO DE LOS REYES v. ARTEMIO ELEPAÑO

    083 Phil 691

  • G.R. No. L-1825 May 26, 1949 - EL PUEBLO DE FILIPINAS v. EUGENIO BERSIDA

    083 Phil 696

  • G.R. No. L-2022 May 26, 1949 - GUIA S. J0SE DE BAYER v. ERNESTO OPPEN

    083 Phil 700

  • G.R. No. L-2161 May 26, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JAMES YOUNG

    083 Phil 702

  • G.R. No. L-2323 May 26, 1949 - M. A. ZARCAL v. S. HERRERO

    083 Phil 711

  • G.R. Nos. L-675 & L-676 May 27, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. NEMESIO LASTIMOSO

    083 Phil 714

  • G.R. No. L-1274 May 27, 1949 - PHIL. TRANSIT ASSN. v. TREASURER OF MANILA

    083 Phil 722

  • G.R. No. L-1394 May 27, 1949 - RAFAEL ROA YROSTORZA v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    083 Phil 727

  • G.R. No. L-1861 May 27, 1949 - RIZAL SURETY AND INSURANCE CO. v. BIENVENIDO A. TAN

    083 Phil 732

  • G.R. No. L-1869 May 27, 1949 - JOSE PIO BARRETTO v. N. ALMEDA LOPEZ

    083 Phil 734

  • G.R. No. L-2300 May 27, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. MARCELINO TUMAOB

    083 Phil 738

  • G.R. No. L-2382 May 27, 1949 - PABLO S. RIVERA v. FRANCISCO ARELLANO

    083 Phil 744

  • G.R. No. L-1606 May 28, 1949 - IN RE: YEE BO MANN v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    083 Phil 749

  • G.R. No. L-2309 May 28, 1949 - LOPE SARREAL v. SOTERO RODAS

    083 Phil 751

  • G.R. No. L-2518 May 28, 1949 - DONATA OLIVEROS DE TAN v. ENGRACIO FABRE

    083 Phil 755

  • G.R. No. L-2539 May 28, 1949 - JOSE P. MONSALE v. PAULINO M. NICO

    083 Phil 758

  • G.R. No. L-1511 May 30, 1949 - MIGUEL OJO v. JOSE V. JAMITO

    083 Phil 764

  • G.R. No. L-1550 May 30, 1949 - IN RE: FREDERICK EDWARD GILBERT ZUELLIG v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL.

    083 Phil 768

  • G.R. No. L-1609 May 30, 1949 - REMIGIO M. PEÑA v. FRANCISCO ARELLANO

    083 Phil 773

  • G.R. No. L-1686 May 30, 1949 - EL PUEBLO DE FILIPINAS v. SANTOS TOLEDO

    083 Phil 777

  • G.R. No. L-1723 May 30, 1949 - LUZ MARQUEZ DE SANDOVAL v. VICENTE SANTIAGO

    083 Phil 784

  • G.R. No. L-1978 May 30, 1949 - EL PUEBLO DE FILIPINAS v. ANTONIO ORCULLO Y OTROS

    083 Phil 787

  • G.R. No. L-1996 May 30, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SALIP JULMAIN

    083 Phil 793

  • G.R. No. L-2031 May 30, 1949 - HERMOGENES C. LIM v. RESTITUTO L. CALAGUAS

    083 Phil 796

  • G.R. No. L-2069 May 30, 1949 - LUZON BROKERAGE CO. v. LUZON LABOR UNION

    083 Phil 801

  • G.R. No. L-2083 May 30, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SALVADOR MALIG

    083 Phil 804

  • G.R. No. L-2098 May 30, 1949 - PIO MARQUEZ v. ARSENIO PRODIGALIDAD

    083 Phil 813

  • G.R. No. L-2099 May 30, 1949 - JOSE ONG v. BIENVENIDO A. TAN

    083 Phil 834

  • G.R. No. L-2130 May 30, 1949 - FRANCISCO SANCHEZ v. PEDRO SERRANO

    083 Phil 838

  • G.R. No. L-2132 May 30, 1949 - JUAN SAVINADA v. J. M. TUASON & CO.

    083 Phil 840

  • G.R. No. 49102 May 30, 1949 - W.C. OGAN v. BIBIANO L. MEER

    083 Phil 844

  • G.R. No. L-1104 May 31, 1949 - EASTERN THEATRICAL CO. v. VICTOR ALFONSO

    083 Phil 852

  • G.R. Nos. L-1264 & L-1265 May 31, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. TIMOTEO SAGARIO

    083 Phil 862

  • G.R. No. L-1271 May 31, 1949 - BENIGNO DEL RIO v. CARLOS PALANCA TANGUINLAY

    083 Phil 867

  • G.R. No. L-1281 May 31, 1949 - JOSEPH E. ICARD v. CITY COUNCIL OF BAGUIO

    083 Phil 870

  • G.R. No. L-1298 May 31, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. PEDRO SANTOS BALINGIT

    083 Phil 877

  • G.R. No. L-1299 May 31, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. JACOB J. LOEWINSOHN

    083 Phil 882

  • G.R. No. L-1827 May 31, 1949 - ALFREDO CATOLICO v. IRINEO RANJO

    083 Phil 885

  • G.R. No. L-1927 May 31, 1949 - CRISTOBAL ROÑO v. JOSE L. GOMEZ

    083 Phil 890

  • G.R. No. L-1952 May 31, 1949 - FRANCISCO R. VlLLAROMAN v. FLORENTINO J. TECHICO

    083 Phil 901

  • G.R. No. L-2108 May 31, 1949 - PAMPANGA BUS CO. v. LUIS G. ABLAZA

    083 Phil 905

  • G.R. No. L-2252 May 31, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. BARTOLOME BEDIA

    083 Phil 909

  • G.R. No. L-2253 May 31, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. SERVANDO MANIEGO

    083 Phil 916

  • G.R. No. L-2283 May 31, 1949 - MARINA TAYZON and FLORDELIZA G. ANGELES v. RAMON YCASIANO

    083 Phil 921

  • G.R. No. L-2326 May 31, 1949 - FERNANDO ALEJO v. MARIANO GARCHITORENA

    083 Phil 924

  • G.R. No. L-2351 May 31, 1949 - FRANCISCO ARGOS v. DOMINADOR VELOSO

    083 Phil 929

  • G.R. No. L-2377 May 31, 1949 - REPUBLIC OF THE PHIL. v. JUSTA G. VDA. DE GUIDO

    083 Phil 934

  • G.R. No. L-2450 May 31, 1949 - VERONICA RUPERTO v. CEFERINO FERNANDO

    083 Phil 943

  •  





     
     

    G.R. No. L-944   May 26, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FAUSTO AVILA<br /><br />083 Phil 687

     
    PHILIPPINE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

    FIRST DIVISION

    [G.R. No. L-944. May 26, 1949.]

    THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. FAUSTO AVILA (alias FAUSTINO M. AVILA), Defendant-Appellant.

    Julian L. Lim for Appellant.

    Acting First Assistant Solicitor General Roberto A. Gianzon and Solicitor Francisco Rosal for Appellee.

    SYLLABUS


    CRIMINAL LAW; TREASON; ACCUSED’S ESPIONAGE AND HIS ACTIVE PARTICIPATION IN THE ARREST AND LIQUIDATION OF SEVERAL GUERRILLAS CONSTITUTE TREASON. — Appellant voluntarily gathered information about the underground forces, imparted it to the Japanese and effectively helped the latter in the arrest of several guerrilleros, arrest that resulted in the liquidation of two secret operatives (Catan and Mariño) beyond reasonable doubt showing the guilt of the accused of the crime of treason.


    D E C I S I O N


    BENGZON, J.:


    The fifth division of the People’s Court, declaring that defendant Fausto Avila was a traitor, sentenced him to life imprisonment and to pay a fine of twenty thousand pesos, plus costs.

    Before the Pacific War, Avila was a policeman of Dumaguete, Oriental Negros. During the Japanese occupation he continued in his post until he was assigned, as sergeant, to the provincial guard service under Governor Villanueva in a division named "Public Opinion Office" headed by Teodorico Lajato. The division sought information about the activities of the guerrillas in the locality, and was publicly known as Japanese spy corps. Avila did the work, went to different parts of the province and imparted all the intelligence he obtained to his immediate superior Lajato, who in turn transmitted it to the Kempei Tai (Japanese Military Police). He even led Japanese soldiers in the apprehension of such of his countrymen as were suspected of guerrilla connections or were known to be members of the resistance movement. For instances:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

    1. On March 7, 1944, four Japanese in civilian clothes guided by Avila arrested Socorro Cariño in his house on Santa Catalina Street, Dumaguete. From there the party, again led by Avila, proceeded to the residence of Jose Patrimonio and arrested the latter. Both these persons, guerrilla operatives, were marched to the Japanese garrison (Kibitai) where torture was their lot. They were additionally tied to a post one whole night. Luckily they were released five days later.

    2. In the early part of the same month, one evening at about ten o’clock two Japanese soldiers picked Marcelino Gallardo and his brother Jose from their house in the poblacion of Dumaguete. On the street in front of their home the Gallardos saw Avila in the company of other soldiers of the raiding party, his face half-covered with a handkerchief. The brothers were questioned about their guerrilla connections. Marcelino was at that time serving as garden inspector, but actually he was a guerrilla under Major Galvez. He successfully denied any "subversive activities" and both were allowed to go home.

    3. Again on March 17, 1944, a Japanese soldier fetched Tomas Arrieta from the hospital of Dumaguete and brought him to a waiting car where Avila, armed with a revolver, was sitting beside the Japanese driver. When Avila saw the captive and said "okay" Arrieta was hauled into the conveyance, which after picking Socorro Cariño (for the second time) proceeded to the Kibitai (Silliman Hall, Silliman University Campus). There Arrieta was grilled about his friends in the mountains (guerrillas) and the whereabouts of Pepe Martinez, member of the Provincial Board. Cariño was particularly questioned about a letter from Major Iluminado; but after eleven days of punishment he was freed through the intervention of Mayor Perdices of the town.

    4. In the latter part of October 1944, Fausto Avila, Teodorico Lajato and other members of their circle of informers arrested Angeles Catan at sitio Ubos, Dumaguete, and took him to the aforesaid Japanese garrison. Since that time Catan was never heard of.

    5. One morning of December 1943, Fausto Avila who was then armed with a revolver apprehended Alfredo Mariño on San Jose Street, Dumaguete. Mariño who was a "runner" i.e. messenger of the guerrillas, under Captain Ridad, had reportedly killed a Japanese undercover. With constabulary men and Japanese soldiers he escorted Mariño whose hands were tied behind his back to the headquarters. The prisoner never returned alive.

    During the trial of this case in Dumaguete the accused proved to be the only witness for the defense. He denied having been a spy. He admitted having worked under Lajato and having taken part in the apprehension of Angeles Catan; but he claimed that prisoner had been placed in charge of Lajato. He said he accompanied the Japanese that arrested Tomas Arrieta and Socorro Cariño; however he asserted he had been ordered by the governor to do so.

    There is no doubt in our minds that this appellant was a Japanese informer. So many persons have known him as such that his mere denial is unavailing. One of them, Calixta Serna was brazenly invited by him and Lajato to join their spy organization. As to the alleged order to accompany the Japanese, he was not corroborated; and if it were true, there is no reason why the arrested persons should indicate him as the leader of the party. Above all, he failed to explain his participation in the capture of Marcelino Gallardo, Jose Patrimonio and Alfredo Mariño, all of them guerrilla operatives, resulting in the death of the last.

    It is therefore established beyond reasonable doubt that appellant Fausto Avila voluntarily gathered information about the underground forces, imparted it to the Japanese and effectively helped the latter in the arrest of several guerrilleros, arrest that resulted in the liquidation of two secret operatives (Catan and Mariño) of the resistance movement. He was consequently guilty of treason. Inasmuch as the penalty imposed on him by the trial court is in accordance with law (Art. 114 Revised Penal Code) the appealed judgment is hereby affirmed, with costs. So ordered.

    Moran, C.J., Ozaeta, Paras, Feria, Pablo, Perfecto, Tuason, Montemayor, and Reyes, JJ., concur.

    G.R. No. L-944   May 26, 1949 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. v. FAUSTO AVILA<br /><br />083 Phil 687


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